numerous IOM committees including the Committee on Halcion, the Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and Gender Differences, and the Committee to Assess the System for the Protection of Human Research Subjects.

Cindy L.Christiansen, Ph.D. is chief of the Statistics Section, Center for Health Quality, Outcomes, and Economic Research at Bedford Veterans Affairs and an associate professor of health services at Boston University. Dr. Christiansen serves as chair of the American Statistical Association Section on Health Policy Statistics. She is one of the country’s leading experts on hierarchical and predictive models and their use in health services research. Her research interests include the development and implementation of multi-level and prediction models for health service and medical applications, and her methodological work has focused on Poisson models and on models for grouped ordinal data.

Alice M.Clark, Ph.D. holds her Ph.D. in pharmacognosy from the University of Mississippi and serves as Vice Chancellor for Research and Sponsored Programs, Frederick A.P.Barnard Distinguished Professor of Pharmacognosy and research professor of the Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Mississippi. Prior to assuming her current position in July 2001, Dr. Clark was director of the National Center for Natural Products Research, which operates as a drug discovery and development program that works on acquisition, preparation, and in vitro evaluation of extracts of higher plants for beneficial activity. It combines drug discovery, in vitro, and in vivo evaluations of efficacy and toxicity, working in collaboration with USDA’s Agriculture Research Service and industry to develop therapeutics from plants. Faculty at the Center conduct research on dietary supplements and potential therapeutics. The Center is well known for its efforts in enhancing the safety and efficacy of botanical dietary supplements. Dr. dark’s research interests are in evaluation of natural compounds for antibiotic and antifungal activity, as well as in the utilization of microorganisms as predictive models for drug metabolism and as synthetic adjuncts. She is part of an NCNPR group working on a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded project to evaluate the potential for botanical dietary supplements to interact with pharmaceuticals, to review the scientific literature on specific botanicals, and to review consumer use of botanical dietary supplements. Dr. Clark also serves as associate editor for the Journal of Natural Products.

Norman R.Farnsworth, Ph.D. is a distinguished university professor, research professor of pharmacognosy, director of the Pharmacognosy Graduate Program, and the director of the Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). Dr. Farnsworth also serves as director of the UIC/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Dietary Supplements Research Center. He is credited with designing a worldwide computer database called NAPRALERT that compiles scientific literature on the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines, plants, marine organisms, and fungi. As director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, Dr. Farnsworth has used this database to lead the WHO’S publication of numerous monographs reviewing traditional medicinals. He is a member of Health Canada’s Expert Advisory Committee on Natural Health Products and served on the Commission on Dietary Supplement Labels authorized by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994. Dr. Farnsworth serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Herb Research Foundation, the Board of Trustees of the American Botanical Council, and the editorial advisory board of several peer-reviewed journals and Herbalgram. He



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