Click for next page ( 276


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 275
Inclex A Ability, perceptions of, 36 Academic counseling, 146-150 "Academic press," 6n, 104, 218 Academic values and goals (I Want to) active participation, 50 collaborative activities, 51-52 emphasis on high-order thinking, 49-50 meaningful connections to students' culture and lives outside school, 52- 53 promoting, 47-54 variety, 51 Accountability findings and recommendations, 216-217 for high school reform, public and visible, 204 suggestions for research, 217 Achievement emphasis on, 174-175 structure of, 75 "Achievement for Latinos through Academic Success" (ALAS), 161n Active engagement, 1, 50 Activities, collaborative, 51-52 AddHealth sample, 54 Adler, Mortimer, 210 275 Adolescent engagement and learning redesigning high school courses and instructional methods to increase, 4, 214 Adolescent learning strategies, teachers being provided with training and continued practice in implementing, 4-5, 215-216 Adolescent Society, TI7e, 98 Adolescents activities of, 13-14 needs of, 15 Adult-student relationships, allowing for closer, 172-173 Adults professional learning communities for, 192-193 spending time with adolescents, 8-9, 221-222 Advanced Placement courses, 110, 219 Advantaged students, 1 African-American students, 22, 24, 26, 36, 39, 41, 43, 46, 61, 76, 82-83, 104n, 110-111, 134-137 African-American Vernacular English, 66- 67 After-school programs, 47, 166-167 ALAS. See "Achievement for Latinos through Academic Success"

OCR for page 275
276 Alcohol prevention and rehabilitation programs, 154-155 Algebra Project, 85-86, 89 Alienation, feelings of, 48 American Express, 170 American School Counselor Association, 147, 153 America's Choice Comprehensive Design Network, 205 Ames, Carol, 269 Annenberg Institute for School Reform, 105 Annie E. Casey Foundation, 21 Antiacademic behaviors, 137, 140 Antisocial behaviors, 140 Anxiety disorders, 163 Asian students, 22, 83, 110 Assessment, 47 frequent, 69, 84 of schools, teachers, and students, 5-6, 217 Assets, developing, 165-167 ATLAS Communities, 195n, 205-206 Attribution, patterns of, 36 Authentic tasks, 66 Autonomy in selecting tasks and methods, increasing for students, 173-174 Aviation High School, 168, 171 B Barker, Roger, 114 BBN Corporation, 207 Behavioral problems, and dropping out, 150 Belonging, promoting a sense of, 53-55 Beloved, 63 class discussion of, 94-95 Bennett, William J., 209 Berndt, Thomas J., 270 Big School, Small School: High School Size and Student Behavior, 114 Biotechnology academies, 180 Boring classrooms, 18 Boston Plan for Excellence in the Public Schools, 19 "Bright Futures" scholarships, 40 Bronfenbrenner, Urie, 18 Brown University, 205-206 Buy-ins sought, before committing to work with a high school, 196 INDEX C Career Academies Support Network, 170n Career counseling, 146-150 Career pathways, developing, 176 Caring, 42, 53 Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education, 175n Carnegie Foundation, 188 Casey Foundation, 21 Catholic schools, 45, 83, 100, 109, 123 CCSP. See Coalition Campus Schools Project CELA. See Center for English Learning and Achievement Center for Collaborative Education, 72 Center for English Learning and Achievement (CELA), 71 Center for Research in Human Development and Education (CRHDE), 206 Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk (CRESPAR), 210 Central Park East Secondary School, 107 CES. See Coalition of Essential Schools CFL. See Community for Learning Challenging instruction, 68, 83 replacing tracking by ability, 6-7, 219- 220 See also "Academic press" Challenging standards, schools helping all high school students meet, 5, 216- 217 Change process, 30, 196-201 agreement at federal, state, and district level about high school reform, 203 buy-ins sought before committing to ~ cam work with a high school, 196 data used to initiate, inform, monitor, refine, and sustain reform, 197-198 design developer involvement, 198 factors fostering higher quality implementation, 200-201 fixed expectations or nonnegotiable requirements brought by the design staff, 196-197 initiation and progression of, 198 stakeholder roles in implementing, 198- 200 Chicago School Reform Act, 123

OCR for page 275
INDEX Classroom-based assessment, of students' understanding and skills, teachers employing ongoing, 4, 214-215 Classrooms boring, 18 engagement beyond, 54-55 Clear standards, 192-193 CMSAs. See Consolidated metropolitan . . statlstlca areas Co-morbidity factors, 151, 163-164 Co-NECT, 195n, 207 Coalition Campus Schools Project (CCSP), 72-74, 107 Coalition for Community Schools, 127n, 133, 164-165 Coalition of Essential Schools (CES), 195, 205-206 Cognition and Learning Technology Group, 131 Cognitive test performance, 42 Cole, Emily, 129-130, 270 Coleman, James, 98 Collaborative activities, 51-52 Collective identity, 42 "College and career" programs, 169 Comer, James, 270 Commission on Precollege Guidance and Counseling, 147, 153 Common Principles, 206 " Communality, " 42, 99 Communities connecting high schools to, 127-132, 163-165 schools as, 99 Communities in Schools, 130 Community for Learning (CFL), 195n, 206 Community Learning Centers, 166n "Community schools," 164 Community service, 52-53 Competence feelings of, 35, 55 perceptions of, 34-37 promoting perceptions of, 44-47 " Complex instruction, " 112 Comprehensive high school reform designs, 187-210 America's Choice, 205 ATLAS Communities, 205-206 brief descriptions of, 205-210 Co-NECT, 207 Coalition of Essential Schools, 206 277 Community for Learning, 206 Edison Schools, 207 Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound, 208 factors helping to scale up high school reform, 201-204 First Things First, 208 High Schools That Work, 209 implementation strategies, 189-194 Modern Red Schoolhouse, 209 Paideia, 210 the process of change, 196-201 research evidence, 194-196 selected models, 190 Talent Development High School, 210 Conceptual understanding, examining in assessment of schools, teachers, and students, 5-6, 217 Conditions, of engagement, 31-59 Connecting schools with other resources, 127-132, 221-223 El Puente Academy for Peace and Justice, 128-129 findings and recommendations, 221-222 Project GRAD, 129-131 Services Learning, 131-132 suggestions for research, 222-223 . ~ (;onnectlons, ~ difficulty of developing and sustaining, 132-133 to families, 123-127 social, 42-43 Connell, James, 270-271 Consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSAs), 21 Contexts, of engagement, 33, 44-54 Control, perceptions of, 34-37, 44-47 Council of Great City Schools, 21 Counseling career and academic, 146-150 diffusing responsibility among all school staff, including teachers, with professional backup, 7-8, 220-221 mental health, 150-154 Cremin, Lawrence, 121-122 CRESPAR. See Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk CRHDE. See Center for Research in Human Development and Education Critical thinking, examining in assessment of schools, teachers, and students, 5- 6, 217

OCR for page 275
278 Crowds, peer, 138-139 Cultural Modeling Framework, 66, 89 Cultures capitalizing on, 66-67 peer, 133-138 Curricula challenging, 174-175 integrated, 69-70 meaningful and engaging, 192-193 D Data, 22n . . . . . . .. . to initiate, inform, monitor, reline, and sustain reform, 197-198 NAEP, 84, 135-136 Democratic classroom principles, 106-107 Depressive symptoms, 151, 163 Design developer involvement, 198 Dewey, John, 16, 169 Disengagement consequences of, 1 dropping out as the ultimate, 24-25 of students in urban high schools, 13-30 Disidentification, 135 Distress, externalized, 151 Districts restructuring high schools to create smaller learning communities offering stronger personal relationships between teachers and students, 6, 218-219 role of leaders and personnel in implementation, 199-200 supportive, with effective leadership, 201 Dropping out, 2 and behavioral or emotional problems, 150 graduation rates for urban school districts, by race/ethnicity, 25 prevention-intervention programs, 142 as the ultimate in disengagement, 24-25 Drug prevention and rehabilitation programs, 154-155 E Economic marginalization, 1 Edison Schools, 189, 195n, 207 Education Development Center, 205 INDEX "Education through occupations" approaches, 170, 174 Education through theme-based learning communities, 168-186 evidence from outcome evaluations, 179-184 perceptions of students and teachers, 177-179 . . . . practices en. :lanclng motivation ant . engagement, 172-177 Education Trust, 26-27, 61-62, 162n Education Week, 56 Educational pathways developing, 176 promoting intellectual engagement, 34 Educational Technologies Group, 207 Effective literacy programs, 71-75 Coalition Campus Schools Project, 72- 74 literacy instructions in high-performing schools in low-income communities, 71-72 School Achievement Structure, 75 Strategic Literacy Project, 74 Effective mathematics programs, 85-88 The Algebra Project, 85-86 Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement program, 86-87 Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning Project, 87-88 Effective pedagogies for literacy, 64-70 authentic tasks, 66 capitalizing on cultural knowledge, 66- 67 course in integrated world cultures, 70 explicit instruction, 68-69 frequent feedback from assessments, 69 integrated curricula, 69-70 personalized relationships, 65 rigorous and challenging instruction, 68 study guide for A Separate Peace, 68 use of multiple resources, 67-68 Effective pedagogies for mathematics, 78-85 with access to technology, 84-85 accessible in native language, 81 frequent assessment and feedback, 84 peer collaboration, 82-83 personal relevance, 80-81 rigorous and challenging instruction, 83 using authentic open-ended problems, 81-82

OCR for page 275
INDEX Effective Schools Models, 75 El Puente Academy for Peace and Justice, 128-129 Electrical Academy, 170 ELOB. See Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound Emotional problems, and dropping out, 150 Encouragement, 45-46 Engagement active, 1 beyond the classroom, 54-55 beyond the school, 55-58 context of, 33 defined, 31-33 educational conditions promoting intellectual, 34 goals for, 58-59 nature and conditions of, 31-59 psychological mediators of, 33-44 of students in urban high schools, 13-30 English as a Second Language (ESL), 111 English classes, 51 Environments creating well-structured, with clear, meaningful purposes, 174 focusing on school, 158-159 ESL. See English as a Second Language Ethnographic studies, 109, 137 "Ethos," 98 Evaluation. See Assessment Expectations, 37 fixed, brought by the design staff, 196- 197 high, 174-175 Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound (ELOB), 195n, 208 Externalized distress, 151 Extrinsic goals and incentives, 39-42 Extrinsic rewards, 41-42 F Families, connections to, 123-127 "Family-like atmosphere," 173 Federal school breakfast and lunch programs, 154-155 Feedback, frequent, 69, 84 Findings and recommendations about accountability, 216-217 about connecting schools with other resources, 221-222 279 about high school communities conducive to learning, 217-220 about standards, 216-217 about teaching and learning, 213-215 Fine, Michelle, 271 First Things First (FTF), 126, 160-161, 195n, 198, 208 Fixed expectations, brought by the design staff, 196-197 Fixed intelligence, notion of, 36 "Flagship" schools, 199 Friendship groups, 141-143 FTF. See First Things First "Full-service schools, " 164 G Gangs, 140-141 Gates Foundation, 117, 188 "Gear-Up," 40 Gender differences, 76 Goals for engagement, 58-59 extrinsic, 39-42 See also Values and goals Goals 2000 Educate America Act, 123 Grant Foundation, 19 Gross, Ruth T., 271 Groups, friendship, 141-143 Growing Up Absurd, 175 Grubb, W. Norton, 271-272 Guidance duties, diffusing among all school staff, including teachers, with professional backup, 7-8, 220-221 Guidebook of tile Center for Mental HealtI7 in Schools, 158n Gump, Paul, 114 Gutierrez, Rochelle, 272 H Harvard University, 166n, 205 Health clinics, 154-155 High expectations, 174-175 See also "Academic press" High-order thinking, 49-50 High-performing schools, 27n, 71 High School and Beyond Longitudinal Study, 100, 108-109, 113, 184 High school communities conducive to learning, 217-221

OCR for page 275
280 findings and recommendations, 217-220 suggestions for research, 220-221 High School of the Performing Arts, 171 High schools student engagement and disengagement in urban, 13-30 See also Comprehensive high school reform designs; Urban high school students High Schools That Work (HSTW), 195n, 198, 209 High standards, 17n, 192-193 and democratic values in urban high schools, 16-17 High Tech High, 171 Higher quality implementation, 200-201 clear communication between model developers and schools, 201 effective training, 201 few competing demands on time from other reform projects, 201 high levels of support and commitment by teachers, 200 school focus on instructional change, 201 strong principal leadership, 201 supportive district with effective leadership, 201 Hispanic students, 22, 24, 26 Homework, not keeping up with, 35 HOPE Scholarship program, 40-41 House, Reese, 162n Housing conditions, 158 HSTW. See High Schools That Work Hudson Institute, 209 I I Belong, social connectedness, 42-43 I Can, perceptions of competence and control, 34-37 "I Have a Dream," 40 I Want to, values and goals, 37-42 Identity, collective, 42 Implementation, 189-194 a clear conception of high school reform, 204 high and clear standards, 192-193 higher quality, 200-201 meaningful and engaging pedagogy and curriculum, 192-193 INDEX personalization of school experience, 192-193 professional learning communities for adults, 192-193 of recommendations, challenges of, 9- 11, 223-225 stakeholder roles in, 198-200 Incentives, extrinsic, 39-42 Incompetence, feelings of, 35, 54-55 Institute for Research and Reform in Education, 170, 173, 195, 208 Institute of Medicine, 18, 99, 127, 151 Instruction explicit, 68-69 rigorous and challenging, 68, 83 Instructional change, school focus on, 201 Integrated curricula, 69-70 Integrated world cultures, course in, 70 Intellectual engagement, 34 Internalized values, 38-39 International High School, 107 Intrinsic interest, 38 J James Monroe High School, 107 Jeff Davis High School, 129-131 "Jigsaw Classroom," 52 John F. Kennedy School of Government, 166n Johns Hopkins University, 171, 210 Julia Richman High School, 107 K Kaiser Family Foundation, 13 L Latino students, 22, 24, 26, 36, 46-49, 61, 76, 82, 89, 106, 110, 134n, 161 Leadership, 201 Learning contexts engaging, 44-54 promoting academic values and goals, 47-53 . . , promoting perceptions ot competence and control, 44-47 See also Teaching and learning

OCR for page 275
INDEX Lee, Carol, 272-273 Lee, Valerie, 92, 94-95 "Lesson" study, 91 Literacy, 61-75 effective programs, 71-75 features of effective pedagogies for, 64- 70 literacy tracking and student engagement, 64 reading as problem solving, 62-63 teaching and learning about, 61-75 "Looping, " 107 . . . . . . _ow-mcome commumtles effect on learning, 15, 46, 125, 145, 158, 204, 211-212 literacy instructions in high-performing schools in, 71-72 M Magnet schools, 183-184, 186 Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC), 178, 181- 182, 185 Marginalization, 1 Marijuana availability, 140 Maryland State Functional Exams, 182 Mathematics, 75-88 effective programs, 85-88 features of effective pedagogy for, 78-85 as the science of patterns, 77-78 teaching and learning about, 75-88 Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement (MESA) program, 86- 87, 89 McDill, Edward L., 273 MDRC. See Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation Meaningful connections, to students' culture and lives outside school, 52-53 Mediators, of engagement, psychological, 33-44 Medical intervention, 158 Meeting nonacademic needs of students, 145-167 innovations in, 157-167 traditional approaches, 146-157 Mental health counseling, 150-154 MESA. See Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement program 281 Messages, consistent, 121-122 Metropolitan Life Foundation, 162n survey by, 45, 49, 58-59, 136 Metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), 21 Miller, Linda, 162n Model developers, clear communication with schools, 201 Modern Red Schoolhouse, 209 Morrison, Toni, 63, 94-95 Moses, Robert, 85 Motivation and engagement, 13-14, 31n, 57-58, 172-177, 211 allowing for close adult-student relationships, 172-173 creating well-structured environments with clear, meaningful purposes, 174 developing education and career pathways, 176 giving students multiple avenues for success, 175-176 . increasing stuc ent autonomy in se acting tasks and methods, 173-174 providing challenging curricula, high expectations, and emphasis on achievement, 174-175 MSAs. See Metropolitan statistical areas Multiple resources, use of, 67-68 N NAEP. See National Assessment of Educational Progress NASSP. See National Association of Secondary School Principals National Academy Foundation, 170n National Advisory Mental Health Council 152 National Alliance for Restructuring Education. See America's Choice Comprehensive Design Network National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 26, 61, 76, 91, 209 National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP), 160 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 18-19, 22, 28, 79, 100, 131 National Center on Education and the Economy, 205 National Coalition of Advocates for Students, 127

OCR for page 275
282 National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 76 National Commission on Youth, 175n National Community Building Network, 127n National Co-Morbidity Study, 151 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), 77-79 National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS), 40, 64, 100, 104, 109, 114, 123-124, 184 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 154, 158 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 22 National Network of Partnership Schools, 133n National Paideia Center, 210 National Panel on High School and Adolescent Education, 175n National Research Council, 13-14, 16-18, 22-23, 27-28, 44, 49, 56-57, 69, 99, 127, 131 National School Counselor Training Initiative, 162-163 National Science Foundation, 89 National Youth Employment Coalition, 25 Native Americans, 22n Native language, instruction accessible in, 81 NCES. See National Center for Education ~ . . Statistics NCES High School Completion Rates, 24n NCTM. See National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Needs of students, nonacademic, meeting, 145-167 Neighborhood conditions, 23 Neighborhood violence, 158 NELS. See National Education Longitudinal Study New American High Schools, 171, 205-209 New Visions initiative, 128 "New voc" programs, 173 New York Regents exams, 73 Nigerian culture, 70 Nonacademic needs of students, meeting, 145-167 Nonnegotiable requirements, brought by the design staff, 196-197 INDEX o Office for Civil Rights, 106 Office of Technology Assessment, 152 p Paideia, 210 Paideia Proposal: An Educational Manifesto, 210 Panel on Youth, 175n "Parallel career planning," 184-185 Participation, active, 50 Partnership Academies, 170 Patterns, mathematics as the science of, 77- 78 Patterson High School, 182, 210 Pedagogy meaningful and engaging, 192-193 reforming, 159 of vocational education, 173n See also Effective pedagogies for literacy; Effective pedagogies for mathematics Peers, 133-143 collaboration among, 82-83 friendship groups, 141-143 gangs, 140-141 peer crowds, 138-139 peer cultures, 133-138 Perceptions of competence and control (I Can), 34-37 promoting, 44-47 "Personal adjustment," 150 Personal relevance, 80-81 Personalization, of school experience, 192- 193 Personalized relationships, 65 Poverty. See Low-income communities Pregnancy prevention programs, 154-155 Pressing students. See "Academic press" Principal Leadership, 172 Principals, strong leadership from, 201 Problem-oriented approach, 158 Problem solving, reading as, 62-63 Problems (in math), using authentic and open-ended, 81-82 Professional learning communities, for adults, 192-193 Progress needed in engagement, 58-59 in mechanisms for examining in high school reform, 204

OCR for page 275
INDEX Project Achieve program, 116 Project GRAD, 40,129-131 Project Zero, 205 Promotion of academic values and goals (I Want to), 47-53 of perceptions of competence and control (I Can), 44-47 of a sense of belonging, 53-54 Psychological mediators of engagement, 2, 33-44 educational conditions promoting intellectual engagement, 34 perceptions of competence and control (I Can), 34-37 social connectedness (I Belong), 42-43 values and goals (I Want to), 37-42 Psychosocial development, healthy, 18 Public Agenda phone survey, 42,50 Public will, waning, 203 Puente Program, 161,163 Q Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning (QUASAR) Project, 87-88 QUASAR. See Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning Project R Race/ethnicity graduation rates for urban school districts, 25 urban high school student percentages by, 22 Racism, effect on learning, 15 Reading as problem solving, 62-63 Reading skills, discipline-specific, 69 Recommendations, 3-9,213-223 that assessment of schools, teachers, and students examine critical thinking and conceptual understanding, 5-6, 217 that communication, coordination, and trust be improved among all adults spending time with adolescents, 8-9, 221-222 283 that districts restructure high schools to create smaller learning communities offering stronger personal relationships between teachers and students, 6,218-219 that guidance and counseling duties be diffused among all school staff, including teachers, with professional backup, 7-8,220-221 that high school courses and instructional methods be redesigned to increase adolescent engagement and learning, 4,214 implementing, 9-11, 223-225 that schools coordinate more with community social and health services, better facilitating student access, 9, 222-223 that schools help all high school students meet challenging standards, 5,216- 217 that teachers be provided training and continued practice in implementing adolescent learning strategies, 4-5, 215-216 that teachers employ ongoing classroom- based assessment of students' understanding and skills, 4,214-215 that tracking by ability be replaced by offering challenging instruction to students at all skill levels simultaneously, 6-7,219-220 Reforming schools potential of, 27-29 See also Comprehensive high school reform designs; Scaling up high school reform " Relational trust, " 102- 103 Relationships, personalized, 65 Relevance, personal, 80-81 Requirements, nonnegotiable, brought by the design staff, 196-197 Research suggestions for accountability, 217 for connecting schools with other resources, 222-223 for high school communities conducive to learning, 220-221 for standards, 217 for teaching and learning, 215-216

OCR for page 275
284 Resources for high school reform adequate, 204 specification of needed, 204 use of multiple, 67-68 Restructuring roles and responsibilities, 159-163 Rewards, extrinsic, 41-42 Rigorous instruction, 68, 83 Rumberger, Russell, 273 Russo, Carmen Varela, 273 Rutter, Michael, 98-99 S SAS. See School Achievement Structure SAT. See Scholastic Aptitude Test Scaling up high school reform, 201-204 adequate resources available, 204 agreement at federal, state, and district level about changes needed, 203 a clear conception of how change is to be implemented, 204 common indicators of how success is to be measured, 203-204 mechanisms for examining progress, 204 public and visible accountability, 204 specification of needed resources, 204 spelled-out timeline, 204 Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores, 61, 73 School Achievement Structure (SAS), 75 Ten Routines of, 75 School administrators, role in implementation, 199 School-based clinics, 163 School breakfast and lunch programs, federal, 154-155 "School-centric" reform initiatives, 121 School climate, 97-107 conceptualizing, 97-100 effect on engagement and learning, 100- 105 policies for "trouble-makers," 105-107 School Development Program, 205 School-family-community connections, 121- 133 connecting with communities, 127-132 connections to families, 123-127 consistent messages, 121-122 difficulty of developing and sustaining such connections, 132-133 INDEX School size, 113-118 what really matters within small schools, 116-118 School-to-Work Opportunities Act, 168 School-to-work programs, 176 Schools as communities, 99 composition of, 112-113 coordinating more with community social and health services, better facilitating student access, 9, 222- 223 engagement beyond, 55-58 environments within, 158-159 helping all high school students meet challenging standards, 5, 216-217 organization of, 107-112 potential of reforming, 27-29 Schools-within-a-school (SWAS), 115-116 Schorr, Lisbeth B., 273-274 Seattle Middle College program, 103n Self-confidence, 37 Self-determination theory, 35n Sense of belonging, promoting, 53-54 Sentence structure, 63 Services Learning, 131-132, 165 Sex education, 154-155 Sizemore, Barbara, 75 Sizer, Theodore, 206 SLP. See Strategic Literacy Project Smaller learning communities, offering stronger personal relationships between teachers and students, districts restructuring high schools to create, 6, 218-219 Social connectedness (I Belong), 42-43 Social relationships, 3 importance of in urban high schools, 17-18 marginalization of, 1 Socratic seminars, 210 Southern Regional Education Board reforms, 174, 209 Spanish cognates, 67 Special needs of urban youth, 88-90 Stakeholder roles in implementation, 198- 200 district leaders and personnel, 199-200 school administrator, 199 teachers' unions, 199 teaching staff, 198-199

OCR for page 275
INDEX Standards findings and recommendations, 216-217 having high and clear, 192-193 suggestions for research, 217 Stipek, Deborah, 269 Strategic Literacy Project (SLP), 74, 93 Structured environments, creating, with clear, meaningful purposes, 174 Student access, to community social and health services, schools better facilitating, 9, 222-223 Student engagement and disengagement, 13-30 dropping out as the ultimate in disengagement, 24-25 high standards and democratic values, 16-17 importance of social relationships, 17- 18 potential of school reform, 27-29 the status quo, 18-20 and their mental health condition, 151 See also Advantaged students; Urban high school students Study guide for A Separate Peace, 68 Substance abuse programs, 154-155 Success common indicators of how it is to be measured, 203-204 giving students multiple avenues for, 175-176 "Success Academy," 171, 210 Summer school, 47 Supporting teachers, 90-93 SWAS. See Schools-within-a-school T Talent Development High School (TDHS), 171, 174, 178, 182-183, 185, 189, 195, 199, 210 with career academies, 210 "Talking" with classmates, 83 TDHS. See Talent Development High School Teachers employing ongoing classroom-based assessment of students' understanding and skills, 4, 214-215 exemplary, 71 feelings of competence, 55 285 high levels of support and commitment by, 200 provided training and continued practice in implementing adolescent learning strategies, 4-5, 215-216 supporting, 90-93 Teachers' unions, role in implementation, 199 Teaching and learning, 60-96, 213-216 class discussion of Beloved by Toni Morrison, 94-95 findings and recommendations, 213-215 literacy, 61-75 mathematics, 75-88 special needs of urban youth, 88-90 suggestions for research, 215-216 supporting teachers, 90-93 Teaching staff, role in implementation, 198- 199 Technology, access to, 84-85 Teen Outreach Program, 132 Temple University, 206 Ten Common Principles, 206 Ten Routines of SAS, 75 Tenneco Corporation, 129 The Metropolitan Organization (TMO), 130 Thematic programs, 172, 174 Thinking, high-order, 49-50 Timeline, for high school reform, spelled- out, 204 TMO. See The Metropolitan Organization To Kill a Mockingbird, 52 Tracking by ability, replacing by offering challenging instruction to students at all skill levels simultaneously, 6-7, 219-220 Tracking literacy, 118, 139 and student engagement, 64 Training, effective, 201 Trust. See "Relational trust" Tutoring, 47 U University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 210 Urban Academy, 107 Urban high school students, 21-24 engagement and disengagement in, 13- 30

OCR for page 275
286 meaningful connections to their culture and lives outside school, 52-53 meeting nonacademic needs of, 145-167 outcomes after school, 25-27 percentages by race/ethnicity, 22 stereotypes of, 49-50 Urban Seminar Series, 166n U.S. Department of Education, 16, 18 8, 202 U.S. General Accounting Office, 155, 164 V "Value climates," 98 Values and goals (I Want to), 37-42 extrinsic goals and incentives, 39-42 internalized values, 38-39 intrinsic interest, 38 promoting academic, 47-53 Vanderbilt University, 131 Variety, 51 Vocational education, 175-177 pedagogy of, 173n Vocational Education Consortium, 209 INDEX W Wang, Margaret C., 206 Washington Post, 167 West Ed Lab, 74 White students, 22, 24, 41, 76, 110 William T. Grant Foundation, 19 Wills, George, 167 World cultures, integrated, course in, 70 World Wide Web, 63 y Yale University, 205 z "Zero-tolerance" policies, 105