Gardner, D.E., D.L.Coffin, M.A.Pinigin, and G.I.Sidorenko. 1977. Role of time as a factor in the toxicity of chemical compounds in intermittent and continuous exposures. Part 1. Effects of continuous exposure. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 3(5–6):811–820.


Haas, C.N. 1983. Estimation of risks due to low doses of microorganisms: A comparison of alternative methodologies. Am. J. Epidemiol. 118(4):573–582.

Halperin, W.E. 1996. The role of surveillance in the hierarchy of prevention. Am. J. Ind. Med. 29(4):321–323.

Hnizdo, E., and J.Murray. 1998. Risk of pulmonary tuberculosis relative to silicosis and exposure to silica dust in South African gold miners. Occup. Environ. Med. 55(7):496–502.


Koopman, J.S., and I.M.Longini Jr. 1994. The ecological effects of individual exposures and nonlinear disease dynamics in populations. Am. J. Public Health 84(5):715–716.

Koopman, J.S., I.M.Longini Jr., J.A.Jacquez, C.P.Simon, D.G.Ostrow, W.R.Martin, and D.M.Woodcock. 1991. Assessing risk factors for transmission of infection. Am. J. Epidemiol. 133(12):1199–1209.


NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 2001. Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Presidential/Congressional Commission of Risk Assessment and Risk Management. 1997. Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Regulatory Decision-Making. Final Report. Washington, DC: The Commission.


Regli, S., J.B.Rose, C.N.Haas, and C.P.Gerba. 1991. Modeling risk from giardia and viruses in drinking water. Am. Water Works Assoc. J. 83(11):76–84.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement