MATERIALS AND MAN’S NEEDS

MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VOLUME III

THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1975



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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering MATERIALS AND MAN’S NEEDS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING VOLUME III THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D.C. 1975

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering MATERIALS AND MAN’S NEEDS MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING VOLUME III THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D.C. 1975

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering NOTICE MATERIALS AND MAN’S NEEDS SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (COSMAT) The content of this Supplementary Report is part of the basis for the Summary Report of the NAS Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering. In contrast to the Summary Report, however, the views expressed here are those of the various contributors and do not necessarily represent a consensus of COSMAT. Frontispiece: A schematic representation of the materials cycle, portraying its global nature and principal stages.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering PREFACE The Summary Report of the Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering (COSMAT) was published in the Spring of 1974. It was based on informational inputs generated by numerous committees, panels, and individuals. The background information has now been organized into this Supplementary Report, Volumes I to IV. In assembling this extensive resource, a complete editorial function was not attempted. Thus, occasional redundancies and overlaps as well as some unevenness in style and coverage will be noted. There will also be found views, and perhaps contradictions, that did not make their way into the Summary Report, inasmuch as the latter reflects a consensus of COSMAT. Nevertheless, we believe that it will prove useful to the science and engineering communities, as well as to others concerned with the broader implications of technology, to have available the rich store of information that was collected by COSMAT. We have organized the present Supplementary Report as follows: Volume I—The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering, containing Chapters 1, 2, and 3, is concerned mainly with tracing the history and evolution of materials technology, and of materials science and engineering in particular; also with describing the dimensions of the present role of materials in society; and with a study of the way in which materials science and engineering operates as a multidisciplinary field. Volume II—The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research begins, in Chapter 4, with a discussion of how materials research is related to various national goals or “areas of impact.” In Chapter 5, the results of a comprehensive survey of materials research priorities are presented, both for applied research related to these areas of impact and for basic research. Chapter 6 provides a description of several of the more prominent materials research opportunities, again both basic and applied. Volume III—The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering (Chapter 7) describes the industrial, governmental, academic, and professional activities in materials science and engineering in the U.S. In the industrial section, emphasis is given to illustrative descriptions of materials technologies and to the roles of materials scientists and engineers in various types of industry. The governmental section describes the ways in which the federal government is involved with the performance and support of materials science and engineering. The academic section contains detailed qualitative and quantitative information on the status and trends in university education and research both in “materials-designated” and “materials-related” departments and in materials research centers. In the professional section,

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering consideration is given to the characteristics and numbers of materials scientists and engineers, as well as to their professional activities and opportunities. Volume IV—Materials Technology Abroad (Chapter 8) deals with many facets of materials technology, as practiced in other countries. In collecting this information, it was often difficult, or even impossible, to delineate policies and practices specific to the materials field from those pertinent to science and technology in general. In such cases, the broader situation has been reviewed on the assumption that its applicability to the materials sphere is implicit. Volume IV surveys national policies and administrative structures for science and technology, education, R & D, institutions, technology-enhancement programs, technical achievements, and international cooperation. Much of the content revolves around the general theme of technological innovation. It is surely obvious from the magnitude of this Supplementary Report that COSMAT is enormously indebted to a wide diversity of committees and individual contributors, whose inputs and insights have proved so valuable. The COSMAT Panels, Committees, and Consultants are listed in the Summary Report. They and other individual contributors are also referred to in this Supplementary Report. COSMAT is deeply grateful to Marguerite Meyer, Beverly Masaitis, and Judy Trimble for their indefatigable efforts in the typing and assembling of these four volumes; theirs was a prodigious task, indeed. We are also most indebted to Amahl Shakhashiri for her careful editing of these volumes. And once again, COSMAT wishes to acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency in this undertaking, carried out under the aegis of the Committee on Science and Public Policy of the National Academy of Sciences. Morris Cohen, Chairman William O.Baker, Vice Chairman Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering September 1975

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (COSMAT) *Morris Cohen (Chairman) Massachusetts Institute of Technology *William O.Baker (Vice Chairman) Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. Donald J.Blickwede Bethlehem Steel Corporation Raymond F.Boyer Dow Chemical Company *Paul F.Chenea General Motors Corporation Preston E.Cloud University of California, Santa Barbara *Daniel C.Drucker University of Illinois Julius J.Harwood Ford Motor Company I.Grant Hedrick Grumann Aerospace Corporation Walter R.Hibbard, Jr. Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation *John D.Hoffman National Bureau of Standards Melvin Kranzberg Georgia Institute of Technology *Hans H.Landsberg Resources for the Future, Inc. Humboldt W.Leverenz RCA Laboratories, Inc. Donald J.Lyman University of Utah Roger S.Porter University of Massachusetts Rustum Roy Pennsylvania State University *Roland W.Schmitt General Electric Company Abe Silverstein Republic Steel Corporation Lawrence H.Van Vlack The University of Michigan Ex Officio Members *Harvey Brooks (as former Chairman, Committee on Science and Public Policy, NAS) Harvard University *N.Bruce Hannay (as Chairman, National Materials Advisory Board, National Research Council, NAS-NAE) Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. *Ernst Weber (as Chairman, Division of Engineering, National Research Council, NAS-NAE) National Academy of Sciences *   Members of the Executive Board Survey Directors Alan G.Chynoweth Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. S.Victor Radcliffe Case Western Reserve University

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering This page in the original is blank.

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering MATERIALS AND MAN’S NEEDS Supplementary Report of the Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering Volume I The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering Chapter 1: Materials and Society Chapter 2: The Contemporary Materials Scene Chapter 3: Materials Science and Engineering as a Multidiscipline Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Research Chapter 4: National Objectives and the Role of Materials Science and Engineering Chapter 5: Priorities in Materials Research Chapter 6: Opportunities in Materials Research Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering Chapter 7: Industrial, Governmental, Academic, and Professional Activities in Materials Science and Engineering Volume IV Materials Technology Abroad Chapter 8: Aspects of Materials Technology Abroad

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR VOLUME III Chapter Number Page Number 7   INDUSTRIAL, GOVERNMENTAL, ACADEMIC, AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING         INTRODUCTION   3     MATERIALS IN INDUSTRY   9     Principal Materials-Producing Industries   10     Metals Industry   10     Industry Structure   10     Recycling of Metals   14     Environmental Considerations   15     Inorganic Nonmetals Industry   19     Ceramic Materials   19     Construction Materials   25     Fertilizer Materials   25     Other Nonmetallic Minerals   25     Plastics Industry   32     Examples of Major Materials-Using Industries   40     Electonics Industry   41     Illustration of the Role of Materials Science and Engineering   41     Some Characteristics of the Electronics Industry   44     Processing of Semiconductor Materials   46

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering     Challenges in the Application of Solid-State Materials   51     Electric Lamp Industry   54     Container Industry   58     Glass Containers   59     Plastics Containers   65     Metal Containers   65     Paperboard Containers   71     Automobile Industry   75     Building Industry   90     Factors Affecting Materials Science and Technology   92     Materials Research and Development Emphasis   93     Materials and Standards   95     MATERIALS IN GOVERNMENT   98     Introduction   98     Structure and Funding   101     Funding   101     Governmental Laboratories   103     Department of Agriculture   104     Atomic Energy Commission   105     Department of Commerce   105     Department of Defense   106     Department of the Interior   107

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering     Research Interactions with Industry   205     Some General Aspects of Materials Science and Engineering at Universities   209     MATERIALS MANPOWER AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES   216     Materials Manpower   216     Professional Activities in the Materials Field   246     APPENDIX 7A QUESTIONNAIRES         Questionnaire to Heads of University Departments in Disciplines Relevant to Materials   255     Questionnaire to Heads of University Departments Offering Materials Degrees   258     APPENDIX 7B Some Examples of New Materials-Science Curricula   263     APPENDIX 7C History of the Development of Interdisciplinary Materials Research Centers   267     APPENDIX 7D Details of University-Industry Coupling Experiments   269     Introduction   269     Traditional University-Industry Coupling Patterns   270     Present University-Industry Coupling Attempts in the Materials Field   270     Binary Coupling in the Materials Field   271     Ternary Coupling Arrangements   272     Other Inter-Institutional Models   273

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering LIST OF FIGURES FOR VOLUME III Figure Number Page Number 7.1   Changes in U.S. Supply and Use of Major Industrial Materials     (a)   U.S. Supplies and Uses of Iron   5 (b)   U.S. Supplies and Uses of Aluminum, Copper, Zinc, and Lead   6 (c)   U.S. Supplies and Uses of Plastics   7 7.2   Diagrammatic Flow of Industrial and Post-Consumer Scrap Metal   16 7.3   Consumption of Porcelain Enamels in the U.S.   23 7.4   Consumption of Whitewares in the U.S.   23 7.5   Consumption of Glass and Glass Products in the U.S.   24 7.6   Consumption of Electronic Ceramics in the U.S.   24 7.7   U.S. Supplies and Uses of Major Nonmetallic Construction Materials   26 7.8   U.S. Supplies and Uses of Major Fertilizer Ingredients   27 7.9   Price/Volume Relationship for Plastics in 1969   36 7.10   Value of Shipments of Selected Electronic Components   45 7.11   Per Unit Value of Selected Electronic Components   47 7.12   Flow of Packaging from Consumer to Disposal Site or Recycle   60 7.13   Glass-Container Industry Shipments, 1900–1975   61 7.14   Glass-Packaging Industry Structure and Flow Chart   63 7.15   Materials Requirements for Glass Containers   64

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering 7.16   Plastic-Packaging Industry Structure and Flow   66 7.17   Packaging Plastics Commonly Derived from Ethylene   68 7.18   Metal-Packing Industry Structure and Flow Chart   69 7.19   Consumption of Metal in Packaging   72 7.20   The Paper, Pulp, and Paperboard Industry, 1967   74 7.21   Recycling of Ferrous Materials in Automotive Industry, 1970’s   83 7.22   Undergraduate Enrollments in Materials-Designated Departments   139 7.23   Total Student Enrollment in Materials-Designated Departments   140 7.24(a)   Size Distribution of Graduate Materials-Designated Departments   141 7.24(b)   Full-Time Graduate Enrollments in Materials-Designated Departments as Percentage of Corresponding Engineering Graduate Enrollments   142 7.25   Proportion of Foreign Full-Time Graduate Students in Materials-Designated Departments   143 7.26   Size of Metallurgy and Materials Departments Based on Doctorates Awarded in 1970–71   146 7.27   Departmental Size Distribution Based on Doctorates Awarded   147 7.28   Departmental Size Distribution Based on Master’s Degrees Awarded   148 7.29   Departmental Size Distribution Based on Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded   149 7.30   Number of Degrees at Various Levels Awarded by Materials-Designated Departments   151 7.31   Engineering Degrees in All Fields (U.S. ECPD Schools)   152 7.32   Materials-Designated Degrees as Percentage of Corresponding Engineering Degrees at ECPD Schools   153

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering 7.33   Alternative Subfields of Materials-Science Curricula   159 7.34   “Strength” of Graduate Programs of Materials-Designated Departments as Indicated by Modified Elton and Rogers Approach (Ph.D.’s, 1967–1971)   160 7.35   “Strength” of Graduate Programs of Materials-Designated Departments as Indicated by Modified Elton and Rogers Approach (Graduate Students, 1971)   161 7.36   Degree of “Relevance” to MSE of Various Disciplines   173 7.37   Data on Support for Materials Research at U.S. Universities in FY 1971   174 7.38   Annual Support Versus Faculty Effort Associated with University Research in Materials   191 7.39   Annual Support Versus Number of Publications at Materials Centers   194 7.40   Annual Materials-Research Support/Graduate Degrees Versus Number of Graduate Degrees   195 7.41   Relationship Between Number of FTE Faculty in Materials-Designated Departments and Departmental Research Support   203 7.42   Relationship Between Research Support Per FTE Faculty Member in Materials-Designated Departments and Departmental Research Support   204 7.43   Annual Number of Doctorates from Materials-Designated Departments in Relation to Departmental Research Support   206 7.44   Relationship Between Publication Rate and Graduate-Degree Output of Materials-Designated Departments   207 7.45   Annual Total Employment for Plastics Materials and Synthetics   231 7.46   Membership of Society of Plastics Engineers   232 7.47   BS, MS, and Doctor’s Degrees in Materials Conferred Annually, 1949–1970   235 7.48   Comparison of BS Degrees in Engineering by Selected Disciplines   236

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering 7.49   Comparison of MS Degrees in Engineering by Selected Disciplines   237 7.50   Comparison of Doctorates in Engineering by Selected Disciplines (Part 1)   238 7.51   Comparison of Doctorates in Engineering by Selected Disciplines (Part 2)   239 7.52   Immigrant Scientists and Engineers Admitted Annually to U.S.   241

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering LIST OF TABLES FOR VOLUME III Table Number Page Number 7.1   Annual Requirements for Principal Primary Materials Used in the United States   8 7.2   U.S. Demand for Selected Primary Metals, 1970 and 1985   11 7.3   U.S. Imports by Source and as Percent of Apparent Consumption, 1970   12 7.4   Byproduct Relationships for Selected Metals, 1970   13 7.5   Recovery of Metals from Scrap as Related to Total Consumption, 1970   17 7.6   Nonmetallic Minerals, 1971   20 7.7   Ceramic Industry—Total Value of Shipments   21 7.8   Production of Principal Polymers and Metals in the U.S.   33 7.9   Production of Plastic Materials by Type, 1969–1974   34 7.10   Percentage Raw Materials Make-up of Key Plastics   37 7.11   Common Fabrication Methods for Plastics   37 7.12   Materials Cycle for Plastics Industry   38 7.13   Lamp Production for U.S. Market, 1969   55 7.14   Materials Consumption Estimate for U.S. Lamp Industry, 1969   56 7.15   Distribution of Glass-Container Shipments by End-Use: 1958–1976   62 7.16   Consumption of Plastics in Packaging by End-Use: 1958 to 1976   67 7.17   Number of Cans Consumed by End-Use: 1958 to 1976   70 7.18   U.S. Production of Paperboard by Grade: 1960, 1966–1970   73

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering 7.19   Commercial Forests of the United States—509 Million Acres. Historical and Projected Timber Harvest, Growth, and Inventory   76 7.20   $13 Billion Automotive Parts Produced in Other Industries   77 7.21   Materials in Typical 1971 Four-Door Sedan   80 7.22   Selected Automotive Metals Consumption, 1969   81 7.23   Foreign Ores in a U.S. Automobile   82 7.24   Comparison of Material Cost   85 7.25   Automotive Products That Can Be Made of Either Plastic or Metal   87 7.26   New Construction   91 7.27   Direct Federal Funding of Materials Research and Development by Agency, 1971   99 7.28   Types of Education and Institutions from which Manpower in the Materials Field Is Derived   120 7.29   Materials-Designated Degree Programs   127 7.30   Materials-Designated Departmental Title Changes from 1964 to 1970   131 7.31   Data on Materials-Designated Degree Programs   137 7.32   Full-time Faculty and Postdoctorals, 1970   137 7.33   Full-Time Graduate Students by Type of Support, 1970   144 7.34   Sources of Federal Support for Full-Time Graduate Students, 1970   145 7.35   Curricula Data from 39th ECPD Annual Report, 1971   154 7.36   Distribution by Field of Science of Federal R&D Support to Universities for FY 1970   173 7.37   Universities with Materials Centers in the U.S.   176

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering 7.38   Materials Activities at Universities with Materials Centers, 1971   177 7.39   Research Capabilities of Materials Research Centers at Universities, 1971   179 7.40   Support for Materials Research at Universities, 1971   181 7.41   Research Support in Materials-Designated Departments at Universities Having Materials Centers, 1971   183 7.42   Research Output of Materials Centers (Ranked in Order of Papers/Paid Faculty)   193 7.43   Expectation and Performance of Materials Centers   198 7.44   Distribution of Areas of Faculty Research Activities in Materials-Designated Departments   201 7.45   Source of Research Support for Materials-Designated Departments, 1971   202 7.46   Estimated Number of Engineers Working in Materials Science and Engineering in 1969 (By Fields of Specialization)   218 7.47   Estimated Number of Scientists in Materials Science and Engineering in 1968 (By Fields of Specialization)   220 7.48   Total Employment (Both Blue Collar and White Collar) in U.S. Materials and Related Industries Served by the Professionals Working in the Field of Materials Science and Engineering, 1970   222 7.49   Profile of Materials Scientists and Engineers Appearing in the National Engineers Register in 1969   223 7.50   Distribution of Materials Scientists by Employment Function   227 7.51   Distribution of Materials Scientists by Type of Employer   228 7.52   Distribution of Materials Scientists By Age Grouping   229 7.53   Disciplinary Mix in R&D Laboratories   233

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Materials and Man’s Needs Materials Science and Engineering: Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering 7.54   Rates of Unemployed Engineers by Field of Specialization, 1971   243 7.55   Projected Supply and Utilization of Engineering, Physical Sciences, and Mathematics Doctorates in the U.S. in 1980   245 7.56   Listing of Materials and Materials-Related Professional and Technical Societies   247

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CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRIAL, GOVERNMENTAL, ACADEMIC, AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING* *This chapter represents the work of COSMAT Panel III, chaired by Walter R. Hibbard, and its committees chaired by Paul F. Chenea (Industry), Paul Shewmon (Government), Rustum Roy (Education), and Donald J. Blickwede (Professional Activities and Manpower). In addition, important information inputs were provided by the COSMAT Data and Information Panel, chaired by Robert I. Jaffee, and by many university department heads and materials research center directors. Numerous colleagues in industry helped in draft- ing the descriptions of materials activities in several industries. The various sections of this chapter were brought together by S. Victor Radcliffe.

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