as measured by percent correct. For a measure of accuracy to be useful for comparing examiners, studies, or test techniques, it should not be affected by the number of inconclusive judgments an examiner chooses to give; however, percent correct is so affected. By contrast, the A measure is robust against varying uses of the inconclusive category of result.

Percent correct has three other difficulties that preclude our adoption of this widely used measure (see Swets, 1986a, 1996:Chapter 3). First, it depends heavily on the proportions of positive and negative cases (the base rates) in the population. This requirement poses acute difficulties in security screening applications, in which the base rates of activities such as espionage and sabotage are quite low: assuming that no one is being deceptive yields an almost perfect percent correct (the only errors are the spies). Second, the percent correct varies extensively with the diagnostician’s decision threshold. The examples in Table 2-1 show these two difficulties concretely. When the base rate of guilt is 50 percent, the hypothetical polygraph test, which has an accuracy index of A = 0.90, makes 82, 73, and 60 percent correct classifications with the three thresholds given. When the base rate of guilt is 0.1 percent, it makes 84, 97, and 99.5 percent correct classifications with the same three thresholds. Finally, as a single-number index, the percent correct does not distinguish between the two types of error—false positives and false negatives—which are likely to have very different consequences. The problems with percent correct as an index of accuracy are best seen in the situation shown in the right half of Table 2-1c, in which the test is correct in 9,959 of 10,000 cases (99.5 percent correct), but eight out the ten hypothetical spies “pass” and are free to cause damage.

When percentages of correct diagnoses are calculated separately for positive and negative cases, there are two numbers to cope with, or four numbers when no-opinion judgments are included. Because these are not combined into a single-number index, it is difficult to offer a simple summary measure of accuracy for a single study or to order studies or testing techniques in terms of their relative accuracy. The difficulty of interpreting percent correct when inconclusive judgments vary haphazardly from one study to another is multiplied when two percentages are affected.

Accuracy Measures Used in This Study

For the reasons discussed in this section, we used the A index from signal detection theory to estimate the accuracy of polygraph testing. We calculated empirical ROC curves from data contained in those studies that met basic criteria of methodological adequacy and that also provided sufficient information about polygraph test results to make the calcula-



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