APPENDIX A
PRIORITIES IN MATERIALS RESEARCH

COSMAT QUESTIONNAIRE METHODOLOGY AND SOME RESULTS

The goal of the questionnaire used by COSMAT was to determine priorities among topics in basic and applied research in materials science and engineering, as viewed by scientists and engineers knowledgeable in the field. Some 2,800 questionnaires were mailed out using a mailing list which was selected to provide representative coverage of materials science and engineering. 555 of the responses were sufficiently complete to be included in the analysis.

Characteristics of Responding Group

Age: 50 and up, 262; 40–49, 214; 30–39, 74; under 30, 5

Highest Degrees: PhD., 379; Master, 78; Bachelor, 62; Blanks, 36

Discipline of Highest Degree: Metallurgy and Ceramics, 172; Physics, 153; Chemistry, 95; Engineering, 71; Other, 8; Blanks, 56

Employer: Industrial, 215; Academic, 187; Government, 120; Non Profit, 16; Other, 17

Activity: Research, 350; Teaching, 181; Development or Engineering, 122; Technical Management, 262; General Management, 76; Other, 52

Number Managed (if a manager): over 100, 81; 10–100, 163; less than 10, 80



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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering APPENDIX A PRIORITIES IN MATERIALS RESEARCH COSMAT QUESTIONNAIRE METHODOLOGY AND SOME RESULTS The goal of the questionnaire used by COSMAT was to determine priorities among topics in basic and applied research in materials science and engineering, as viewed by scientists and engineers knowledgeable in the field. Some 2,800 questionnaires were mailed out using a mailing list which was selected to provide representative coverage of materials science and engineering. 555 of the responses were sufficiently complete to be included in the analysis. Characteristics of Responding Group Age: 50 and up, 262; 40–49, 214; 30–39, 74; under 30, 5 Highest Degrees: PhD., 379; Master, 78; Bachelor, 62; Blanks, 36 Discipline of Highest Degree: Metallurgy and Ceramics, 172; Physics, 153; Chemistry, 95; Engineering, 71; Other, 8; Blanks, 56 Employer: Industrial, 215; Academic, 187; Government, 120; Non Profit, 16; Other, 17 Activity: Research, 350; Teaching, 181; Development or Engineering, 122; Technical Management, 262; General Management, 76; Other, 52 Number Managed (if a manager): over 100, 81; 10–100, 163; less than 10, 80

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering Rating Process Respondents rated priorities for basic and applied research in various specialties of materials science and engineering on a five-level scale. Rating numbers were then calculated from: where (1) is the number of “very high” responses, (2) is the number of “high” responses, etc. This gives a rating number for each specialty between 0 and 100, where 0 would mean all “very low” responses and 100 would mean all “very high” responses. In the case of applied research, the priority rating for each specialty was obtained on the basis of its relative importance to various national inpact areas and subareas. The respondents also rated their own familiarity with each specialty on a five-level scale, and a rating number for such familiarity was similarly calculated. The questionnaire covered 46 specialties in materials science and engineering, nine national impact areas, and 52 subareas. The data presented here are condensed from a more extensive analysis of the replies to the questionnaire, which will be included in a later COSMAT report. The fuller report will also give break-downs of responses by various subgroups selected according to academic discipline, highest degree, age, type of institution, type of activity, and management level. These subgroups showed some individual differences, but by and large the responses of the various subgroups were remarkably similar.

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering Overall Importance of Materials Science and Engineering Materials science and engineering can have different levels of impact on the various areas of technology in which materials are involved. To assess these differences, the questionnaire made use of nine Areas of Impact. The respondents were first asked to rate the overall importance of materials science and engineering to each of these Areas. Based on the average response, the Areas of Impact can be divided into three groups: Very High Importance Communications, Computers, and Control Defense and Space Energy High Importance Transportation Equipment Health Services Environmental Quality Housing and Other Construction Moderate Importance Production Equipment Consumer Goods A similar analysis was also based on the responses of only those deemed to be particularly knowledgeable in the given Areas of Impact. Respondents who chose to rate a particular Areas or Subarea of Impact in detail were grouped together (by Area of Impact) and the responses in each of these groups was averaged (respondents could be in more than one group). This method of analysis provided a rating of the overall importance of materials science and engineering to each Area of Impact as rated by persons expert in it. The results classified the Areas of Impact into almost exactly the same rank order as shown above. We conclude that, in the assessment of the general importance of materials science and engineering to the various Areas of Impact,

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering opinions of the “experts” and the overall opinions matched fairly closely. Methodology of Data Handling A list of specialties within materials science and engineering was presented in the questionnaire, divided into three categories: Properties of Materials, Classes of Materials, and Processes for Materials. These are listed in Table A-1. Each respondent was asked to indicate his level of familiarity with each of these specialties and to rate the priority for Basic Research (research not specifically identified with any one Area of Impact) for each specialty. The familiarity and priority responses for each specialty were arithmetically averaged over all the respondents and the results are presented in Table A-1. To assess the priorities for Applied Research, the Area of Impact is important. Within each Area of Impact, several Subareas were identified. These are listed in Table A-2. Each respondent was requested to select up to five Subareas of Impact and, for each, to rate the importance of Applied Research and Engineering in each of the specialties under Properties, Materials, and Processes. In addition, for each chosen Subarea of Impact, priority ratings were obtained for research activities according to the various disciplines comprising materials science and engineering. The respondents also indicated their degree of familiarity with each of the disciplines.

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering TABLE A-1 Priority Ratings for Basic Research in Materials Science and Engineering, Arranged according to Specialties SPECIALTY Familiarity of Respondents Priority for Basic Research Properties of Materials   Atomic Structure 61 68 Microstructure (Electron Microscope Level) 54 69 Microstructure (Optical Microscope Level) 61 53 Thermodynamic 60 64 Thermal 54 57 Mechanical and Acoustic 60 70 Optical 48 61 Electrical 55 66 Magnetic 45 52 Dielectric 43 52 Nuclear 41 60 Chemical and Electrochemical 49 70 Biological 20 56 Classes of Materials   Ceramics 54 72 Glasses and Amorphous Materials 52 68 Elemental and Compound Semiconductors 47 62 Inorganic, Nonmetallic Elements and Compounds 50 59 Ferrous Metals and Alloys 58 59 Nonferrous Structural Metals and Alloys 53 63 Nonferrous Conducting Metals and Alloys 51 57 Plastics 40 65 Fibers and Textiles 28 46 Rubbers 24 42 Composites 45 70 Organic and Organo Metallic Compounds 28 51 Thin Films 43 62 Adhesives, Coatings, Finishes, Seals 33 58 Lubricants, Oils, Solvents, Cleansers 23 43 Prosthetic and Medical Materials 21 54 Plain and Reinforced Concrete 21 31 Asphaltic and Bituminous Materials 16 27 Wood and Paper 20 30 Processes for Materials   Extraction, Purification, Refining 43 60 Synthesis and Polymerization 33 61 Solidification and Crystal Growth 59 66 Metal Deformation and Processing 49 56 Plastics Extrusion and Molding 29 43 Heat Treatment 58 55 Material Removal 44 51 Joining 47 61 Powder Processing 43 56 Vapor and Electrodeposition, Epitaxy 43 58 Radiation Treatment 35 55 Plating and Coating 42 55 Chemical 39 51 Testing and Nondestructive Testing 62 71

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering TABLE A-2 Responses Received, Arranged according to Areas and Subareas of Impact Code Number Areas and Subareas Number of Responses 10 COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS, AND CONTROL 31 11 Commercial Radio and TV Equipment 10 12 Computers 66 13 Electronic Components 144 14 Equipment for Guidance and Control of Transportation 8 15 Teaching Equipment 14 16 Telephone and Data Networks and Equipment 41   Total 314 20 CONSUMER GOODS 10 21 Apparel and Textiles 20 22 Furniture 6 23 Household Appliances—Electronic (TV, Radio, hi-fi, etc.) 23 24 Household Appliances—Nonelectronic (refrigerators, ranges, air conditioners, vacuum cleaners, etc.) 19 25 Leisure and Sports Equipment 4 26 Packaging and Containers 34 27 Printing and Photography 25   Total 141 30 DEFENSE AND SPACE 39 31 Military Aircraft 81 32 Missiles 38 33 Naval Vessels 25 34 Ordnance and Weapons 38 35 Radar and Military Communications 46 36 Spacecraft 54 37 Undersea Equipment 35   Total 356 40 ENERGY 35 41 Batteries and Fuel Cells 100 42 Direct Conversion 62 43 Electronic Transmission and Distribution 64 44 Fuel Transmission and Distribution 9 45 Nuclear Reactors 92 46 Thermonuclear Fusion 54 47 Turbines and Generators 66   Total 482 50 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 28 51 Mining and Raw Materials Extraction 65 52 Pollution 83 53 Recycling and Solid Waste Disposal 94 54 Reliability, Safety, Maintainability 25 55 Substitution Opportunities 19 56 Working Conditions 10   Total 324

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering Code Number Areas and Subareas Number of Responses 60 HEALTH SERVICES 14 61 Artificial Organs 39 62 Medical Electronics 13 63 Medical Equipment (including dental) 10 64 Prosthetic Devices (including dental) 64   Total 140 70 HOUSING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION 21 71 Construction Machinery 1 72 Highways, Bridges, Airports, etc. 19 73 Individual and Multiple Unit Dwellings 44 74 Industrial and Commercial Structures 12 75 Mobile Homes 13 76 Plumbing, Heating, Electrical, etc. 20   Total 130 80 PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 6 81 Farm and Construction Machinery 10 82 Industrial Drives, Motors, and Controls 9 83 Industrial Instrumentation 15 84 Machine Tools 22 85 Process Equipment 43   Total 105 90 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 23 91 Aircraft 48 92 Automotive 75 93 Guided Ground Transportation (rail, nonrail) 30 94 Water 4   Total 180

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering Basic Research The numbers in Table A-1 show a trend: generally speaking, the greater the average familiarity, the greater the average priority given. This can be seen graphically in Figure A-1, where the Priority Rating for Basic Research is plotted against the Familiarity Rating for each Property, Material, and Process specialty. In an attempt to take account of these interplays, relative priority levels were determined from the rating numbers by three different methods: Uncorrected for Familiarity Respondents were divided into four groups according to the discipline of their highest degree—chemists, physicists, metallurgists (including ceramists), and engineers. The simple rank orders in which each of these groups placed the Property, Class, and Process specialties were determined. The four disciplinary groups were then given equal weight in arriving at average rating numbers for given specialties. Corrected for Familiarity Here an attempt was made to correct the rating numbers for the degree of familiarity. Priority/familiarity trend lines were established graphically for each specialty, and the rank orders of the specialties were determined as the trend line was swept through the plots. This was done for each of the four disciplinary groups, and again the groups were given equal weight in determining average rank orders.

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering Figure A-1. Relationship between Priority Ratings for Basic Research in Various Specialties and Familiarity Ratings of the Respondents in the Specialties.

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering Experts Here we based the rank orderings on the opinions of the experts in each specialty. As previously mentioned, the experts were chosen by selecting those who indicated very high familiarity with the specialty. The responses of each group of experts (chemists, physicists, metallurgists and ceramists, and engineers) were then normalized So that the average response of each group over all specialties was the same. After this normalization, which was designed to give each group equal standing, despite their different numbers among the respondents, the various specialties were ranked according to the opinions of the experts in that specialty. Table 17 in this report shows, on the left, the rank ordering for basic research in the various specialties, corrected for familiarity in the specialties. These ratings were converted to a four-symbol scale, where xxx designates very high priority, xx high priority, x moderate priority, and a blank indicates low priority. These indicators are listed in the second column on the right of Table 17. The uncorrected data were analyzed in the same way, with the results shown in the first column on the right. The rank ordering by experts in each specialty is shown similarly in the third column. The relative priority levels for basic research in the specialties depended somewhat on the method of analysis. For example, among Processes, research in radiation treatment was rated as low priority by the method uncorrected for familiarity, but was rated as moderate priority after correcting for familiarity, and as very high priority by the experts in radiation treatment. It was felt that particular

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering significance should be attached to those cases in which the specialty was rated as very high priority both by the familiarity-corrected method and by the experts in that specialty. Such weighting is incorporated in the Overall Ratings listed in the fourth column on the right of Table 17. Comments were requested in the questionnaire on specific research topics that the respondents considered important for each specialty. These comments are summarized below for the top-priority specialties. Here the asterisk denotes topics that were mentioned very frequently. Properties of Materials Chemical and Electrochemical. *Corrosion, stress corrosion, and oxidation (in aqueous systems, biological media, and hot gases; of aluminum, titanium, iron and steel, ceramics, thin films, concrete, and refractories; role of surface states, defects, and impurities) *Catalysis (role of surface structure, impurities, free radicals, surface states and charges; nature of adsorption mechanisms) Flammability Electrochemical reactions Chemical stability Fundamental physics and chemistry of surfaces. Biological. *Biodegradability (bacterial corrosion mechanisms, role of fungi, enzymes, hyphae, etc., fundamental mechanisms of interaction of materials and the environment)

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering research, such as Concrete, Asphalt, and Wood. In these cases our fundamental understanding may not have advanced to the point where research opportunities are clearly discerned, even by experts in the field. Applied Research and Engineering The responses for Applied Research and Engineering were treated as for the Basic Research, except that, since the respondents claimed to be knowledgeable in the Areas of Impact they selected, the overall averages for each specialty were used, rather than dividing the responses into the four groups according to disciplines. For the Areas of Impact, including all Subareas, the uncorrected rankings, ranking corrected for familiarity, and the rankings by experts were averaged (giving more weight to the latter two ratings), in order to arrive at the Overall Rating for each specialty relative to each Area of Impact, as indicated in Table 15. Several specialties stand out with high-priority ratings almost across the board: Chemical properties, for example, are rated as high priority for basic research and for several impact areas. From the comments it is clear that this assessment is related in part to the pervasive problems of corrosion, oxidation, and degradation, and the limitations they set on materials applications. Mechanical properties also receive broad priority, as stronger and tougher materials are needed in nearly all fields of technology.

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering Of the materials classes, plastics received the highest overall priority rating, reflecting the rapidly-growing use of these materials in a wide range of applications. Table 15 also indicates the broad importance of composite materials, non-ferrous structural metals and alloys, ceramics and adhesives, coatings, finishes and seals. Under processes, testing was of the most widespread priority, with joining, polymer synthesis, and plastics extrusion and molding also rated high in many areas. Although the above specialties received the broadest priority ratings, in certain Areas of Impact other specialties were ranked of equal or greater importance. Biological properties, for example, received high ratings in the Environmental and Health areas. Semiconductors, glasses, prosthetic materials, and lubricants ranked high for specific impact areas, as did the processes of vapor deposition and chemical processing. It is obvious that the selected impact areas are very broad in scope. As a result, some specialties which rated low in particular impact areas were found to have high ratings in certain subareas. For instance, Electrical Properties were accorded only moderate priority in the area of Energy, but high ratings in the Subareas of Batteries and Fuel Cells, Direct Conversion, and Electrical Transmission and Distribution, and low ratings in the Subareas of Nuclear Reactors, Thermonuclear Fusion, and Turbines and Generators. The written comments of the respondents relating to needs in Applied Research and Engineering are summarized below. Only the comments on the specialties rated as “very high priority” or “high

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering priority” for Applied Research and Engineering in the various Areas of Impact are included here. Three asterisks indicate very high priority and two asterisks indicate high priority. Communications, Computers, and Control Properties ***Electrical: memories; solid state circuitry, large scale integration, display devices, Josephson devices, charge-coupled devices; miniaturization; reliability **Atomic Structure: perfection; quality of crystals; surface effects; electromigration; ion implantation **Microstructure (electron-microscopy level): defects in III-V and II-VI semiconductors; defects in crystals; films and epitaxy; interface imperfections; electromigration; yields; metallization **Optical: optical properties; displays, solid-state lasers; light-emitting diodes; nonlinear optical materials; optical communications; low loss optical fibers for optical communications; optical modulators; optical storage **Dielectric: high-voltage dielectrics; high temperature dielectrics; surface effects at semiconductor/insulator interfaces; encapsulation; better capacitors; substrates Materials ***Elemental and Compound Semiconductors: for electronic circuits; large-scale integration; for displays; for solid-state lasers; for semiconductor memory; variable bandgap; high-temperature semiconductors ***Thin Films: for large-scale integration; for light-emitting diodes; of II-VI compounds; control of metallization; thin-film memories; thin-film integrated optical devices; epitaxy; perfection of thin films; bubble memories **Ceramics: substrates, oxide layers, dielectrics; integrated optics; encapsulation; laser windows

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering **Glasses and Amorphous Materials: optical transmission; integrated optics; laser windows; amorphous semiconductors; radiation-hard switches; radiation damage; glass for passivation; glass/metal seals **Inorganic, Nonmetallic Elements and Compounds: electrooptic microelectronics; sensors; displays; modulators; detectors; bubble memories Processes ***Vapor and Electrodeposition, Epitaxy: yield and processing of large-scale integrated circuits; thin film quality; epitaxy; greater miniaturization; control of metallization ***Chemical: corrosion; compatibility in environment; contacts; connectors; doping; distribution of dopants; etching **Extraction, Purification, Refining: purification; synthesis; characterization; high purity optical glasses **Synthesis and Polymerization: encapsulants; conducting adhesives; coatings; seals **Solidification and Crystal Growth: larger, more perfect crystals; monolithic processing of III-V’s **Radiation Treatment: ion implantation; radiation damage **Plating and Coating: encapsulation; environmental protection Consumer Goods Materials ***Plastics: stronger plastics; wear resistance; less brittleness; non-flammable plastics; impact-resistant plastics; biodegradable plastics; high-impact foams; conducting plastics; semiconducting plastics **Adhesives, Coatings, Finishes, Seals: Resistant polymers and rubbers; corrosion protection; enamels; hot-water tank coatings; self-cleaning coatings for ranges; reduce permeability of packaging films; bonding; fastening; adhesive joining of fabrics

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering **Wood and Paper: Wet strength of corrugated paper; fireproof paper Processes ***Plastics Extrusion and Moldings: reinforced plastics; composites; shaping and forming; fabrication ease; colloid properties; improved fibers **Synthesis and Polymerization: composite processing; biodegradable polymers; improved cross-linking; molecular architecture for special properties; special visco-elastic properties; improve fiber strength by controlling molecular orientation Defense and Space Properties ***Mechanical and Acoustic: higher strength/weight; lightweight armor; high strength; mechanical properties of composites; high-temperature materials; fatigue; corrosion fatigue; crack propagation; high-temperature fatigue; creep resistance; fracture toughness; impact resistance; fatigue resistance; undersea equipment; materials for pressure hulls **Microstructure, Electron Microscope Level: dispersion hardening; microstructural stability; corrosion pitting; uniformity of mechanical properties; radiation-resistant materials; hydrogen compatibility Materials **Nonferrous Structural Metals and Alloys: improved mechanical properties of structural metals and alloys (see above) **Plastics: high-strength plastics; superstrength plastics for naval vessel superstructures; high-strength fibers **Composites: composites for ship construction; structural designs for composites; improved fracture toughness of composites; fatigue-resistant composites; dispersion-hardened alloys; reliability of composites

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering **Adhesives, Coatings, Finishes, Seals: high-temperature coatings; fabrication of metal-nonmetal systems; integrity of polymer adhesives; degradation of adhesive bonds; antifouling coatings for ships; coatings to reduce corrosion; low drag and low contamination paints; room-temperature curing adhesives; thermal-control coatings; ablation materials; cements; sealants for deep-sea equipment Processes **Joining: welding of titanium; weldable aluminum alloys; welding of dispersion-hardened alloys; joining of composites; adhesion mechanisms; seals for undersea repeaters **Testing and Nondestructive Testing: failure analysis; service life; failure prediction; nondestructive testing for welds Energy Properties ***Chemical: batteries; higher energy density; improved electrodes; lower weight; longer life; catalysts for batteries; new container materials for batteries; corrosion of cables, of heat exchangers, of turbine blades; radiation effects on corrosion; high-temperature corrosion **Atomic Structure: solid-state electrolytes; hydrogen embrittlement; super-conducting materials for power transmission **Microstructure (Electron Microscope Level): Radiation resistance; swelling; void formation; blistering; stability under high neutron fluxes; radiation-hard control equipment **Thermodynamic: combustion efficiency; thermoelectric power converters; magnetohydrodynamic conversion systems; electrohydrodynamic conversion systems **Mechanical and Acoustical: high-temperature materials for reactors, both for fuel containers and converters; lightweight conductors; high-temperature alloys for turbines; high-temperature bearings; creep; fracture toughness; high strength; toughness; notch sensitivity; fracture propagation in pipeline materials

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering Materials **Ceramics: high-temperature materials for burners; for plasma containment; high-voltage insulators; ceramics for turbine blades Processes **Testing and Nondestructive Testing: failure criteria; lifetime prediction; nondestructive testing of reactor components Environmental Quality Properties **Chemical: catalysts for automobile exhausts; pollution detection of control systems; improved, cleaner extraction processes; improved benefication of ores; recovery processes **Biological: air quality, water quality, land pollution; health hazards; noise; handling corrosive, toxic and dusty materials; biodegradable plastics Materials **Plastics: flammability; toxicity; reproducibility of properties; flame retardant; wear; recyclable polymers; scrap polymers used as fuels Processes **Extraction, Purification, Refining: improved extraction methods; improved incineration methods; recovery and recycling of wastes; control of pollution and environmental degradation caused by mining and extraction; develop sorting mechanisms and recovery procedures for scrap Health Services Properties ***Chemical: understand enzymes, proteins and nuclides; effects of drugs, stimulants and depressants; corrosion of implants; microbial corrosion; stress corrosion

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering ***Biological: biological response to implants; biocompatibility; rejection; toxicity; immunological response **Microstructure (Electron Microscope Level): adhesion; prosthesis/tissue interface; adhesion between implants and tissue **Mechanical and Acoustical: artificial bone, teeth, tissue, membranes and organs, better filling material for teeth; fatigue; wear; alloys for joints; high strength Materials ***Plastics: membranes; artificial teeth; dental adhesives; artificial heart valves; encapsulants for implants; containers for blood ***Prosthetic and Medical Materials: implants; artificial organs, bones, teeth, tissue and membranes; compatibility and biological response **Fibers and Textiles: membranes, fine wires, organ replacements **Rubbers: artificial organs, tissue, membranes **Composites: for implants; bone and tooth replacements; joints; pins; matching strength and stiffness **Organo- and Organometallic Compounds: prothesis-tissue interface; adhesion between bone and tissue; for implants Processes **Synthesis and Polymerization: dental adhesives; compatibility; interface between tissue and prosthesis **Plastics Extrusion and Molding: precision forming; controlled porosity; artificial organs; heart valves; membranes **Testing and Nondestructive Testing: quality control; methods to evaluate compatibility; characterization of properties of implants; chemical sensors and monitors

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering Housing and Other Construction Properties **Mechanical and Acoustical: low assembly costs; high stiffness and strength; improved “warmth” of plastics; effects of rolling loads on road surfaces; durability **Chemical: corrosion; atmospheric degradation; flammability; climate effects on pavement; thermal stability Materials **Plastics: develop plastics and easy fabrication methods for use in housing; plastic structures **Composites: multilayer panels; composites for structural uses; blended ceramics in liquid form; low cost; corrosion-resistant concrete; reinforcement composites to replace steel and concrete **Adhesives, Coatings, Finishes, Seals: sealants, new joining methods; improved enamel for plumbing Processes **Plastics Extrusion and Molding: low-cost polymer fabrication methods; new fabrication methods **Joining: prefabrication methods; joint materials for bridges Production Equipment Materials **Ferrous Metals and Alloys: harder dies; better cutting tools; better saws; rust resistance **Non-ferrous Structural Metals and Alloys: cold-forming metals; improved wear and fatigue properties **Lubricants, Oils, Solvents, Cleansers: tribology-lubricants; wear and abrasion resistance Processes **Testing and Nondestructive Testing: quality control; fatigue failures

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering Transportation Equipment Properties ***Mechanical and Acoustical: improved strength/weight for auto bodies and engines and for aircraft; fatigue; crack propagation; temperature cycling; impact resistance; wear of tires; energy-absorbing systems; better bearings **Microstructure (Electron Microscope Level): higher strength/weight; super alloys for engines; corrosion resistance; stress corrosion **Chemical: corrosion resistance; stress corrosion; corrosion fatigue; high-temperature oxidation; catalytic converters for automotive exhaust Materials ***Adhesives, Coatings, Finishes, Seals: Adhesives and sealants for aircraft; adhesives for automobile bodies, frames, and repairs; coatings for automobile mufflers; coatings for turbine blades; seals for gas turbines; seals for Wankel engines; refractory coatings ***Lubricants, Oils, Solvents, Cleansers: wear, abrasion resistance **Ferrous Metals and Alloys: improved strength/weight; improved high-temperature properties; corrosion resistance **Non-ferrous Structural Metals and Alloys: development of titanium and beryllium alloys; superalloys; high-temperature materials for turbine engines **Plastics: for automobile bodies; composites; higher strength/weight **Rubbers: wear and reliability of tires; fabrication processes for tires; castable tires; nondestructive testing for tires **Composites: develop composites for use in engine and bodies of automobiles and aircraft; joining metals Processes **Metal Deformation and Processing: more automation; improved casting; nondestructive testing evaluation; improved fabrication methods; new foundry processes; lower cost

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Materials and Man's Needs: Materials Science and Engineering **Heat Treatment: improved strength/weight; improved strength; high-temperature properties; warping and cracking during heat treatment **Material Removal: improved shaping methods; lower cost; more efficient methods **Joining: fasteners and bonding systems for aircraft and for automobiles; joining methods for composite materials