B

Background checks, 20, 25, 170-172, 264, 281

Base rate of deception

and accuracy measurement, 46, 48, 50, 148, 354-357

and decision threshold, 46, 48, 50, 148, 183, 184, 354-357

diagnostic model, 48, 50, 149

false positive index and, 180-182, 354-357

masking of examiners to, 328, 334, 341

and other uses of polygraphs, 192

in screening situations, 50, 109, 130, 153 n.4, 181-182, 183-184

in specific-incident studies, 130, 181, 184

Behavioral confirmation research, 90

Benzodiazepines, 142

Bite-mark identification, 201, 203, 206-207

Blood pressure, 81, 88, 287, 291, 292, 293, 295.

See also Cardiovascular activity

“Bogus pipeline” research, 55, 56, 59-60, 110

Brain function measurement, 80, 104 n.9, 154-155, 157-162, 174-175

C

Cardiovascular activity, 286-287, 303, 305-306, 309

blood pressure measurement, 81, 88, 287, 291, 292, 293, 295

cardiac vagal activation, 155

countermeasures, 156

heart rate, 308

individual differences in direction and extent of, 82

myocardial contractility, 155-156

respiratory sinus arrhythmia, 156, 308

social and psychological influences, 82, 88-89, 156

traditional measures in polygraph testing, 81, 155

Central Intelligence Agency, 118, 188, 263, 264

Cerograph, 314

Classification error, 311

Cognitive neuroscience, 157-160, 162

Commission on Science and Security, 189.

See also Hamre Commission recommendations

Comparison question technique.

See also Test of Espionage and Sabotage

accuracy, 124-125, 127, 128, 135, 346, 351

computer voice stress analyzer compared, 168

countermeasures, 140, 141, 143

dataset for quantitative assessment, 341

directed-lie, 71, 79, 256, 328

inferences from, 104 n.9

legal issues, 205

meta-analyses of laboratory studies, 152 n.1

orienting theory and, 75, 76-77

in pretest interview, 16, 62 n.2, 77, 261

probable-lie, 14, 71, 255, 256, 328

psychophysiological responses, 14-15, 67, 70-71, 72, 74, 76-77, 83, 93

Reid (modified general questions) test, 255, 304, 311, 316, 318

scoring systems, 255-257, 318

situational effects and, 28 n.5, 87, 91

standardization, 91, 256, 311

stimulation (acquaintance) test, 27 n.4, 91, 255, 257, 258

test-retest reliability, 62 n.2, 87

theoretical bases, 69, 70, 72-77, 80-81, 93, 127

thermal imaging and, 156-157

threat-of-punishment theory and, 74, 127

uses, 15, 17, 71, 205, 255, 256



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