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Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct E Committee and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHIES Arthur Rubenstein, M.B.B.Ch. (Chair), is executive vice president of the University of Pennsylvania for the Health System and dean of the School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Previously, he was dean and chief executive officer of Mount Sinai School of Medicine and the Gustave L. Levy Distinguished Professor and served as executive vice president of Mount Sinai/New York University School of Health. He has also been chair of the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine and the Lowell T. Coggeshall Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine. He is an authority on diabetes, a widely sought counselor to academic health centers, and a frequent panelist at the annual meetings of the senior research societies in internal medicine. Dr. Rubenstein collaborated with Donald Steiner, who discovered proinsulin. He has extensively studied C peptide as a measure of endogenous insulin secretion. He has discovered several families with mutations in their insulin genes and has characterized these abnormalities. The widely used assay for the C peptide of insulin, developed in his laboratory, has provided a means of studying insulin metabolism in diabetic patients receiving exogenous insulin. For his research efforts, he has received numerous awards and named lectureships. Among these are the Eli Lilly Award and the Banting Medal of the American Diabetes Association and the David Rumbough Award of the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation. Dr. Rubenstein was elected a master of the American College of
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Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct Physicians in 1987 and received its John Phillips Memorial Award in 1995. He is a fellow of the College of Medicine of South Africa (1964), the Royal College of Physicians of London (1977), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is past president of the Association of Professors of Medicine (1995–1996), from which he also received the Robert H. Williams Distinguished Chair of Medicine Award (1997); the Association of American Physicians (1995–1996); the Central Society for Clinical Research (1989); and the Chicago Society of Internal Medicine (1992–1993). He was a member of the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Advisory Board, the National Institutes of Health Metabolism Study Section, and the National Diabetes Advisory Board and is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Residency Review Committee in Internal Medicine. He served on the American Board of Internal Medicine for 8 years and was its chair in 1992–1993. He has authored more that 350 papers and has been on the editorial boards of Annals of Internal Medicine, Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, and Medicine. Muriel Bebeau, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Preventive Sciences, School of Dentistry; executive director of the University’s Center for the Study of Ethical Development, and a faculty associate in the Center for Bioethics. She received her undergraduate degree from Concordia College, River Forest, Illinois, and spent her early career as a musician and music educator. Her graduate degrees are from Arizona State University, where she held a faculty appointment before coming to the University of Minnesota in 1979. As an educational psychologist, Dr. Bebeau pioneered the teaching of ethics in dentistry. To evaluate outcomes, she and Jim Rest designed and validated measures that assess functional processes that give rise to morality. Recently, Dr. Bebeau and colleagues at Indiana University’s Poynter Center applied ideas worked out in dentistry to research ethics. As chair of the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) Ethics Committee, she organized a symposium to explore the role of scientific societies in deterring misconduct and developed a consensus statement on the future directions of AADR to promote integrity in research. In recognition of her contributions to dental ethics, the American College of Dentists awarded her an honorary fellowship. The Association for Moral Education recognized her contributions to moral psychology with its lifetime achievement award. Dr. Bebeau’s primary interests are studying the processes involved in ethical decision making (sensitivity, reasoning and judgment, commitment, and actions) and their roles as determinants of ethical behavior.
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Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct Stuart Bondurant, M.D., is professor of medicine and dean emeritus at the School of Medicine of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). He was a member of the faculty of the School of Medicine at Indiana University Medical Center and was chief of the Medical Branch of the Artificial Heart-Myocardial Infarction Program at the National Heart Institute. There he directed the establishment of the first national program of research on myocardial infarction. Dr. Bondurant was professor and chair of the Department of Medicine before serving as president and dean of Albany Medical College in Albany, New York. In 1979 he became professor of medicine and dean of the School of Medicine of UNC-CH. In July 1994 he completed three terms as dean and, while on leave of absence from UNC-CH, served as director of the Center for Urban Epidemiologic Studies of the New York Academy of Medicine. In 1996 and 1997, Dr. Bondurant served as interim dean of the UNC-CH School of Medicine. During his career he has served as an officer of many organizations and societies including president of the American College of Physicians, the Association of American Physicians, and the American Clinical and Climatological Association; acting president of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences; vice president of the American Heart Association and of the American Society for Clinical Investigation; chair of the board of the North Carolina Biotechnology Center; chair of the Council of Deans of the Association of American Medical Colleges; and chair of the Association of American Medical Colleges. From 1989 to 1995 he served as chair of the North Carolina Governors Commission on the Reduction of Infant Mortality, and from 1989 to the present he has served as vice chair of The Healthy Start Foundation. He also has served as adviser to the National Institutes of Health, the Veterans Administration (the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs), the U.S. Department of Defense, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. He is a master of the American College of Physicians and is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh and of the Royal College of Physicians of London. He holds an honorary doctor of science degree from Indiana University, the Citizen Laureate Award of the Albany (New York) Foundation, and the 1998 Thomas Jefferson Award of the Faculty of the University of North Carolina. Dr. Bondurant is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and he received the David P. Rall Award from that organization in 2000. David Cox, M.D., Ph.D., is scientific director of Perlegen Sciences. He is on a leave of absence from Stanford University, where he is professor of genetics and pediatrics at the Stanford University School of Medicine as well as codirector of the Stanford Human Genome Center. After receiving
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Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct A.B. and M.S. degrees from Brown University in Rhode Island, Dr. Cox obtained M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Washington, Seattle. Dr. Cox completed a pediatric residency at the Yale-New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut, and was a fellow in both genetics and pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Cox is certified by both the American Board of Pediatrics and the American Board of Medical Genetics. Dr. Cox is an active participant in the largescale mapping and sequencing efforts of the Human Genome Project while carrying out research involving the molecular basis of human genetic disease. Robert C. Dynes, Ph.D., is professor of physics, former chair of the Physics Department, and chancellor at the University of California, San Diego. Before coming to the university in 1991, Dr. Dynes had a distinguished career at AT&T Bell Laboratories, where he held a variety of positions culminating in a 7-year term as director of Chemical Physics Research. His research on the properties of conductors and superconductors has led to more than 200 invited talks at national and international meetings, 175 publications in peer-reviewed journals, and seven patents. Professor Dynes is on the editorial boards of four physics journals and serves on several committees of national importance: The [University of California] President’s Council on the National Laboratories, the Sloan Foundation Review Panel, the Department of Energy Council on Materials, the Advisory Board for the University of Texas Center for Superconductivity, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory Physics Division External Review Committee. A member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1989, Dr. Dynes did his undergraduate studies at the University of Western Ontario and earned both a master of science degree and a Ph.D. from McMaster University. Mark S. Frankel, Ph.D., has been director of the Scientific Freedom, Responsibility and Law Program at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) since 1990, where he develops and manages the association’s activities related to professional ethics, science and society, and science and law. He is a AAAS fellow, editor of the association’s quarterly publication, Professional Ethics Report, and staff officer for two AAAS committees: the Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility and the AAAS-American Bar Association National Conference of Lawyers and Scientists. He is on the board of directors of the National Patient Safety Foundation and serves on the editorial boards of Professional Ethics, Ethics and Behavior, Science and Engineering Ethics, and Law and Human Genome Review. Dr. Frankel has directed several AAAS projects and has published extensively on integrity in research and scien-
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Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct tific misconduct. The AAAS videos “Integrity in Scientific Research” are widely used throughout the United States and abroad as part of educational programs on research ethics. Penny J. Gilmer, Ph.D., is professor of chemistry and biochemistry at Florida State University in Tallahassee. She received a B.A. in chemistry at Douglass College, an M.A. in organic chemistry at Bryn Mawr College, and a Ph.D. in biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. Her research interests include cell-surface biochemistry, science education, and ethics in science. Since 1984 she has taught both undergraduates and graduate students on ethical issues in science, including topics such as the development of the atomic bomb, issues in human subjects and animals in research, and environmental ethics. She serves on the editorial board of Science and Engineering Ethics. Dr. Gilmer is finishing the writing for a second doctorate in science education through Curtin University of Technology in Australia. She has studied her own World Wide Web-enhanced biochemistry classroom using qualitative research methodology. In 1999 Professor Gilmer received the Innovative Excellence in Teaching, Learning and Technology Award from the 10th International Conference on College Teaching and Learning. She coedited the recently published book Transforming Undergraduate Science Teaching: Social Constructivist Perspectives (Peter Lang, 2001). Dr. Gilmer also is co-principal investigator of the National Science Foundation-funded grant entitled the Florida Collaborative for Excellence in Teacher Preparation, whose goal is to increase the number and quality of teachers of mathematics and science for secondary schools in Florida. Frederick Grinnell, Ph.D., is professor of cell biology and director of the Program in Ethics in Science and Medicine at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, where he has worked since earning a doctorate in biochemistry from Tufts University in 1970. Research in his laboratory concerns the wound-repair process, which has resulted in three patents, a MERIT award from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and more than 100 publications in peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Grinnell’s ethics-related research program attempts to articulate what doing science entails, with the goal of informing science policy decisions and advancing science education and public understanding of science. His book The Scientific Attitude (Guilford Press, 1992) is now in its second edition. A sequel, Everyday Practice of Science, is in preparation. He has taught a graduate course on the philosophy and conduct of science for more than 20 years and has participated in teaching medical ethics to medical students for a decade. He served on the university’s institutional review board as a member and alternate for 10 years and is a member of
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Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct its Review Committee on Conflict of Interest. Nationally, Professor Grinnell is a member of the Science Policy Committee of the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology (FASEB) and previous chair of the FASEB Subcommittee on Human Subjects and Bioethics. He is also a member of the National Institutes of Health Peer Review Oversight Group. Dr. Grinnell drafted the Code of Ethics adopted by the American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology in 1998. Joyce Miller Iutcovich, Ph.D., is a sociologist who followed a dual career path for many years as a university professor as well as president of the Keystone University Research Corporation (KURC), an independent research and consulting organization. As an academic, Dr. Iutcovich achieved full professor rank at Gannon University in 1991 and later served as associate provost from 1995 to 1997. In 1999 Dr. Iutcovich made the decision to leave the academy on a full-time basis to dedicate her time to KURC, with its ever-expanding operations. As president of KURC, Dr. Iutcovich has presided over the company’s growth from modest beginnings to annual revenues of more than $10 million. Projects undertaken by KURC include short-term applied social research and consulting activities, as well as multiyear contracts to design and administer programs for state government agencies. In her capacity as an applied social researcher, Dr. Iutcovich has expertise in evaluation research and social policy, primarily in the social service and educational fields. She is active in the sociological professional associations and served as president of the Society for Applied Sociology from 1994 to 1995. In 2002 she was awarded a congressional fellowship from the American Sociological Association and worked with Senator Jack Reed (D-RI) for the term of her fellowship. Her professional writings have appeared in such journals as Evaluation and Program Planning, Journal of Applied Gerontology, Journal of Applied Sociology, Sociological Practice, Handbook of Clinical Sociology, and Social Insight: Knowledge at Work. She coauthored The Sociologist as Consultant (Praeger, 1987) and coedited Directions in Applied Sociology (Society for Applied Sociology, 1997). She was a member of the Committee on Professional Ethics (COPE) of the American Sociological Association from 1993 to 1999 during an extensive code revision process; she served as the chair of COPE in 1999. Stanley G. Korenman, M.D., is professor of medicine and associate dean for ethics and the Medical Scientist Training Program at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He is also the founding chair of the Ethics Advisory Committee of the Endocrine Society. Board certified in internal medicine with an endocrinology subspecialty, he has published more than 100 peer-reviewed papers in basic and clinical reproductive
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Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct endocrinology since receiving an M.D. from Columbia University. Dr. Korenman previously served as chief of the Department of Medicine of the UCLA San Fernando Valley Program and chief of the Medical Service at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Sepulveda, California; as chief of endocrinology at UCLA and the University of Iowa; as director of the Harbor-UCLA Clinical Research Center; and as a senior investigator at the National Cancer Institute. Over the past few years he has published a number of empirical and philosophical articles on scientific ethics and misconduct as well as a widely used text on teaching the responsible conduct of research. Joseph B. Martin, M.D., Ph.D., was born in Bassano, Alberta, Canada, in 1938. Dr. Martin received his premedical and medical education at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, receiving the M.D. degree in 1962. He completed a residency in neurology in 1966 and a fellowship in neuropathology in 1967 at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and earned a Ph.D. in anatomy from the University of Rochester in 1971. Dr. Martin began his distinguished career in academic medicine at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where he eventually became chair of the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery in 1977. In 1978, he joined the faculty of Harvard Medical School in Boston, where he held the title first of Bullard Professor of Neurology and chief of the Neurology Service at Massachusetts General Hospital. In 1984, Dr. Martin was appointed the Julieanne Dorn Professor of Neurology at Harvard. He was appointed dean of the Harvard Faculty of Medicine effective July 1, 1997. Before returning to the Harvard medical community, he served as chancellor of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), for 4 years. Dr. Martin initially went to UCSF in 1989 as dean of the School of Medicine. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Robert R. Rich, M.D., is executive associate dean and professor of medicine and of microbiology and immunology at Emory University School of Medicine. He received an M.D. from the University of Kansas and completed an internship and residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington. He had subspecialty training in allergy and immunology and postdoctoral fellowships at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Harvard Medical School. In 1973, Dr. Rich joined the faculty of Baylor College of Medicine as assistant professor of microbiology and immunology and of medicine. In 1978 he was promoted to professor and in 1995 was named Distinguished Service Professor. He was an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute from 1977 to 1991. From 1990 to
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Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct 1998 he also served as vice president and dean of research at Baylor. He is deputy editor of The Journal of Immunology and is its editor-in-chief designate. He has had appointments to other to editorial boards, including those of The Journal of Experimental Medicine, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, The Journal of Clinical Immunology, and Clinical and Experimental Immunology. He is also editor-in-chief of a comprehensive textbook, Clinical Immunology: Principles and Practice (Mosby-Year Book, 1996). He served as a member and chairman of two NIH study sections and on the boards of directors of the American Board of Allergy and Immunology (of which he was also chairman), the American Board of Internal Medicine, and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. He is past president of the Clinical Immunology Society. Dr. Rich is a member of the Advisory Panel on Research of the Association of American Medical Colleges and is a member of the National Human Research Protections Advisory Committee of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. He is a councilor of the American Clinical and Climatological Association. He is vice president of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and is past chairman of its Professional Education Council. He is also president of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the largest coalition of biomedical research scientists in the United States. Louis M. Sherwood, M.D., is senior vice president for medical and scientific affairs in the U.S. Human Health Division of Merck & Co. Having previously led new drug development as executive vice president of the Merck Research Laboratories (1989 to 1992), Dr. Sherwood serves as chief medical officer for Merck & Co. in the United States and is responsible for all medical activities of Merck & Co. in the United States, including clinical development, outcomes research and management, medical services, academic and professional affairs, and the medical directors in various regions of the country. He also serves as adjunct professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and visiting professor of medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Before joining Merck & Co. in 1987, he served for 7 years as the Ted and Florence Baumritter Professor and chair of the Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and as physician-in-chief, Montefiore Medical Center, New York, New York. He had previously served as chair of the Department of Medicine at the Michael Reese Medical Center and professor of medicine at the University of Chicago, as well as associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and chief of the Endocrine Unit at Beth Israel Hospital. Dr. Sherwood has been president of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine, and the American Physicians Fellowship for Medicine in Israel; and he
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Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct also serves on the Clinical Research Roundtable of the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Advisory Council of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. He has received numerous awards, the most recent of which are the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Academy of Pharmaceutical Physicians (2001) and the Special Recognition Award from the Association of Professors of Medicine (2002). Dr. Sherwood received an undergraduate degree from Johns Hopkins University and an M.D. from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. He has published extensively in the field of endocrinology, particularly on the regulation of parathyroid hormone synthesis and secretion and clinical calcium disorders. Dr. Sherwood retired from Merck & Co. on April 1, 2002 and is now working as an independent consultant. Michael J. Zigmond, Ph.D., is a Professor of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Neurobiology at the University of Pittsburgh. His area of research interest is neuronal death and neuroprotection as it applies to neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinson’s disease. He has held grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) since 1975, including a Research Scientist Award (1985-2001), and currently holds a MERIT Award from NIMH. He is co-director of the National Parkinson Foundation Center of Excellence at the University of Pittsburgh, and associate director of the Pittsburgh Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders. He has been on several scientific advisory boards including the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation, Tourette Syndrome Association, and the Michael J. Fox Foundation, a member of several review committees of the NIH, and has served as the secretary of the Society for Neuroscience. Dr. Zigmond also has been involved in a variety of educational activities. He was the president of the Association of Neuroscience Departments and Programs (1990-91) and the organizing editor for Fundamental Neuroscience (1999). He was a member of the external advisory committee to the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP) when it produced its manual, Enhancing the Postdoctoral Experience for Scientists and Engineers, and has advised COSEPUP on other projects related to education. He currently directs several NIH-funded training grants for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in the neurosciences at the University of Pittsburgh, and co-directs with Ms. Beth A. Fischer the university’s Survival Skills and Ethics Program. In addition, he serves as the chair of the International Advisory Committee of the Society of Neuroscientists of Africa, has been active in training activities in Africa since 1993, and coauthors with Ms. Fischer a monthly electronic column on professional skills for the International Brain Research Organization. Dr. Zigmond is currently editor-in-chief of Progress in Neurobiology and sits on the editorial boards of a dozen other professional journals. Dr. Zigmond received
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Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct his B.S. in chemical engineering from Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University), his Ph.D. in biopsychology from the University of Chicago, and his postdoctoral training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was a Visiting Fellow in Neuroscience at the Children’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts from 1998-1999. Dr. Zigmond’s contributions in the area of professional development and responsible conduct and ethics include courses and publications on promoting responsible conduct of research and on scientific publishing and other professional skills. Dr. Zigmond chaired the committee of the Society for Neuroscience that developed the society’s guidelines for responsible conduct in publishing and now chairs the society’s Social Issues Committee. Board on Health Sciences Policy Liaison Ada Sue Hinshaw is a nationally recognized contributor to nursing research and is dean and professor at the University of Michigan School of Nursing. Before coming to the University of Michigan, Dr. Hinshaw was the first permanent director of the National Institute of Nursing Research at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. Hinshaw led the institute in its support of valuable research and training in many areas of nursing science, such as disease prevention, health promotion, acute and chronic illness, and the environments that enhance nursing care patient outcomes. From 1975 to 1987, Dr. Hinshaw served as director of research and professor at the University of Arizona College of Nursing in Tucson and as director of nursing research at the University Medical Center’s Department of Nursing. She has also held faculty positions at the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Kansas. Dr. Hinshaw received a Ph.D. and M.A. in sociology from the University of Arizona, an M.S.N. from Yale University, and a B.S. from the University of Kansas. Her major fields of study included maternal-newborn health, clinical nursing and nursing administration, and instrument development and testing. IOM STAFF Theresa M. Wizemann, Ph.D., is a senior program officer for the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and served as the study director for Integrity in Scientific Research. Previously, she was the study director for the IOM study Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? Dr. Wizemann came to IOM from the office of Senator Edward M. Kennedy, Senate Committee on Health Education, Labor and Pensions, where she handled various health and sci-
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Integrity in Scientific Research: Creating an Environment that Promotes Responsible Conduct ence policy issues as a congressional fellow. Prior to the fellowship, she led a vaccine research team at MedImmune, Inc., a leading biotechnology company in Maryland. She earned a bachelor’s degree in medical technology from Douglass College of Rutgers University and master’s and doctoral degrees in microbiology and molecular genetics, jointly from Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. She did a postdoctoral fellowship in infectious diseases at The Rockefeller University in New York. Dr. Wizemann has expertise in microbiology, immunology, and infectious diseases and has a particular interest in women’s and children’s health. Mehreen Butt is a senior project assistant for the Board on Health Sciences Policy. Before joining the Institute of Medicine she worked for an international nonprofit health organization that assisted developing countries in restructuring their health care delivery systems. She received bachelor of science degrees in Biology and English from Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts. Andrew Pope, Ph.D., is director of the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine. With expertise in physiology and biochemistry, his primary interests focus on environmental and occupational influences on human health. Dr. Pope’s previous research activities focused on the neuroendocrine and reproductive effects of various environmental substances on food-producing animals. During his tenure at the National Academy of Sciences and since 1989 at the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Pope has directed numerous reports on topics that include injury control, disability prevention, biologic markers, neurotoxicology, indoor allergens, and the enhancement of environmental and occupational health content in medical and nursing school curricula. Most recently, Dr. Pope directed studies on priority-setting processes at the National Institutes of Health, fluid resuscitation practices in combat casualties, and organ procurement and transplantation.
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