MATERIALS AND MAN’S NEEDS

MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VOLUME I

THE HISTORY, SCOPE, AND NATURE OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1975



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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering MATERIALS AND MAN’S NEEDS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING VOLUME I THE HISTORY, SCOPE, AND NATURE OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D.C. 1975

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering MATERIALS AND MAN’S NEEDS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING VOLUME I THE HISTORY, SCOPE, AND NATURE OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D.C. 1975

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering NOTICE MATERIALS AND MAN’S NEEDS SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (COSMAT) The content of this Supplementary Report is part of the basis for the Summary Report of the NAS Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering. In contrast to the Summary Report, however, the views expressed here are those of the various contributors and do not necessarily represent a consensus of COSMAT. Frontispiece: A schematic representation of the materials cycle, portraying its global nature and principal stages.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering PREFACE The Summary Report of the Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering (COSMAT) was published in the Spring of 1974. It was based on informational inputs generated by numerous committees, panels, and individuals. That background information has now been organized into this Supplementary Report, Volumes I to IV. In assembling this extensive resource, a complete editorial function was not attempted. Thus, occasional redundancies and overlaps as well as some unevenness in style and coverage will be noted. There will also be found views, and perhaps contradictions, that did not make their way into the Summary Report, inasmuch as the latter reflects a consensus of COSMAT. Nevertheless, we believe that it will prove useful to the science and engineering communities, as well as to others concerned with the broader implications of technology, to have available the rich store of information that was collected by COSMAT. We have organized the present Supplementary Report as follows: Volume I—The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering, containing Chapters 1, 2, and 3, is concerned mainly with tracing the history and evolution of materials technology, and of materials science and engineering in particular; also with describing the dimensions of the present role of materials in society; and with a study of the way in which materials science and engineering operates as a multidisciplinary field. Volume II—The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research begins, in Chapter 4, with a discussion of how materials research is related to various national goals or “areas of impact.” In Chapter 5, the results of a comprehensive survey of materials research priorities are presented, both for applied research related to these areas of impact and for basic research. Chapter 6 provides a description of several of the more prominent materials research opportunities, again both basic and applied. Volume III—The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering (Chapter 7) describes the industrial, governmental, academic, and professional activities in materials science and engineering in the U.S. In the industrial section, emphasis is given to illustrative descriptions of materials technologies and to the roles of materials scientists and engineers in various types of industry. The governmental section describes the ways in which the federal government is involved with the performance and support of materials science and engineering. The academic section contains detailed qualitative and quantitative information on the status and trends in university education and research both in “materials-designated” and “materials-related” departments and in materials research centers. In the professional section,

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering consideration is given to the characteristics and numbers of materials scientists and engineers, as well as to their professional activities and opportunities. Volume IV—Materials Technology Abroad (Chapter 8) deals with many facets of materials technology, as practiced in other countries. In collecting this information, it was often difficult, or even impossible, to delineate policies and practices specific to the materials field from those pertinent to science and technology in general, In such cases, the broader situation has been reviewed on the assumption that its applicability to the materials sphere is implicit. Volume IV surveys national policies and administrative structures for science and technology, education, R & D, institutions, technology-enhancement programs, technical achievements, and international cooperation. Much of the content revolves around the general theme of technological innovation. It is surely obvious from the magnitude of this Supplementary Report that COSMAT is enormously indebted to a wide diversity of committees and individual contributors, whose inputs and insights have proved so valuable. The COSMAT Panels, Committees, and Consultants are listed in the Summary Report. They and other individual contributors are also referred to in this Supplementary Report. COSMAT is deeply grateful to Marguerite Meyer, Beverly Masaitis, and Judy Trimble for their indefatigable efforts in the typing and assembling of these four volumes; theirs was a prodigious task, indeed. We are also most indebted to Amahl Shakhashiri for her careful editing of these volumes. And once again, COSMAT wishes to acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency in this undertaking, carried out under the aegis of the Committee on Science and Public Policy of the National Academy of Sciences. Morris Cohen, Chairman William O.Baker, Vice Chairman Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering September 1975

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (COSMAT) *Morris Cohen (Chairman) Massachusetts Institute of Technology *William O.Baker (Vice Chairman) Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. Donald J.Blickwede Bethlehem Steel Corporation Raymond F.Boyer Dow Chemical Company *Paul F.Chenea General Motors Corporation Preston E.Cloud University of California, Santa Barbara *Daniel C.Drucker University of Illinois Julius J.Harwood Ford Motor Company I.Grant Hedrick Grumman Aerospace Corporation Walter R.Hibbard, Jr. Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation *John D.Hoffman National Bureau of Standards Melvin Kranzberg Georgia Institute of Technology *Hans H.Landsberg Resources for the Future, Inc. Humboldt W.Leverenz RCA Laboratories, Inc. Donald J.Lyman University of Utah Roger S.Porter University of Massachusetts Rustum Roy Pennsylvania State University *Roland W.Schmitt General Electric Company Abe Silverstein Republic Steel Corporation Lawrence H.Van Vlack The University of Michigan Ex Officio Members *Harvey Brooks (as former Chairman, Committee on Science and Public Policy, NAS) Harvard University *N.Bruce Hannay (as Chairman, National Materials Advisory Board, National Research Council, NAS-NAE) Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. *Ernst Weber (as Chairman, Division of Engineering, National Research Council, NAS-NAE) National Academy of Sciences *   Members of the Executive Board Survey Directors Alan G.Chynoweth Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. S.Victor Radcliffe Case Western Reserve University

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering This page in the original is blank.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering MATERIALS AND MAN’S NEEDS Supplementary Report of the Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering Volume I The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering   Chapter 1; Materials and Society   Chapter 2: The Contemporary Materials Scene   Chapter 3; Materials Science and Engineering as a Multidiscipline Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research   Chapter 4; National Objectives and the Role of Materials Science and Engineering   Chapter 5: Priorities in Materials Research   Chapter 6: Opportunities in Materials Research Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering   Chapter 7: Industrial, Governmental, Academic, and Professional Activities in Materials Science and Engineering Volume IV Materials Technology Abroad   Chapter 8: Aspects of Materials Technology Abroad

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR VOLUME I Chapter Number Page Number 1   MATERIALS AND SOCIETY         INTRODUCTION   3     IMPORTANCE OF MATERIALS TO MAN   6     MATERIALS IN THE EVOLUTION OF MAN AND IN PREHISTORY   9     BRONZE AND IRON AGES   14     MATERIALS IN CLASSICAL CIVILIZATION   18     MEDIEVAL MATERIALS   20     THE START OF A SCIENTIFIC MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY BASED ON CHEMISTRY   27     THE NEW SCIENCE OF MATERIALS BASED ON STRUCTURE   36     THE NEW SCIENCE OF MATERIALS AND ITS RELATION TO PHYSICS   40     ENGINEERING ATTITUDES TOWARD MATERIALS IN THE 19th CENTURY   44     THE TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY   47     RECOGNITION OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING AS A COHERENT FIELD   50     GOVERNMENT SUPPORT OF MATERIALS RESEARCH   52     PERSPECTIVES ON MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   58 2   THE CONTEMPORARY MATERIALS SCENE         THE NATURE OF MATERIALS   67     THE NATURE OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   68     MATERIALS IN THE U.S. ECONOMY   69

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering     THE MATERIALS CYCLE AND THE ROLE OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   80     INNOVATION IN THE MATERIALS FIELD   83     The Materials Revolution   83     The Systems Approach   84     Science-Intensive and Experience-Based Technologies   85     Pace of Innovation   85     Disciplinary to Interdisciplinary   86     MATERIALS IN A CHANGING CONTEXT   87     Changing National Priorities   88     Materials Resources   89     Energy, Environment   92     The U.S. Trade Balance   92     Technology Assessment   93     The Federal Approach to Materials   93     NATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITY   95     Manpower   96     Trends in Basic and Applied Research   98     Government Support of Materials Science and Engineering   98     Universities   110     Materials Degrees   111     Research Funding   111     Industrial Research and Development   114

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering     OPPORTUNITIES FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   122     APPENDIX 2A PROFILE OF MANPOWER IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   124     Method of Analysis   124     The Engineers Register   125     The Science Register   139     Total Number of Materials Scientists and Engineers   149     Attachment 2A.1 Specialty Areas in the 1969 National Engineers Register with MSE Score Greater than 45   151     Attachment 2A.2 Specialty Areas from the 1968 National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel with MSE Score Greater Than 45   154 3   MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING AS A MULTIDISCIPLINE         MATERIALS, THE MATERIALS CYCLE, AND THE ROLE OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   163     INNOVATION IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   164     CHANGING CHARACTER OF MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY   166     Science-Intensive and Experience-Based Technologies   166     Relative Pace of Innovation   168     Disciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity, and Multidisciplinarity   169     DEFINITION OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   170     SOME ASPECTS OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   170

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering     Materials   170     Disciplines   171     Activities and Style   171     Relevance   172     ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   172     Some Past Achievements   172     Heatshield Design Problems   177     Transistors   177     Razor Blades   177     Synthetic Fibers   178     Textured Materials   178     Integrated Circuits   179     Aluminum Conductors   179     Polymer-Modified Concrete   179     TV Phosphors   180     Ceramic Oxides   180     Problems and Failures   180     CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   182     General   182     Nature of Materials Research   183     Nature of Materials Development, Design, and Engineering   186

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering     Systems Approach to Materials Development   187     Technological Systems of Materials   187     Materials Cycle   188     Methodology   188     Contemporary Expansions of the Systems Approach   190     Multidisciplinary and Interdisciplinary Activities   190     COUPLING WITHIN THE FIELD OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   191     Loosely-Coupled Multidisciplinary Activities, Tightly-Coupled Interdisciplinary Activities   192     Factors Aiding Interdisciplinary Coupling in Materials Science and Engineering   193     Basic Theme and Concepts   194     Materials Preparation   194     Experimental Techniques and Instrumentation   195     Computers   195     Importance of Purpose   195     Institutional Aspects of Coupling   197     Departmental Composition   197     Geographical Barriers   197     Size of Organization   197     Member-of-the-Club Principle   198

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering     Some Human Aspects of Coupling   199     Key Individual   199     Personal Satisfaction   199     Nature of Groupings   200     Supervision of Group   200     Coupling Through Mobility of Personnel   201     Roadblocks to Effective Coupling   202     IMPLICATIONS OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING FOR UNIVERSITIES   202     Education in Materials Science and Engineering   202     University Research in Materials Science and Engineering   206     Funding and Reward Mechanisms   208     OUTPUTS OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   208     NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   210     Changing Nature of Materials Science and Engineering   210     Changing Industrial Scene for Materials Science and Engineering   211     Changing Societal Goals for Support-Base for Materials Science and Engineering   213     Opportunities for Materials Science and Engineering in Some Areas of Concern to Society   218     Resources, Substitutes, and Synthesis   218

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering     Materials for Housing and Urban Renewal   219     Environmental Quality   219     Materials Science and Engineering in Medicine and Biology   219     Energy   220     Diffusion of Materials Science and Engineering into Low-Technology Industries   220     MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING AND THE BROADER SCENE   221     CASE STUDIES OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING   222     Appendix 3A Heatshield Design Problems   222     Appendix 3B Discovery of the Transistor   229     Appendix 3C The Development of Coated Stainless Razor Blades   234     Appendix 3D Synthetic Fibers   236     Appendix 3E Textured Materials   241     Appendix 3F Integrated Circuits   243     Appendix 3G Aluminum Conductor Telephone Cables   248     Appendix 3H Polymer Latex-Modified Portland Cement   250     Appendix 3I Phosphors for TV   253     Appendix 3J Sintering of Ceramic Oxides, e.g. Lucalox   258     Appendix 3K Interdisciplinary Research—An Exploration of Public Policy Issues   259

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering LIST OF FIGURES FOR VOLUME I Figure Number Page Number CHAPTER 1. MATERIALS AND SOCIETY CHAPTER 2. THE CONTEMPORARY MATERIALS SCENE 2.1   Steel Mill Products, Physical Output, Actual and Deflated Average Unit Costs and Cost Proportions, 1899–1939.   76 2.2   Supply-Demand Relationship for Copper in 1969   78 2.3   Factors Involved in the Flow of Materials   82 2.4   Materials Utilization Shows Social and Technical Pressures on the Materials Scientist and Engineer   91 2.5   Research and Development Spending in the United States, 1953–72   100 2.6   Conduct of Federal Research and Development   101 2.7   Trends in Federal Basic and Applied Research   102 2.8   Direct Government Funding for Materials Research and Development   103 2.9   Percentage of Register Respondents in MSE vs. MSE Cutoff Score   126 CHAPTER 3. MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING AS A MULTIDISCIPLINE 3.1   Change with Time of Coupling Between Science and Engineering in the Materials Field   185 3.2   Example of Systems Engineering Applied to MSE Taken from OECD Report on “Problems and Prospects of Fundamental Research in Selected Scientific Fields—Materials.”   189 3.3   Key Integrated-Circuit Developments, 1958–1971   247

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering LIST OF TABLES FOR VOLUME I Table Number Page Number CHAPTER 1. MATERIALS AND SOCIETY CHAPTER 2. THE CONTEMPORARY MATERIALS SCENE 2.1   Consumption of Selected Basic Materials in the U.S.   70 2.2   Distribution of National Income of the United States by Industry Category, 1965   71 2.3   Distribution of National Income of the United States within Selected Industry Categories, 1965   73 2.4   Selected Industry Components of the Gross National Product, 1971   74 2.5   U.S. Trade Balances in Illustrative Product Categories   94 2.6   Estimates of Manpower in Principal Disciplinary Sectors of Materials Science and Engineering   97 2.7   Distribution of Materials Scientists and Engineers by Category of Activity   99 2.8   Distribution of Federal Materials R&D Effort by Class of Materials   104 2.9   Distribution of Federal Materials R&D Effort by Research Activity   104 2.10   Distribution of Federal Materials R&D Effort by Performing Organization   104 2.11   Distribution of Federal Materials R&D Effort by Supporting Agency   105 2.12   Distribution of Federal Materials R&D Effort by Agency and Material for FY 1967 and 1971   106 2.13   Direct Federal Funding of Materials Research and Development by Agency, Type of Research, and Performer for FY 1971   108

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering 2.14   Direct Federal Funding of Materials Research and Development by Agency and Field of Materials for FY 1971   109 2.15   Distribution by Field of Science of Federal R&D Support to Universities for FY 1970   113 2.16   Distribution of Federal Agency Support for “Metallurgy and Materials” R&D at Universities for FY 1970   115 2.17   Proportion of Federal Agency Materials R&D Funds Allocated to Universities for FY 1970   116 2.18   Comparison of Federal Materials R&D Support at Universities Between “Materials Departments” and “Other Departments” for FY 1970   117 2.19   Industrial Research and Development (Includes federally-funded industrial R&D)   118 2.20   Industrial Research and Development as Percent of Sales   119 2.21   Federally-Financed Industrial Research and Development   120 2.22   Company-Funded Industrial Research and Development   121 2.23   Comparison of Materials Engineers with All Engineers   128 2.24   Society Membership   129 2.25   Percentage of Ph.D.’s Among Materials Engineers by Product Group   131 2.26   Principal Functions of Materials Engineering   132 2.27   Materials Engineers Receiving Government Support   133 2.28   Product or Service Related to Employment   135

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering 2.29   Leading Employment Specialties of MaterialsEngineers (%)   136 2.30   Leading Employment Specialties of Materials Engineers (Ph.D., %)   136 2.31   Some “Agreed” Areas of Technology and Science (MSE = 75) in Materials Engineering   137 2.32   Characteristics of Materials Engineers in Sixteen “Agreed” Areas of Technology and Science in Materials Engineering   138 2.33   Numbers of Materials Scientists, By Discipline   140 2.34   Leading Major Subjects of Highest Degree Among Materials Scientists   140 2.35   Leading Professional Identifications of Materials Scientists   141 2.36   Number of Materials Scientists with Selected Professional Identification   143 2.37   Criteria for Inclusion in the Science Register   144 2.38   Employment of Materials Scientists by Institution and Work Activity, 1968   146 2.39   Median Basic Annual Salary of Materials Scientists by Age and Type of Employer, 1968   147 2.40   Number of Materials Scientists in Specialty Areas from 1964 to 1970   148 2.41   Estimated Total Number of Materials Scientists and Engineers in the United States   150 2A.1   Specialty Areas in the 1969 National Engineers Register with MSE Score Greater Than 45   151 2A.2   Specialty Areas in the 1968 National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel with MSE Score Greater Than 45   154

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering CHAPTER 3. MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING AS A MULTIDISCIPLINE 3.1   Some Achievements in Materials Science and Engineering   173 3.2   Comparative Characteristics and Attributes of Some Disciplines Involved in MSE   204 3.3   Federal Funds for Total Research in Metallurgy and Materials Engineering in FY 1966 through 1971 (Est.)   215 3.4   Typical Reentry Environment Parameters for Reentry Vehicles Entering the Earth’s Atmosphere   224

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering This page in the original is blank.