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Helping Children Learn Mathematics
What Does It Mean to Be Successful in Mathematics?
Our analyses of the mathematics to be learned, our reading of the research in cognitive psychology and mathematics education, our experience as learners and teachers of mathematics, and our professional judgment have led us to adopt a composite view of successful mathematics learning. Recognizing that no term completely captures all aspects of expertise, competence, knowledge, and facility in mathematics, we have chosen mathematical proficiency to express what we think it means for anyone to learn mathematics successfully.