CHAPTER 5

PRIORITIES IN MATERIALS RESEARCH*

*  

This chapter, which is primarily the work of Kenneth A.Jackson and A.G. Chynoweth, is based entirely on the many hundreds of replies to a questionnaire which was devised by COSMAT Panel VI and sent out to a large selection of scientists and engineers representative of the field of materials science and engineering.



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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research CHAPTER 5 PRIORITIES IN MATERIALS RESEARCH* *   This chapter, which is primarily the work of Kenneth A.Jackson and A.G. Chynoweth, is based entirely on the many hundreds of replies to a questionnaire which was devised by COSMAT Panel VI and sent out to a large selection of scientists and engineers representative of the field of materials science and engineering.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research This page in the original is blank.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research CHAPTER 5 PRIORITIES IN MATERIALS RESEARCH COSMAT PRIORITY SURVEY As part of the COSMAT study of the field of Materials Science and Engineering, a survey of various professionals in the field was conducted. The purpose of this survey was to gather information on areas of priority for basic and applied research. The breadth and scope of the responses was impressive. Materials are so diversely used in our society that no one person or indeed any small group of people could have information on the variety of materials and their uses which were present in the responses to the survey. The survey has succeeded admirably in obtaining a broad-based assessment of the current state-of-the-art for the wide range of materials, properties, processes and disciplines which make up Materials Science and Engineering. This chapter is a detailed report on the responses to the Survey. The survey solicited some broad overall assessments but took into account the fact that few people have detailed knowledge of the whole spectrum of Materials Science activity. The Survey therefore asked for detailed responses only in a few areas selected by the respondee. The questionnaire was designed so that various cross correlations and sub-groupings of the responses could be selected for analysis. The survey was divided into two main parts: One of these asked for an assessment of priorities for Basic Research; the other part, for Applied Research and Engineering. In this latter part, the priorities will depend on the area of intended application, which were grouped into nine major areas of impact. Each area of impact was in turn subdivided into various sub-areas of impact, and the respondees were asked to rate priorities in up to five of these. As will be seen from the responses below, priorities differ widely from one area of impact to another and even amongst the sub-areas. In addition to providing a numerical rating of priorities, the respondees also provided comments on various areas of importance. These comments are also presented here to supplement the numerical ratings.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research The Questionnaire The questionnaire was accompanied by a cover letter, signed by M.Cohen and W.O.Baker, a copy of which is included in Appendix 5A. The instruction sheet for filling out the questionnaire, and the list of Areas and Sub-areas of Impact are also in Appendix 5A. The questionnaire (also included in Appendix 5A) began (page 1) by asking for a ranking on a 1 to 5 scale of the overall importance of Materials Science and Engineering to each area of impact. On page 2, the respondees were asked to select up to five sub-areas of impact, with which they were familiar, and to list materials problems which they judged of critical importance in each. These responses are summarized below. The respondees were then asked to rate priorities for each of the subareas selected on page 2 according to Properties of Materials (page 3), Classes of Materials (page 4), Processes for Materials (page 5) and Disciplines and Sub-disciplines in the Field of Materials Science and Engineering (page 6). They were also asked to rate their familiarity with each Property, Material, Process and Discipline. A rating of level of priority for Basic Research for each Property, Material and Process was requested on the right hand side of pages 3, 4 and 5, along with a brief statement of the nature of the basic research. The last page of the questionnaire asked for personal information for statistical purposes. Some 2800 copies of the questionnaire were mailed, using the names on the lists which are included in Appendix 5A. These lists were chosen in order to obtain a broad but in-depth coverage of Materials Science and Engineering. In all, 555 useful questionnaires were returned. Each respondee was asked to provide up to 451 answers or rankings, which would require an hour or more to do. Not all of these were completely filled in. The responses were computerized for analysis. A rating scale was adopted to determine the average response to a question. The questionnaire asked for responses on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 indicated great importance and 5 indicated little importance. The responses of this type have been converted to a 0 to 100 scale, where 100 corresponds to all responses being “1” and 0 corresponds to all responses being “5”. The rating number used to report these responses is given by: where <1> is the number of “1” responses, <2> is the number of “2” responses and so on. Blank responses were not counted.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research The Respondees On the last page of the questionnaire personal information about the respondees was requested for statistical purposes, to provide information about the background of those who responded to the questionnaire. A summary of the responses to the personal information is shown in Table 5.1a. Most of the respondees have Ph.D.’s and are over forty years old. The respondees are fairly uniformly distributed between academia, government laboratories and industrial laboratories with a much smaller fraction being in non-profit organizations and “other”. Most of the people are engaged in research or in technical management but there is also a good representation of teachers and those engaged in development or engineering work as well as a significant number in general management. The respondees could check more than one category in this section, so the totals exceed the total number of respondees. About half of the managers have between 10 and 100 people reporting to them with about a quarter of them having less than 10 and a quarter having more than 100 people reporting to them. The discipline in which the respondees obtained their highest degree are shown in Table 5.1b, according to the responses which they wrote in. These have been divided into four main groups, the largest of which can be called Metallurgy but includes Physical Metallurgy, Earth Sciences, Ceramics and the newer discipline of Materials Science. The next largest group is Physics followed by Chemistry and the fourth category is Engineering which includes a variety of engineers. The average age and educational level of the respondees are as expected in view of the lists which were used for mailing the questionnaire. The respondees typically have advanced scientific training and have reached a fairly mature stage of their careers. They are fairly evenly divided amongst the disciplines of Physics, Chemistry, Metallurgy and Engineering. This seems to be a fairly typical distribution for those involved in Materials Science and Engineering. We believe this cross section and this group of people to be fairly optimal for assessing the current priorities in Materials Science and Engineering.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research TABLE 5.1a Personal Information Highest Degree: None 0, Bachelor 62, Master 78, Ph.D. 379. Age Bracket: Under 30 5, 30–39 74, 40–49 214, 50 & up 262. Employment: a) Type of Institution: Academic 187, Government 120, Industrial 215, Non-Profit 16, Other 17. b) Type of Activity: Teaching 181, Research 350, Development or Engineering 122, Technical Management 262, General Management 76, Other 52. Number of Personnel reporting to you (if a management category were checked): Less than 10 80, 10–100 163, over 100 81.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research TABLE 5.1b Discipline of Highest Degree Discipline Number of Responses Chemistry 43   95 Analytical Chemistry 1 Physical Chemistry 43 Inorganic Chemistry 2 Organic and Polymer Chemistry 3 Solid State Chemistry 1 Polymer Processing 2 Physics 129   153 Solid State Physics 14 Applied Physics 4 Chemical Physics 6 Metallurgy 60   172 Mining, Geology, Geochemistry, Mineralogy 10 Earth Sciences 1 Physical Metallurgy 14 Ceramics, Ceramics Engineering, Glass 44 Metallurgical Engineering 31 Materials Science 12 Engineering 2   71 Mechanical Engineering 20 Electrical, Electronic Engineering 12 Aerospace 3 Civil and Environmental Engineering 9 Wood Technology 4 Chemical Engineering 21 Physiology 1   8 Industrial Management 3 Political Science 1 Zoology 1 Economics 2

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research Overall Importance of Materials Science and Engineering The first page of the questionnaire asked for the “overall importance of Materials Science and Engineering” to each Area of Impact. The responses are summarized in Table 5.2a. The number of “1” (very high), “2” (high) responses etc. are indicated, as well as the corresponding rating on the 0–100 scale in the right-hand column. TABLE 5.2a Overall Response   Number of Responses   Area of Impact 1 2 3 4 5 Rating 10 COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS, AND CONTROL 298 185 68 14 2 84 20 CONSUMER GOODS 41 107 257 141 27 50 30 DEFENSE AND SPACE 366 165 41 3 2 89 40 ENERGY 329 187 53 4 4 1 50 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 84 157 214 91 22 58 60 HEALTH SERVICES 54 165 227 91 30 55 70 HOUSING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION 54 110 227 145 38 50 80 PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 30 110 259 141 28 49 90 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 65 202 216 72 16 60

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research The responses can be grouped as: TABLE 5.2b Overall Importance of Materials Science and Engineering to Each Area of Impact Very Important Defense and Space Energy Communications, Computers, and Control Moderate Transportation Equipment Environmental Quality Health Services Low Housing and Other Construction Consumer Goods Production Equipment In Tables 5.3a through 5.3f, the responses of various sub-groups (selected using the personal data on the last page of the questionnaire) are presented. The number in parentheses above each category indicates the number of people in the group. There are minor variations in these various Tables. These are indicated by “+” of “–” for a greater than 1σ deviation from the mean, and by “++” or “––” for a greater than 2σ deviation from the mean. Although few significant trends have been detected, some specific comments can be made. The responses from people with bachelors and masters degrees rate Communications lower than the larger group of Ph.D.’s and they also rate Production Equipment higher. This may reflect different interests of the two groups. In Table 5.3b, the Chemists are higher than average on Consumer Goods, Health Services, and low on Communications and Energy. The Physicists are high on Communications, low on Production and Transportation Equipment. Again these and other minor differences tend to reflect the interests of the group. In Table 5.3c, the under-30 age group is small but the indicated differences from the other groups are statistically significant. The 30–39 age group rated Housing and Other Construction higher than average and gave a lower than average rating for Production Equipment. The 40–49 age group gave a low rating to Health Services, Housing and Other Construction and to Production Equipment. The over-50 age group gave a higher than average rating to Defense and Space, to Environmental Quality, to Production Equipment and to Transportation Equipment. Although there are significant deviations from the mean, no clearcut pattern emerges here.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research TABLE 5.3a Assessment of the Overall Importance of Materials Science and Engineering to Each Area of Impact According to Highest Degree Area of Impact (62) Bachelors (78) Masters (379) Ph.D. 10 COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS AND CONTROL 74–– 78–– 86+ 20 CONSUMER GOODS 48 45– 51 30 DEFENSE AND SPACE 91 91 88 40 ENERGY 86 88 87 50 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 61 59 59 60 HEALTH SERVICES 57 54 56 70 HOUSING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION 50 50 50 80 PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 53+ 53+ 47– 90 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 61 61 60 TABLE 5.3b Assessment of the Overall Importance of Materials Science and Engineering to Each Area of Impact According to Discipline of Highest Degree Area of Impact (95) Chemistry (153) Physics (172) Metallurgy (71) Engineering (8) Other 10 COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS AND CONTROL 81– 91++ 82 79– 78– 20 CONSUMER GOODS 54+ 48 48 49 58 30 DEFENSE AND SPACE 90 88 90 91 89 40 ENERGY 83– 87 88 88 89 50 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 59 58 60 57 67 60 HEALTH SERVICES 60+ 55 52– 57 67+ 70 HOUSING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION 57++ 43–– 51 49 56 80 PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 50 44–– 51 51 44 90 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 62 56– 62 61 50

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research TABLE 5.3c Assessment of Overall Importance of Materials Science and Engineering to Each Area of Impact According to Age Bracket Area of Impact (5) <30 (74) 30–39 (214) 40–49 (262) >50 10 COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS AND CONTROL 80 85 85 83 20 CONSUMER GOODS 45 52 49 50 30 DEFENSE AND SPACE 95 87 88 92+ 40 ENERGY 75– 86 87 87 50 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 75+ 61 56 61+ 60 HEALTH SERVICES 70+ 56 56– 55 70 HOUSING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION 55 55+ 47– 51 80 PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 65+ 44– 46– 51+ 90 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 50 61 59 62+ TABLE 5.3d Assessment of the Overall Importance of Materials Science and Engineering to Each Area of Impact According to Type of Institution Area of Impact (187) Academic (120) Government (215) Industrial (16) Non-Profit (17) Other 10 COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS AND CONTROL 90++ 80– 80–– 86 85 20 CONSUMER GOODS 56++ 45–– 47– 58+ 42– 30 DEFENSE AND SPACE 89 89 90 97+ 83– 40 ENERGY 86 90+ 86 84 82 50 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 64++ 56 57 56 52– 60 HEALTH SERVICES 63++ 51–– 52–– 67+ 40–– 70 HOUSING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION 52+ 47– 50 56 48 80 PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 52+ 52+ 46– 58+ 38– 90 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 63+ 61 58– 58 60

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research OMB No. 099S72003 Expires 8/31/72 GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS The working definition of Materials Science and Engineering that has been tentatively adopted by the Survey Committee is: Materials Science and Engineering is concerned with the generation and application of knowledge relating the composition, structure and processing of materials to their properties and beneficial use. As will be realized, this fairly broad definition embraces several scientific and engineering disciplines, and segments of disciplines. It embraces basic research, applied research and engineering, and it embraces a variety of classes of materials, particularly ceramics, electronic materials, glass, metals and plastics.* However, the Committee has chosen not to include certain classes such as food, drugs, pesticides and fuels used in essentially their natural state. The focus is on materials which are useful in machines, devices, structures or products. On the following pages of this Priority Survey you will find the headings: I — The Overall Importance of Materials Science and Engineering to Each Area of Impact II — Statements of Materials Problems in Selected Sub-Areas of Impact III — A. Priority Information Relating to Properties of Materials   B. Priority Information Relating to Classes of Materials C. Priority Information Relating to Processes for Materials D. Priority Information Relating to Disciplines and Sub-Disciplines in the Field of Materials Science and Engineering IV — Personal Information *   A more complete list of materials appears in Table IIIB. SPECIFIC INSTRUCTIONS Specific instructions are given on each page. Please read and follow these carefully. In several parts of this questionnaire you are asked to respond using a rating scale of from 1 (for Very High Importance or Priority) to 5 (for Very Low Importance or Priority). The following definitions might help you in using this rating scale: Very High Advances in the field or specialty of Materials Science and Engineering are essential for substantial further progress in the Area or Sub-Area being considered; achievements of the future goals or objectives in the area probably cannot be attained at reasonable cost unless advances are made in Materials Science and Engineering. High Somewhere between Very High and Moderate. Moderate Advances in the field or specialty of Materials Science and Engineering will contribute importantly to further progress in the Area or Sub-Area being considered; achievement of the future goals or objectives in the area will be helped considerably by advances in Materials Science and Engineering although some progress can be achieved without notable contributions from Materials Science and Engineering. Low Somewhere between Moderate and Very Low. Very Low Advances in the field or specialty of Materials Science and Engineering, although helpful, are not of great importance to further progress in the Area or Sub-Area being considered; achievement of the future goals or objectives in the area is possible with little or no contribution from Materials Science and Engineering.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research LIST OF AREAS AND SUB-AREAS OF IMPACT Code Number   10 COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS AND CONTROL 11 Commercial Radio and TV Equipment 12 Computers 13 Electronic Components 14 Equipment for Guidance and Control of Transportation 15 Teaching Equipment 16 Telephone and Data Networks and Equipment 20 CONSUMER GOODS 21 Apparel and Textiles 22 Furniture 23 Household Appliances—Electronic (TV, radio, hi-fi, etc.) 24 Household Appliances—Non-Electronic (refrigerators, ranges, air conditioners, vacuum cleaners, etc.) 25 Leisure and Sports Equipment 26 Packaging and Containers 27 Printing and Photography 30 DEFENSE AND SPACE 31 Military Aircraft 32 Missiles 33 Naval Vessels 34 Ordnance and Weapons 35 Radar and Military Communications 36 Spacecraft 37 Undersea Equipment 40 ENERGY 41 Batteries and Fuel Cells 42 Direct Conversion 43 Electric Transmission and Distribution 44 Fuel Transmission and Distribution 45 Nuclear Reactors 46 Thermonuclear Fusion 47 Turbines and Generators 50 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 51 Mining and Raw Material Extraction 52 Pollution 53 Recycling and Solid Wsste Disposal 54 Reliability, Safety, Maintainability 55 Substitution Opportunities 56 Working Conditions 60 HEALTH SERVICES 61 Artificial Organs 62 Medical Electronics 63 Medical Equipment (including dental) 64 Prosthetic Devices (including dental) 70 HOUSING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION 71 Construction Machinery 72 Highways, Bridges, Airports, etc. 73 Individual and Multiple Unit Dwellings 74 Industrial and Commercial Structures 75 Mobile Homes 76 Plumbing, Heating, Electrical, etc. 80 PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 81 Farm and Construction Machinery 82 Industrial Drives, Motors, and Control 83 Industrial Instrumentation 84 Machine Tools 85 Process Equipment 90 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 91 Aircraft 92 Automotive 93 Guided Ground Transportation (rail, non-rail) 94 Water

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D. C. 20418 QUESTIONNAIRE ON PRIORITIES IN THE FIELD OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING JUNE 1972

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research I. THE OVERALL IMPORTANCE OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING TO EACH AREA OF IMPACT On this page please circle the appropriate number against each Area of Impact in answer to the question, “What is the Overall Importance of Materials Science and Engineering?” Area of Impact Very High High Moderate Low Very Low 10 COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS AND CONTROL 1 2 3 4 5 20 CONSUMER GOODS 1 2 3 4 5 30 DEFENSE AND SPACE 1 2 3 4 5 40 ENERGY 1 2 3 4 5 50 ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY 1 2 3 4 5 60 HEALTH SERVICES 1 2 3 4 5 70 HOUSING AND OTHER CONSTRUCTION 1 2 3 4 5 80 PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 1 2 3 4 5 90 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 1 2 3 4 5

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research II. STATEMENTS OF MATERIALS PROBLEMS IN SELECTED SUB-AREAS OF IMPACT From the List of Areas and Sub-Areas select up to 5 Sub-Areas in which you feel you are knowledgeable or to which your experience relates. Refer to these Sub-Areas by entering the appropriate Code Numbers below in the spaces marked A to E. For each Sub-Area you select please give brief statements of 3 materials problems that you judge are of critical importance for progress in the Sub-Area to occur. (Note: The letters A to E are not meant to imply any relative rankings among the Sub-Areas.) MATERIALS PROBLEMS Sub-Area Code Number A___ 1   2 3 Sub-Area Code Number B___ 1   2 3 Sub-Area Code Number C___ 1   2 3 Sub-Area Code Number D___ 1   2 3 Sub-Area Code Number E___ 1   2 3

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research IV. PERSONAL INFORMATION After completing the previous sheets would you kindly give us the following information: Your Highest Degree: None____, Bachelor____, Master____, Doctor____. Discipline of Highest Degree____________________. Your Age Bracket: Under 30____, 30 to 30____, 40 to 49____, 50 and over____. Employment: Type of Institution: Academic____, Government____, Industrial____, Non-Profit____, Other (specify)________________________________________. Types of Activity: Teaching____, Research____, Development or Engineering____, Technical Management____, General Management____, Other (specify)________________________________________. If you checked a Management Category, the number of personnel reporting to you is: less than 10____, 10 to 100____, over 100____. OPTIONAL: Name: Title: Employment Address: DATA ANALYSIS: Do you wish to receive a copy of the data analysis? Yes____ No____

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research This page in the original is blank.