CHAPTER 2

THE CONTEMPORARY MATERIALS SCENE*

*  

This chapter draws on the work of several of the COSMAT Panels, but particularly on that of the Data and Information Panel and its chairman, Robert I.Jaffee.



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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering CHAPTER 2 THE CONTEMPORARY MATERIALS SCENE* *   This chapter draws on the work of several of the COSMAT Panels, but particularly on that of the Data and Information Panel and its chairman, Robert I.Jaffee.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering This page in the original is blank.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering CHAPTER 2 THE CONTEMPORARY MATERIALS SCENE THE NATURE OF MATERIALS This report is concerned primarily with industrial materials that are used to make things—products like machines, devices and structures. Such materials are ubiquitous, so pervasive we often take them for granted. Yet they play a central role in much of our daily lives, in practically all manufacturing industries, and in much research and development in the physical and engineering sciences. Materials have a generality comparable to that of energy and information, and the three together comprise virtually all technology. Materials are basic to manufacturing and service technologies, to national security, and to national and international economies. The housewife has seen her kitchen transformed by progress in materials: vinyl polymers in flooring; stainless steel in sinks; Pyroceram and Teflon in cookware. The ordinary telephone contains in its not-so-ordinary components 42 of the 92 naturally-occurring elements. Polyethylene, an outstanding insulator for radar equipment, is but one of myriad materials vital to national defense. By one of several possible reckonings, production and forming of materials account for some 20% of the nation’s Gross National Product, but the number is deceptive; without materials we would have no Gross National Product. Man tends to be conscious of products and what he can do with them, but to take the materials in those products for granted. Nylon is known far better in stockings than as the polyamide engineering material used to make small parts for automobiles. The transistor is known far better as an electronic device, or as a pocket-size radio, than is the semiconducting material used in the device and its many relatives. Some materials produce effects far out of proportion to their cost or extent of use in a given application. Synthetic fibers, in the form of easy-care clothing, have worked startling changes in the lives of housewives. Certain phosphor crystals, products of years of research on materials that emit light when bombarded by electrons, provide color-television pictures at a cost of less than 0.5% of the manufacturing cost of the set. The properties of specific materials often determine whether a product will work or not. In manned space flight, ablative materials of modest cost are essential to the performance of the heat shield on atmospheric reentry vehicles. New or sharply improved materials are critical to progress in

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering energy generation and distribution. At the other extreme are home-building materials, whose properties, though important, need not be markedly improved to meet society’s goals in housing. Materials commonly serve a range of technologies and tend to be less proprietary than are the products made of them. Materials, as a result, are likely to offer more fruitful ground for research and development, including cooperative research and development, than are specific products. One example is fiberglass, which can be used for making pleasure boats, housing construction, and automobile bodies. Another example is certain “textured” materials, polycrystalline structures in which the alignment of neighboring crystals is determined by the processing steps employed. The ability thus to control crystal orientation grew out of research by physicists, metallurgists, and even mathematicians. The resulting improvements in properties are proving useful in a widening spectrum of applications. They include soft magnetic alloys for memory devices, oriented steels for transformers, high-elasticity phosphor bronze for electrical connectors, and steel sheet for automobile fenders, appliance housings and other parts formed by deep drawing. THE NATURE OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Materials science and engineering is a multidisciplinary activity that has emerged in recognizable form only during the past two decades. More specifically: Materials science and engineering is concerned with the generation and application of knowledge relating the composition, structure, and processing of materials to their properties and uses. The multidisciplinary character of materials science and engineering is evident in the educational backgrounds of the half-million scientists and engineers who, to varying extents, are working in the field. Only about 50,000 of them hold materials-designated degrees*; the rest are largely chemists, physicists, and nonmaterials-designated engineers. Many of these professionals still identify with their original disciplines rather than with the materials community. They are served by some 35 national societies and often must belong to several to cover their professional and technical needs. This situation is changing, if slowly. One recent indication was the formation of the Federation of Materials Societies in 1972. Of the 17 broadly-based societies invited to join, nine had done so by October, 1973. Materials are exceptionally diverse. Correspondingly, the scope of materials science and engineering spans metals, ceramics, semiconductors, dielectrics, glasses, polymers, and natural substances like wood, fibers, *   We define a “materials-designated degree” as one containing in its title the name of a material or a material process or the word “materials.” Examples include metallurgy, ceramics, polymer science or engineering, welding engineering, and materials science or engineering. Thus far, virtually all materials-designated degrees are in metallurgy or ceramics.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering sand, and stone. For COSMAT purposes, we exclude certain substances that in other contexts might be called “materials.” Typical of these are food, drugs, water, and fossil fuels. Materials as we define them have come increasingly to be classified by their function as well as by their nature; hence biomedical materials, electronic materials, structural materials. This blurring of the traditional classifications reflects in part our growing if imperfect ability to custom-make materials for the specific functions required of them. MATERIALS IN THE U.S. ECONOMY The United States, with about 6 percent of the world’s population, consumes from 25 to 50 percent of the world’s output of resources. The American people have become accustomed to a great variety and quantity of material goods from a resource base which may be diminishing. Private industry, our society’s instrument for providing these material goods, has evolved a remarkably successful producing system to keep pace with ever growing product demand. World trade and improved technology are both parts of this system. Our country must export products to pay for the raw materials imports. And it is through continued scientific and technological progress to improve the efficiency of materials use that we compete successfully in world product markets. About 20 percent of our Gross National Product originates in the extraction, refining, processing, and forming of materials into finished goods other than food and fuel. All materials pass through a number of stages in their economic utilization. At each stage, value is added and cost is incurred to pay for energy, production and research, manpower, administration, and finally disposal and recycling costs. The primary instrument generally used in our society for implementing this utilization of materials is private industry. Competing in the market place under ground rules established by society through its governmental bodies, private industry attempts to minimize the cost of materials utilization in order to produce quality goods that satisfy its customers, and to provide a reasonable return on investment to its owners. The consumption of basic materials in the U.S. has been growing steadily (Table 2.1), along with the population and standard of living. Another measure of the impact of materials on the economy is manufacturing employment related to materials, which was just over 16 million in 1970, or about 21% of total employment. A third measure of the importance of materials in the nation is their contribution to the National Income or to the Gross National Product1. Table 2.2 indicates the main industrial categories contributing to the former and 1   The National Income and Product Accounts of the United States, 1929–1965. Office of Business Economics, U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, B.C., 1966.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering TABLE 2.1 Consumption of Selecteda Basic Materials in the U.S. (Millions of Tons)   1950b 1971b   1950b 1971b Aluminum 1.3 5.5 Clays 39.5 55.1 Calcium N.A. 90.3 Gypsum 11.4 15.7 Copper 2.0 2.4 Pumice 0.7 3.5 Iron 94.5 122.2 Sand and gravel 370.9 987.7 Lead 1.4 1.3 Stone, crushed N.A. 823.0 Magnesium N.A. 1.1 Stone, dimension N.A. 1.8 Manganese 1.1 1.2 Talc 0.6 1.1 Phosphorus 1.7 5.1 …   Potassium 1.2 4.5 Agricultural fibers N.A. 2.1 Sodium N.A. 19.0 Forest products N.A. 237.0 Sulfur 6.8 12.4 Plastics 1.0 10.0 Zinc 1.1 1.2   aCommodities used in excess of 1 million tons in 1971. Totals include government stockpiling, industry stocks, and exports. Foods and fuels are not included. b1950 actual; 1971 estimated. Source: First Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior under the Mining and Minerals Policy Act of 1970, March 1972. Figures for agricultural fibers, forest products, and plastics compiled by COSMAT from various sources.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering TABLE 2.2 Distribution of National Incomea of the United States by Industry Category–1965 Category Percentage Share Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries 3.76 Mining 1.15 Contract Construction 5.06 Manufacturing 30.48 Transportation 4.10 Communication 1.99 Electric, Gas, and Sanitary Services 2.08 Wholesale and Retail Trade 14.95 Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate 10.91 Services 11.27 Government and Government Enterprises 13.46 Rest of the World 0.76   99.97 National Income for 1965=$559,020 million (all industry total) Gross National Product for 1965=$681,207 million aData computed from statistical tables in The National Income and Product Accounts for the United States, 1929–1965, Office of Business Economics U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1966.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering their distribution in 1965. The two categories of Mining and Manufacturing relate primarily to materials, and it can be seen that they contribute some 31.6% to the National Income. An additional amount arises from the 3.76% represented by Agriculture, Forestry,and Fisheries. The specific contribution of materials in the above categories is strongly concentrated in particular subcategories. Table 2.3 and the corresponding Table 2.4 for GNP in 1971 show the distribution among the principal subcategories; those relating primarily to materials are metal-mining, mining and quarrying of nonmetallic materials, paper and allied products, rubber and miscellaneous plastic products, leather and leather products, lumber and wood products, stone, clay and glass products, primary metal industries, and fabricated metal products. These operations on materials account for perhaps one-tenth of the nation’s consumption of fuels. While the above groups alone constitute a significant portion—some 9%–of the National Income, there are additional and major materials contributions in most of the other manufacturing subcategories which cannot be separated in terms of their share of the National Income. The difficulty stems from the nature of this measure of economic activity, which is the aggregate earnings of labor and property that arise in the current production of goods and services by the nation’s economy, i.e. the total factor costs of the goods and services produced by the economy. An alternative economic approach that might be adapted to give better insight into the contributions of materials is the modeling of the structure of an economic system by “input-output” or “inter-industry” analysis originated by W.W.Leontief of Harvard University. The technique describes the production process in a given industry in terms of a detailed accounting of its purchases from other industries, i.e. its inputs of raw and semifinished materials, components, and services. The complete record of inter-industry transactions described in this way within the entire economy is displayed as a square-matrix or input-output table. This method has been used to identify the primary materials component of the economy in the sense discussed above, but only partially separates materials in the various manufacturing areas. In any case, the analysis is still concerned with economic value, whereas many of the questions and problems associated with materials flow are concerned with mass or volume rather than value alone. Despite these limitations for the present purpose, some results of particular interest concerning materials have arisen from the application of the technique carried out by Carter2 in which structural changes in the U.S. economy arising from changes in technology were analyzed by comparing input-output tables prepared for two different years–1947 and 1958. The results show strikingly the relative increase over this period in “nonmaterial” or “general” inputs (these include energy, communications, trade, packaging, maintenance construction, real estate, finance, insurance and other services, printing and publishing, business machines and information technologies) that are largely balanced by relative decreases in the input of 2   A.P.Carter, Structural Changes in the U.S. Economy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1970.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering TABLE 2.3 Distribution of National Income of the United States within Selected Industry Categories–1965 A. MINING CATEGORY ($6,432 million=1.15% National Income)   SUBCATEGORY SHARE OF CATEGORY (PERCENTAGE)   Metal Mining 15.93 (0.18)a     Coal Mining 21.16 (0.24)     Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas 43.14 (0.50)     Mining and Quarrying of Nonmetallic Materials 19.76 (0.23)     100.0   B. MANUFACTURING CATEGORY ($170,408 million=30.48% National Income)   SUBCATEGORY SHARE OF CATEGORY (PERCENTAGE)   Nondurable Goods:     Food and Kindred Products 8.50 (2.59)       Tobacco Manufacturers 0.70 (0.21)       Textile Mill Products 3.44 (1.05)       Apparel and Other Fabricated Textile Products 3.85 (1.17)       Paper and Allied Products 3.36 (1.02)       Printing, Publishing, and Allied Industries 5.06 (1.54)       Chemicals and Allied Products 7.24 (2.20)       Petroleum Refining and Related Industries 2.97 (0.71)       Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastic Products 2.34 (0.71)       Leather and Leather Products 1.07 (0.33)     38.53 (11.74)   Durable Goods:     Lumber and Wood Products, except Furniture 2.42 (0.74)       Furniture and Fixtures 1.67 (0.51)       Stone, Clay, and Glass Products 3.40 (1.04)       Primary Metal Industries 8.65 (2.64)       Fabricated Metal Products 6.65 (2.03)       Machinery, except Electrical 10.77 (3.82)       Electrical Machinery 8.34 (2.54)       Transportation Equipment and Ordnance, except Motor Vehicles 6.78 (2.07)       Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment 8.53 (2.60)       Instruments 2.58 (0.78)       Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 1.68 (0.51)     61.47 (18.74)   100.0 a Figures in parentheses indicate the subcategory share as a percentage of the total National Income.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering TABLE 2.4 Selected Industry Components of the Gross National Product (1971) (1971 GNP=$1,050,356 million)   Millions % of GNP Metal Mining $ 1,290 0.12 Mining and Quarrying of Nonmetallic Metals 1,654 0.16 Stone, Clay, and Glass Products 8,710 0.83 Primary Metal Industries 18,923 1.80 Fabricated Metal Products 16,427 1.56 Machinery, except Electrical 26,066 2.48 Electrical Machinery 22,388 2.13 Transportation Equipment, except Motor Vehicles 14,582 1.39 Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment 22,824 2.17 Instruments 6,456 0.61 Miscellaneous Manufacturing Industries 4,144 0.39 Chemicals and Allied Products 20,387 1.94 Rubber and Miscellaneous Plastic Products 7,371 0.70 Lumber and Wood Products, except Furniture 6,395 0.61 Furniture and Fixtures 3,984 0.38 Paper and Allied Products 9,357 0.89 Textile Mill Products 8,234 0.78 Apparel and Other Fabricated Textile Products 9,293 0.88 Leather and Leather Products 2,219 0.21   $210,704 20.03   Source: U.S. Department of Commerce

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering materials and semifinished goods. Thus, the iron and steel sectors declined relatively some 27% (despite substantial growth in absolute terms), reflecting substitution by aluminum and plastics together with design changes to reduce the total amount of metal used by taking advantage of the improvements developed in steel properties and performance. A relative decline of 23% in nonferrous metals is the balance resulting from increased use of aluminum and the decreased use of other nonferrous metals. In addition to the relative decline of the materials inputs (which basically represents a more efficient use of materials), Carter shows that “the classical dominance of single kinds of material—metals, stone, clay and glass, wood, natural fibers, rubber, leather, plastics and so on—in each kind of production has given way by 1958 to increasing diversification of the bill of materials consumed by each industry. This development comes from interplay between keenly competitive refinement in the qualities of material and design backward from end-use specifications.” These interpretations of the influence of technological change appear to be in keeping with the results of a different type of economic analysis involving materials flows reported recently for an earlier period by Gold.3 For a variety of manufacturing industries, the influence of technological innovation over the 40-year period through 1939 was found not to be directly detectable in the proportioning among deflated unit costs (materials, wages, and salaries, and other costs plus profits) over this long-time series. The horizontal trend exhibited by the data (for steel-mill products in Figure 2.1) shows that the proportions of the cost components have remained approximately constant, despite the introduction of specific technological advances at known points in time. These observations do not mean an absence of benefits from technological progress, but rather that such progress was so pervasive in the economy at large that advances in a given industry simply maintained its competitive position with other industries. On this basis, the innovations have directly benefited consumers of a given industry’s products (in effect, much of the economic gain has been passed on to them), but have not provided much competitive advantage beyond that of effective survival in a given market. The preceding discussion has indicated some of the principal economic measures and models for materials flows. An important contribution in relating these economic factors to the associated bulk flows is provided by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in an Analysis of the supply-demand relationships for mineral resources and commodities. In their 1970 report4 which covers 3   B.Gold, Exploration in Managerial Economics—Productivity, Costs, Technology and Growth, MacMillan Company, London, 1971. 4   Mineral Facts and Problems, Fourth Edition, Bureau of Mines Bulletin No. 650, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1970.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering TABLE 2.41 Estimated Total Number of Materials Scientists and Engineers in the United States Ceramists 10,000 Metallurgists 40,000 Other Engineers 400,000* Physicists 15,000 Chemists 50,000 TOTAL 515,000 * On a full-time equivalent basis, the 400,000 engineers shown here would be reduced to 200,000 approximately. The other figures in this table are already full-time equivalents, making the total MSE manpower in the U.S. equal to 315,000.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering ATTACHMENT 2A.1 Specialty Areas in the 1969 National Engineers Register with MSE Score Greater Than 45 Specialty Area MSE Score I. Metallurgical Group —   1. Metallurgy, general 100   2. Metallurgy, physical 99   3. Metallurgy, powder 98   4. Metallurgy, process 92   5. Metallurgy, extractive 82   6. Casting 82   7. Welding 74   8. Benefication, ore processing 59 II. Chemical and Materials Group —   1. Materials properties 96   2. Crystals, crystallography 94   3. Materials applications 93   4. Corrosion 90   5. Coating, plating, cladding 79   6. Filament technology 68   7. Thermochemistry 68   8. Electrochemistry 62   9. Fuel cells 58   10. Chemical applications 55 III. Heat, Light, and Applied Physics Group —   1. Solid state 87   2. Thermodynamics 80   3. Insulation, thermal 74   4. Thermophysics 70   5. High temperature 68   6. Physics 65   7. Applied physics 63   8. Cryogenics 58   9. Ultrasonics 53   10. Heat transfer 51

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering Specialty Area MSE Score IV. Engineering Process and Application Group —   1. Forming, shaping 76   2. Fastening, joining 70   3. Materials handling 62   4. Refining 57   5. Processes 45 V. Work Management and Evaluation Group —   1. Nondestructive tests 70   2. Testing, laboratory 61   3. Radiography, x-rays 54   4. Specifications, standards 49   5. Product engineering 43*   6. Production methods 43*   7. Quality control 41* VI. Dynamics and Mechanics Group —   1. Friction 75   2. High pressure 66   3. Lubrication 60   4. Vacuum technology 57   5. Kinetics 54   6. Mechanical applications 54   7. Mechanics 51   8. Mass transfer 49   9. Propulsion 49 VII. Electromagnetic Group —   1. Dielectrics 79   2. Magnetics, magnetism 74   3. Insulation, electrical 73   4. Superconductivity 72   5. Photoelectricity 52   6. Electronic applications 51   7. Electrical applications 43* * These specialties were regarded as sufficiently important to be included even though their MSE scores were somewhat below 45.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering Specialty Area MSE Score VIII. Environmental and Structural Group —   1. Concrete technology 69   2. Structures 55   3. Rock mechanics 48   4. Solid waste 47 IX. Automation and Control Group —   1. Instrumentation 51 X. Information Mathematics —   1. Stress analysis 68   2. Mathematics 48

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering ATTACHMENT 2A.2 Specialty Areas in the 1968 National Register of Scientific and Technical Personnel with MSE Score Greater Than 45 Specialty Area MSE Score I. Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences —   A. Geochemistry     1. Mineral synthesis and stability relations of minerals 66   B. Geology     1. Mineralogy and crystallography 77   C. Solid-Earth Geophysics     1. Physical properties of natural materials 77 II. Chemistry —   A. Analytical     1. Electron microscopy 91     2. Mass spectroscopy 77     3. Fluorimetry, phosphor imetry, and infrared and Raman spectroscopy 74     4. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy 74     5. Electrochemical analysis 67     6. Spectrochemical analysis 66     7. Absorption spectroscopy 64     8. Microchemical analysis 64     9. Neutron activation 63     10. Chemical microscopy 61     11. Chromatography 58     12. Extraction analysis 50     13. Nucleonics and radiochemistry 49   B. Inorganic —     1. Inorganic materials useful as solid-state electronic devices, semiconductors, etc. 99     2. Structure of inorganic compounds, crystallography, spectroscopy, etc . 94     3. Inorganic polymers 91     4. Synthesis of inorganic materials 91     5. Boron and silicon compounds; asbestos, clay, glass, etc. 89

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering Specialty Area MSE Score     6. Equilibrium and thermo dynamic relationships in inorganic systems 89     7. Theoretical inorganic chemistry, ligand field theory, molecular orbital theory, ionic model, theory of metals, etc. 82     8. Electropositive elements and their compounds (alkalies and alkaline earths, building products, etc.) 80     9. Mechanisms of inorganic reactions; reaction kinetics 79     10. Transition elements 79     11. Inner transition elements 70     12. Coordination compounds 68     13. Electron deficient compounds; boron hydrides, metal alkyles, etc. 64     14. Organometallic compounds 60     15. Nonmetals; halogen, oxygen, and nitrogen families; high-energy oxidizers 53     16. Nuclear chemistry and radio chemistry 52     17. Hydrogen and hydrides, high-energy fuels 50   C. Organic —     1. Polymers 92     2. Protective coatings 88     3. Plastics and synthetic resins 85     4. Rubber 85     5. Elastomers and related products 80     6. Wood, paper, cellulose 74     7. Adhesives 72     8. Cellular plastics 71     9. Nuclear magnetic resonance 68     10. Transition and noble metals in synthesis, catalysis, etc. 65     11. Mass spectroscopy 63     12. Reaction mechanisms, additions, eliminations, substitutions 63     13. Organometallics; boron, aluminum, tin, lead, etc. 61     14. Reaction mechanisms; rearrangements 61     15. Textiles and related products 57     16. Structure of organic molecules 55

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering Specialty Area MSE Score     17. Organometallics; alkali and alkaline earth derivatives 52     18. Fluorine compounds 50     19. Organosilicon chemistry 45   D. Physical —     1. Crystallography 98     2. Polymers in bulk; morphology, phase transitions, rheology, and mechanical properties 95     3. Solid-state chemistry 91     4. Chemical and phase equilibria 88     5. Thermodynamics and thermochemistry 85     6. Catalysis and surface chemistry 83     7. Electrochemistry 82     8. High-temperature chemistry 82     9. Molecular structure 78     10. Energy transfer and relaxation processes 74     11. Quantum and valence theory 72     12. Statistical mechanics 71     13. Fused salts 69     14. Chemical kinetics; liquid phase 61     15. Colloid chemistry 60     16. Liquid state and solutions; electrolytes and non-electrolytes 59     17. Molecular spectroscopy 58     18. Ion exchange and membrane phenomena 57     19. Nuclear and radiochemistry 57   E. Others in Related Chemical Specialties —     1. Materials 100     2. Metallurgy 100     3. Corrosion and preservation 87     4. Adsorption and absorption 65     5. Electrochemical operations 64     6. Mass transfer 58     7. Mechanical separation 55     8. Instrumentation 54     9. Measurement and control 53     10. Quality control and standards 51     11. Chemical separation 49

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering Specialty Area MSE Score     12. Heat transfer 49     13. Mixing 48 III. Physics —   A. Acoustics     1. Mechanical vibrations and shock 56   B. Atomic and Molecular Physics —     1. Chemical bonds and structure 88     2. Electron paramagnetic resonance 74     3. Molecular structure and spectra 72     4. Nuclear magnetic resonance 70     5. Mass spectroscopy 63     6. Atomic structure and spectra 62     7. Impact and scattering phenomena 51     8. Atomic, ionic, and molecular beams 46   C. Electromagnetism —     1. Electron microscopy, ion optics 81     2. Magnetism 81     3. X-ray phenomena 72     4. X-ray technology 72     5. X-ray interactions 65     6. Physical electronics 51     7. Quantum electronics 61     8. Masers and such devices 59   D. Electronics —     1. Semiconductor devices 47     2. Solid-state electronics 47   E. Mechanics —     1. Elasticity 87     2. Friction 81     3. High-pressure physics 76     4. Impact phenomena 69     5. Instruments and measurements 60

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering Specialty Area MSE Score   F. Nuclear —     1. Radiation effects 63     2. Radioactive materials, isotopes 52   G. Optics —     1. Properties of thin films 92     2. Optical materials 83     3. Spectroscopy 68     4. Lasers 65     5. Infrared phenomena 54     6. Fiber optics 51   H. Fluids —     1. Rheology (including plastic flow) 89     2. Transport phenomena, diffusion 75     3. Structure and properties of fluids 61     4. Viscosity 52   I. Solid State —     1. Ceramics 100     2. High polymers and glasses 99     3. Dislocations and plasticity 98     4. Semiconductors 96     5. Cooperative phenomena 94     6. Thin films 94     7. Electrical properties of surfaces and junctions 92     8. Lattice effects and diffusion 92     9. Dielectrics (including fluids) 91     10. Dynamics of crystal lattices 91     11. Ferromagnetism 91     12. Internal friction 89     13. Optical properties 88     14. Piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity 88     15. Surface structure and kinetics 88     16. Thermal conduction in solid state 87     17. Paramagnetism and diamagnetism 86     18. Quantum mechanics of solids 84     19. Radiation damage 84

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering Specialty Area MSE Score     20. Luminescence 82     21. Superconductivity 82     22. Photoconductivity and related phenomena 81     23. Electron emission 80     24. Photoelectric phenomena 80     25. Resonance phenomena 80   J. Thermal —     1. Thermodynamics 82     2. Thermal properties 82     3. Thermodynamic relations, equations of state 79     4. High-temperature physics 69     5. Thermodynamic tables 67     6. Low-temperature physics 66     7. Calorimetry 66     8. Heat transmission 61     9. Temperature and its measurement 55   K. Other Physics Specialties —     1. Physical metallurgy 100     2. Physical properties of materials 100     3. Quantum mechanics 61     4. Mössbauer effect 60     5. Statistical mechanics 60     6. High-vacuum techniques 59     7. Constants, standards, units, metrology, conversion factors 58     8. Energy-conversion problems 54     9. Kinetic theory 50

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume 1 The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering This page in the original is blank.