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THE TOTAL MATERIALS KYLE ~ ~ ~ ~ . _ 'it, . :: i: :: :: ~ ::~: :::: :: ~~ : I: ::: : : : : : : ~ : ::: : ~ ~ ~ ~: . ~ ~ ~ ~ . ELK MATERIALS ~ a::: :: :: : RAW: ::: MATERIALS ~ ~ ~ ~ . :: , ~^L :t~ *~^ I&~^ : ::~.~$ MU ~~u ~ BULL : :~%:r~ :: a-' hydra: ::: "~` :~: ~$~ 1: By:: ENGlNEERl~G l~tlAT~E RI:ALS :: I: ~:~ : ~ : : ~ :~:: ::: ~ : : ~ ARENA 0~F ~ :: ~:~::: ~~ ~~ ~~:~ ] :: :~M' ~ E RAL AN D : AGRICULTU RAL :: ~~ SOl ENCES AN D it:: ~~ _ i: ant:: ENGINEERING : :: :: :: ~1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ A]

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MATERIALS AND MAN'S NEEDS MATER IALS SC ~ ENCE AND ENG ~ NEER ~ NO SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE COMM ~ TTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATER JALS SC ~ ENCE AND ENG ~ NEER ~ NG VO LUME ~ V ASPECTS OF MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY ABROAD ATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASH I NGTON, D . C. 1975 1:

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NOTICE MATERIALS AND MAN'S NEEDS SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (COSMAT) The content of this Supplementary Report is part of the basis for the Summary Report of the NAS Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering. In contrast to the Summary Report, however, the views expressed here are those of the various contributors and do no necessarily represent a consensus of COSMAT. Frontispiece: A schematic repre- sentation of the materials cycle, portraying its global nature and principal stages.

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v PREFACE The Summary Report of the Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering (COSMAT) was published in the Spring of 1974. It was based on informational inputs generated by numerous committees, panels, and individuals. That background information has now been organized into this Supplementary Report, Volumes I to IV. In assembling this extensive resource, a complete editorial function was not attempted. Thus, occasional redundancies and overlaps as well as some unevenness in style and coverage will be noted. There will also be found views, and perhaps contradictions, that did not make their way into the Summary Report, inasmuch as the latter reflects a consensus of COSMAT. Nevertheless, we believe that it will prove useful to the science and engineering communi- ties, as well as to others concerned with the broader implications of tech- nology, to have available the rich store of information that was collected by COSMAT. We have organized the present Supplementary Report as follows: Volume I - The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering, containing Chapters 1, 2, and 3, is concerned mainly with tracing the history and evolution of materials technology, and of materials science and engineering in particular; also with describing the dimensions of the present role of materials in society; and with a study of the way in which materials science and engineering operates as a multidisciplinary field. Volume II - The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities for Materials Re- search begins, in Chapter 4, with a discussion of how materials research is related to various national goals or "areas of impact." In Chapter 5, the results of a comprehensive survey of materials research priorities are presented, both for applied research related to these areas of impact and for basic research. Chapter 6 provides a description of several of the more promi- nent materials research opportunities, again both basic and applied. Volume III - The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering (Chapter 7) describes the industrial, governmental, academic, and professional activities in materials science and engineering in the U.S. In the industrial section, emphasis is given to illustrative descriptions of - materials technologies and to the roles of materials scientists and engineers in various types of industry. The governmental section describes the ways in which the federal government is involved with the performance and support of materials science and engineering. The academic section contains detailed qualitative and quantitative information on the status and trends in university education and research both in "materials-designated" and "materials-related" departments and in materials research centers. In the professional section,

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V1 consideration is given to the characteristics and numbers of materials scien- tists and engineers, as well as to their professional activities and oppor- tunities. Volume IV- Materials Technology Abroad (Chapter 8) deals with many facets of materials technology, as practiced in other countries. In collecting this information, it was often difficult, or even impossible, to delineate policies and practices specific to the materials field from those pertinent to science and technology in general. In such cases, the broader situation has been re- viewed on the assumption that its applicability to the materials sphere is implicit. Volume IV surveys national policies and administrative structures for science and technology, education, R & D, institutions, technology- enhancement programs, technical achievements, and international cooperation. Much of the content revolves around the general theme of technological inno- vation. It is surely obvious from the magnitude of this Supplementary Report that COSMAT is enormously indebted to a wide diversity of committees and individual contributors, whose inputs and insights have proved so valuable. The COSMAT Panels, Committees, and Consultants are listed in the Summary Report. They and other individual contributors are also referred to in this Supplementary Report. COSMAT is deeply grateful to Marguerite Meyer, Beverly Masaitis, and Judy Trimble for their indefatigable efforts in the typing and assembling of these four volumes; theirs was a prodigious task, indeed. We are also most indebted to Amahl Shakhashiri for her careful editing of these volumes. And once again, COSMAT wishes to acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency in this under- taking, carried out under the aegis of the Committee on Science and Public Policy of the National Academy of Sciences. Morris Cohen, Chairman William O. Baker, Vice Chairman Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering September 1975 i

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V11 C OMMITTEE ON THE SURVEY OF . MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ( COSMAT) *Morris Cohen (Chairman) *William 0. Baker (Vice Chairman) Donald J. Blickwede Raymond F. Boyer *Paul F. Chenea Preston E. Cloud *Daniel C. Drucker Julius J. Harwood I. Grant Hedrick Walter R. Hibbard *John D. Hoffman Melvin Kranzberg ~ Jr. *Hans H. Landsberg Humboldt W. Leverenz Donald J. Lyman Roger S. Porter Rustum Roy *Roland W. Schmitt Abe Silverstein Lawrence H. Van Vlack Ex Officio Members _ *Harvey Brooks (as former Chairman, Science and Public Policy, NAS) Committee on *N. Bruce Hannay (as Chairman, National Materials Advisory Board, National Research Council, NAS-NAE) *Ernst Weber (as Chairman, Division of Engineering, National Research Council, NAS-NAE) *Members of the Executive Board Alan G. Chynoweth S. Victor Radcliffe Survey Directors Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. Bethlehem Steel Corporation Dow Chemical Company General Motors Corporation University of California, University of Illinois Ford Motor Company Grumann Aerospace Corporation Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation National Bureau of Standards Georgia Institute of Technology Resources for the Future, Inc. RCA Laboratories, Inc. University of Utah University of Massachusetts Pennsylvania State University General Electric Company Republic Steel Corporation The University of Michigan Santa Barbara Harvard University Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. National Academy of Sciences Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. Case Western Reserve University

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1X MATERIALS AND MAN'S NEEDS Supplementary Report of the Committee on the Survey of Materials Science and Engineering Volume I The History, Scope, and Nature of Materials Science and Engineering Chapter 1: Materials and Society Chapter 2: The Contemporary Materials Scene Chapter 3: Materials Science and Engineering as a Multi ~ . ~ ~ . alsclpllne Volume II The Needs, Priorities, and Opportunities Research for Materials Chapter 4: National Objectives and the Role of Materials Science and Engineering Chapter 5; Priorities in Materials Research Chapter 6: Opportunities in Materials Research Volume III The Institutional Framework for Materials Science and Engineering Chapter 7: Industrial, Governmental, Academic, and Professional Activities in Materials Science and Engineering Volume IV Materials Technology Abroad Chapter 8: Aspects of Materials Technology Abroad

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x TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR VOLUME IV . Chapter Number 8 ASPECTS OF MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY ABROAD INTRODUCTION On Making International Comparisons Some Historical Perspectives Page Number - 8-1 8-1 8-2 Time Factors in the Diffusion of Technology 8-3 NATIONAL POLICIES FOR SCIENCE AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY Introduction National Goals National Strategies and Tactics in the Materials Field Some Examples of National Policies in Science and Engineering United Kingdom France U.S.S.R. Science and the Acceleration of Technical Progress, Pravda, March 31, 1970, p. 6 The Scope of Research Avoid Lost Time In Cooperation with Engineers From Department to Shop Japan 8-7 8-7 8-8 8-11 8-19 8-20 8-22 8-22 8-24 8-24 8-25 8-26 8-27 8-28

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X1 Chapter Number Page Number 8 Global Technological Policy of Japan 8-29 Some Particular Aspects of National Technological Policy 8-30 Japan's Science Policy for the Seventies 8-31 The Implications of National Goals for Research Strategies 8-33 NATI ON AL ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURES FOR RESEARCH 8-34 General Outlines of Administrative Structures 8-34 United Kingdom Germany France O. S . S ~ R. Czechoslovakia Japan Other Countries 8-35 8-35 8-36 8-36 8-37 8-40 8-42 Centralized or Decentralized Administration? 8-42 Discussion of Administrative Structures in the U.S.S.R. and the U'K. U.S!S.R. 8-43 8-43 U.K. - The Rothschild-Dainton Debate 8-46 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF MATERIALS RESEARCH IN THE U.S. EDUCATION Statistical Information on Scientists and Engineers Curricula and Interdisciplinary Education for the Materials Field 8-51 8-53 8-53 8-57

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XV111 Chapter Number 8 Page Number European Reaction to U.S. Dominance in Electronics 8-241 Electronic Materials in the U.S.S.R. 8-244 PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS AROUND THE WORLD INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION Philosophical Background More Tangible Incentives for International Cooperation Internationa' Science Policy 8-245 8-253 8-253 8-255 8-256 Themes for Cooperation in the Materials Field 8-257 Organizations and Institutions United Nations Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development North Atlantic Treaty Organization European Economic Community 8-260 8-261 8-262 8-262 8-262 European Center for Nuclear Research 8-263 Scientific Societies U.S. - U.S.S.R. Cooperation Some Further Possibilities Cooperation with Developing Countries Interactions with LDC's Particularly Concerning Materials Technological Interactions with LDC's Example of India Korean Institute for Science and Technology - Example of U.S. Aid - 8-264 8-264 8-264 8-264 0-268 8-270 8-272

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X1X Chapter Number 8 MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS Types of Multinational Corporations Statements For and Against MC's Labor, Management and Government Attitudes Host Country Attitudes Prospects for Multinational Corporations Research, Development, and Flow of Technical Information in a High-Technology Multinational Corporation Technology Diffusion via High-Technology Multinational Corporations in the Electronics Field Technology Transfer via Vertically-Integrated, Multinational Corporations to Developing Countries Role of Research and Development Some Concluding Remarks Concerning Multinational Corporations TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN THE INTERNATIONAL SPHERE International Comparisons of Technological Prowess Some General Characteristics of the Innovative System Essential Components Technology~Push versus Demand-Pull Differences Amongst Industries Industrial Structures Page Number 8-273 8-273 8-274 8-275 8-276 8-277 8-277 8-279 8-281 8-282 8-284 8-284 8-284 8-287 8-287 8-287 8-287 8-288 I .

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Chapter Number 8 Page Number Size of Markets Management of Innovation Role of Fundamental Research Governmental Role in Creating a Climate Favorable to Technological Innovation 8-288 8-288 8-289 8-289 A Study of Success and Failure in Innovation 8-290 Fundamental Features of the Approach 8-290 Nationality of Innovating Organizations Pairs Used Summary of Main Findings A British View of U.S. Technological Leads and Lags A U.S. View of U.S' Technological Leads and Lags 8-291 8-292 8-293 8-294 8-295

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LIST OF FIGURES FOR VOLUME IV Figure Number 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 CHAPTER 8. ASPECTS OF MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY ABROAD . . . ~ . . . ~~ Distribution of University-Level Education Enrollments by Field of Study in 1955 and 1965 Government Funds for Research and Development Other Than Space, Nuclear, and Defense Research and Development (in millions of U.S. $) U.S. Trade Balance in Iron and Steel, 1925-70. Structure of the Electronics Industry Number of Articles Published Annually in Materials Science and Engineering Between 1945 and 1970, by Country Number of Articles Published Annually in Materials Science and Engineering Between 1945 and 1970, by Performing Sector Page Number 8-56 8-77 8-203 8-235 8-251 8-252

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XX11 LIST OF TABLES FOR VOLUME IV Table Number 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 CHAPTER 8. ASPECTS OF MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY ABROAD Take-Over Times (AT) and Substitution Mid-Points, T Average Imitation Lags Following Important Innovations Some Salient National Goals (1950-1970) Definition of the Role of Materials, by Countries Techniques for Implementing National Goals for Materials (Subjective Views) Comparison of Pluralistic and Centralized Model of Research Programming Educational Data Number of Advanced Degrees per Year in Departments of Metallurgy, Metallurgical Engineering, and Materials Science in Japan (1970) Fields of Specialization in Higher Education in France National Research and Development Expenditures (1963-1964) National Expenditures on Research and Development as Percentage of GNP Number of Qualified Scientists and Engineers on Research and Development Per 10,000 of Population Total Qualified Scientists and Engineers in Research and Development Cl963-l964) Research and Development Expenditures in Industry by Source of Support C1963-1964) Gross National Expenditures on Research and Development (1963-1964) Structure of R&D Expenditures in Manufacturing Industries (As percentage of total R&D expenditures in manufacturing industries) Page Number 8-5 8-6 8-10 8-12 8-16 8-44 8-54 8-65 8-68 8 - 70 8-71 8-13 8-74 8-75 8-76 8-78

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XX111 Table Number 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 8.21 8-22 8.23 8.24 8.25 8.26 8.27 8.28 8.29 8.30 8.31 8.32 8.33 Research and Development Expenditures in Industrial Sector (1963-1964) Percentage of Funds for Industrial Research and Development Coming from Industry (1963-1964) Percentage of Funds for Industrial Research and Development Coming from Government C1963-1964) Qualified Scientists and Engineers Working on Research and Development in Industrial Sector CNumbers in full-time equivalents) Total Western Europe Research and Development Effort in Certain Industries vs. U.S. (1963-1964) CU.S, = 100> Distribution and Trend of Governmental R&D Expenditures (1961-1969) Highly-Qualified Manpower as Percentage of Industrial Sector (1963/1964) Data on Basic Research (B.R.) (1963/1964) National Research and Development Program in Japan Main Products of Japanese Technology Merits and Dermerits of New Processes or Techniques in Japan Positive and Negative Effects of Main Products in Japan New Processes or Products and Their Effect in Mitigating or Eliminating Negative Effects Private Industry's Expenditures for Development of Pollution Control Technology in Japan (1969) Principal Technical Methods for Pollution Control Research and Development Budgets by Ministry in Japan (1971-1972) Trend of R&D Budgets in Japan by Allocated Ares (1968 to 1972) Page Number 8-80 8-81 8-82 8-83 8-84 8 - 85 8-86 8-88 8-92 8-95 8-97 8-98 8-99 8-101 8-102 8-105 8-106

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XXIV Table Number 8.34 8.35 8.36 8.37 8.38 8.39 8.40 8.41 8.42 8.43A 8.43B 8.44 8.45 8.46 8.47 Ratios of Public vs. Private R&D Disbursements, 1965 Through 1971 Industrial Research and Development Expenditures in Japan (1965, 1910, and 1971) Ratios of Industrial Research and Development Expenditures to Sales by Industry (%) Industrial Research and Development Expenditures by Three Areas in Japan Allocation of Industrial Research and Development Expenditures by Industry and by Three Research Areas in Japan (1971) Research and Development Expenditures by Governmental Agencies in the U.K. (1971-1972) Analysis of Support Given Through the Science Research Council in the U.K. U.K. Science Research Council Program Analysis (1970-1971) Government Research Institutes in Japan C1971-1972) - Those that bear some relation to the field of materials science and engineering Annual Expenditure of Research Associations in the U.K. (1963) Numbers of Staff in Research Associations in the U.K. (1963) Nongrant Aided Co-Operative Industrial Research Associations with Subscribing Members in the U.K. C1963) Institutes Primarily Concerned with Metals Research in Germany Suggested Typical Sizes of Research and Development Staff According to Area of Technology Relative GNP Performance Page Number 8-107 8-108 8-110 8-111 8-112 8-132 8-138 8-140 8-147 8-150 8-152 8-155 8-16 8-168 8-18

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xxv Table Number 8.48 8.49 8.50 8.51 8.52 8.53 8.54 8.55 8.56 8.57 8.58 8.59 8.60 Economic Trends - Average Annual Rate of Growth (Percent) Rank in Each Category of Economic Performance Indicators Productivity Comparisons in the Iron and Steel Industry Trends in Capital Investment U.S. Trade Balance in Illustrative Product Categories U.S. Foreign Trade in Manufactured Goods, 1970, and Trade Patterns, 1925-1910 1970 Industrial Profiles Processes of Foreign Derivation used by the American Steel Industry and Related Industries Some Innovations in Metallurgical Processes Patents Issued in the Nonferrous Metals Sector in Selected Countries Location of R&D Activities in the Nonferrous Metals Sector Around 1956 Orientation of R&D Activities in the Nonferrous Metals Sector Around 1963/1964 (Percent of Total) Countries of First Commercial Exploitation of Some New Plastics Since 1945 8.61A Major Product Innovations in the Semiconductor Industry, 1951-1968 8.61B Major Process Innovations in the Semiconductor Industry, 1950-1968 8.62 Quantity (A) and Quality (B) Rankings of Scientific Literature in Selected Fields 8.63 Chemical Abstracts (in thousands) Page Number 8-182 8-184 8-185 8-187 8-189 8-190 8-196 8-210 8-211 8-215 8-217 8-217 8-223 8-228 8-231 8-246 8-248

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xxvi Table Number 8.64 Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory - Materials 8.65 Performance in Originating Innovations Page Number 8-249 8-286 . . .

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CHAPTER 8 ASPECTS OF MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY ABROAD* . *This chapter, prepared byA. G. Chynoweth, also draws on the work of COSMAT Pastel IV. Helpful inputs were received from several individuals overseas, including: (Denmark) N. Meyer; (Finland) E. Suoninen; (France) C. Dugas, J.-C. Poree and M. Servant; (Italy) U. Colombo; (Japan) E. Nagasawa, S. Onogi, I. Sakurada, and I. Shuhara; (United Kingdom) Sir Kenneth Berrill, Sir Brian Flowers, C. Freeman, A. B. Hammond, and W. Marshall; tWest Germany) G. W. Becker, H. Queisser, E. Kirste, and Graf Schwerin Krosigk.

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