TABLE A-1 Search Terms

Competitive behavior

Conflict of interest

Data access

Data sharing

Education and research integrity (integrity in research)

Evaluation research




Organization of research

Organizational culture

Organizational mistakes

Peer review


Professional ethics

Public policies/guidelines

Publication bias

Quality control and research

Research environments

Research fraud

Research integrity (integrity in research)

Research misconduct

Research moral and ethical aspect

Research norms

Research productivity

Research standards

Responsibility in research

Retraction of publication

Scientific error

Scientific fraud

Scientific integrity

Scientific misconduct

Selection bias

University-industry relationships


White-collar crime


Searches were performed in OVID in the following databases: AGRICOLA, BioethicsLine, Biosis Previews, CSA-Life Science, ERIC, Medline, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts, and Wilson/Biological and Agricultural Index (a description of OVID and of each of the databases can be found at Significant overlap was found among the articles identified in the databases. The most comprehensive and useful databases for the committee’s purposes were BioethicsLine, Medline, and PsycInfo, as the majority of articles identified in AGRICOLA, Biosis Previews, CSA-Life Science, ERIC, Sociological Abstracts, and Wilson/Biological and Agricultural Index were also listed in one or more of those three databases (BioethicsLine, Medline, and PsycInfo).

Results of Preliminary Literature Search

The initial search of the databases mentioned above, using the keywords listed in Table A-1, yielded more than 16,000 citations. The first round of screening eliminated entries that were not in English, duplicate listings, and duplicate articles in different journals. For the purposes of the committee’s task, the entries were narrowed to those published in the past seven years. Note that this exclusion criterion was not inflexible and

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