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A REVIEW OF SELECTED ACTIVITIES IN THE OFFICE OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE A Report by-the Study Panel on the Office of Telecommunications of the Committee on Telecommunications-Computer Applications Assembly of Engineering National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WASHINGTON, D. C. 1978

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NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members ~ drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedure approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This report represents work under Contract 5-35616 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Commerce. The contract was funded by the Department of Commerce. Copies of this publication are available, under accession number NRC/TELECOM/78/3, from: National Technical Information Services Department of Commerce 5825 Port Royal Road Springfield, Virginia 22161 Printed in the United States of America

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MEMBERS, STUDY PANEL ON THE OFFICE OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS Jack A. Baird (Chairman) Vice President, Customer Services American Telephone & Telegraph Company John F. Clark Director, Space Applications & Technology RCA Corporation Lee L. Davenport* Vice President-Chief Scientist General Telephone & Electronics Corporation William L. Everitt Dean Emeritus, College of Engineering University of Illinois Robert D. Maurer Manager, Special Projects, Optical Wave Technology Corning Glass Works Research and Development Laboratories Lawrence G. Roberts Chairman of the Board Telenet Communications Corporation Albert D. Wheelon Vice President and Group Executive, Space and Communications Group Hughes Aircraft Company STAFF: R. V. Mrozinski Principal Staff Officer Steven C. Johnson Staff Economist Jean Cleveland Administrative Assistant *Ex Officio as Chairman, Committee on Telecommunications-Computer Applications

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MEMBERS, COMMITTEE ON TELECOMMUNICATIONS-COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Lee L. Davenport (Chairman) Vice President-Chief Scientist General Telephone & Electronics Corporation Louis T. Rader (Deputy Chairman) Professor of Electrical Engineering and Business Administration University of Virginia Jack A. Baird Vice President, Customer Services American Telephone & Telegraph Company Henri G. Busignies Chief Scientist Emeritus International Telephone & Telegraph Corporation J. C. R. Licklider Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Massachusetts Institute of Technology Robert D. Maurer Manager, Special Projects, Optical Wave Technology Corning Glass Works Research and Development Laboratories Sidney Metzger Assistant Vice President and Chief Scientist Communications Satellite Corporation Lawrence G. Roberts Chairman of the Board Telenet Communications Corporation Glen O. Robinson University of Virginia Law School Joseph E. Rowe Provost, Case Institute of Technology Case Western Reserve University

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. Herbert Sherman Associate Director for Technology Center for the Analysis of Health Practices Harvard School of Public Health Harry M. Trebing Director, Institute of Public Utilities Michigan State University H. Mitchell Watson, Jr. Assistant Group Executive, Marketing Group IBM Corporation Graham W. Watt President National Training and Development Service Staff: R. V. Mrozinski Executive Director Frank M. Snyder Deputy Executive Director Steven C. Johnson Staff Economist Jean Cleveland Administrative Assistant Gwynne Ellsworth Administrative Secretary Margaret A. Smith Administrative Secretary

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OT INVOLVEMENT IN SIGNIFICANT TECHNOLOGIES Direct Satellite Communications Land Mobile Radio Fiber Optics Broadband Communications 1 2 3 5 5 UTILITY AND FEASIBILITY OF SELECTED OT ACTIVITIES 8 Electromagnetic Spectrum Use Radio Propagation Data Communications Performance Standards Information Sector Analysis 9 11 12 12