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Balancing and Sharing Political Power in Multiethnic Societies BALANCING AND SHARING POLITICAL POWER IN MULTIETHNIC SOCIETIES Summary of a Workshop Lee Walker and Paul C.Stern, editors Committee on International Conflict and Cooperation Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1993
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Balancing and Sharing Political Power in Multiethnic Societies National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The workshop was supported by the John D. and Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation and the U.S. Institute of Peace. The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Institute of Peace or the MacArthur Foundation. Available from: Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Balancing and Sharing Political Power in Multiethnic Societies WORKSHOP PRESENTERS* JOHN COMAROFF (Cochair), Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago VALERY TISHKOV (Cochair), Director, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences ILGA APINE, Institute of Philosophy and Sociology, Academy of Sciences of Latvia LEOKADIIA DROBIZHEVA, Department of Ethnic Psychology, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences ELIZABETH KISS, Center for Ethics and Public Policy, Harvard University RAIL' KUZEYEV, Corresponding Member, Academy of Sciences of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Russian Federation GAIL LAPIDUS, Center for Slavic and East European Studies, University of California, Berkeley CAROLE NAGENGAST, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Irvine EDUARD OZHIGANOV, Division for Political Analysis and Prognoses, Soviet of Nationalities, Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation MIKHAIL SAAKASHVILI, State Committee on Nationalities Affairs, Government of Georgia KHALJIGIT SANAKULOV, Department of Ethnography, Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan STANLEY TAMBIAH, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University VIKTOR VIKTORIN, Department of Nationalities Policies, Government of Astrakhan, Russian Federation CRAWFORD YOUNG, Department of Political Science, University of Wisconsin STAFF YELENA SOROKINA, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences PAUL C.STERN, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council LEE WALKER, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council ANATOLY YAMSKOV, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences * In addition to the presenters, the workshop was attended by some 80 others from research institutes, government agencies, and independent organizations in Russia, autonomous regions within the Russian Federation, and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union. Several of these participants made significant contributions to the discussion.
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Balancing and Sharing Political Power in Multiethnic Societies COMMITTEE ON INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT AND COOPERATION SIDNEY VERBA (Chair), Department of Government, Harvard University GEORGE W.BRESLAUER, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley JOHN COMAROFF, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago LYNN R.EDEN, Department of History, Carnegie-Mellon University BARRY EICHENGREEN, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT W.FOGEL, Center for Population Economics, University of Chicago WILLIAM A.GAMSON, Department of Sociology, Boston College ALBERT O.HIRSCHMAN, Center for Advanced Study, Princeton ROBERT KEOHANE, Department of Government, Harvard University GAIL LAPIDUS, Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley DUNCAN LUCE, School of Social Science, University of California, Irvine JACK SNYDER, Department of Political Science, Columbia University CHARLES TILLY, Center for Studies of Social Change, New School for Social Research PAUL C.STERN, Study Director LEE WALKER, Senior Program Associate MARY E.THOMAS, Senior Program Assistant
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Balancing and Sharing Political Power in Multiethnic Societies CONTENTS PREFACE vii ETHNICITY, NATIONALISM, AND ETHNIC CONFLICT 1 The Nature of Ethnicity; Views of Nationalism; Nationalist Claims and Nation Building; The Power of National Myths; Nationalism on the Territory of the Former Soviet Union; A Typology of Ethnic Conflicts in the Former Soviet Union CHALLENGES OF INTERETHNIC RELATIONS 8 Nationalism and Democratization; Group Rights and Human Rights; Self-Determination BALANCING AND SHARING POWER 13 Multiethnicity as a Typical Condition; ''Just'' Boundaries; Can Nationalism Be Compatible with Human Rights? THE SEARCH FOR INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES FOR BALANCING POWER 15 Group-Blind Institutions; Institutions Based on Group Rights; Institutions Designed to Transcend Group Interests CONCLUSIONS 19 REFERENCES 20 APPENDIX: PAPERS AND PRESENTATIONS 21
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Balancing and Sharing Political Power in Multiethnic Societies The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M.White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the service of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with the general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M.White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Balancing and Sharing Political Power in Multiethnic Societies PREFACE This report summarizes discussions at a workshop, “Balancing and Sharing Political Power in Multiethnic Societies,” held in Moscow on January 25–27, 1993. The meeting was jointly sponsored by the Committee on International Conflict and Cooperation of the National Research Council and the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Approximately 100 scholars and policy practitioners from various parts of the Russian Federation and other countries on the territory of the former Soviet Union, as well as a select group of Western researchers, engaged in wide-ranging discussions on the nature and sources of ethnicity, nationalism, and ethnic conflict in multiethnic societies. The three-day workshop was organized into five half-day paper sessions, each including an extensive discussion period; an evening session focused on a recent violent conflict involving the Ingush of North Ossetia; and a final round-table session that provided several participants an opportunity to present their views of the workshop discussions. Most of the workshop discussion time was devoted to reflections by participants from the successor states to the former Soviet Union on ethnic relations in particular areas and on policies that might prevent, manage, or ameliorate ethnic conflict. A major focus of the workshop was on the institutions, processes, and strategies for conflict management that balance competing communal interests in democratic, multiethnic states. The workshop organizers anticipated that a broad consideration of the experiences of many countries would suggest approaches applicable to the contemporary situation within and between the successor states to the Soviet Union. The importance of the topics discussed—nationalism, human rights, and democratization—and the tremendous interest in strategies that can effectively safeguard and balance diverse ethnic interests in multiethnic states produced a large and diverse turnout at the workshop. Participation by individuals from throughout the Russian Federation, Central Asia, the Baltic, and beyond enriched the debate, but the number and diversity of the participants made it difficult to discuss particu-
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Balancing and Sharing Political Power in Multiethnic Societies lar institutional arrangements or strategies in any great depth or in particular national contexts. Workshop organizers and participants considered the meeting to be an excellent first step in what should be an ongoing dialogue. Future collaborations are now being planned that will follow the topics discussed at this workshop and allow participants to analyze in greater depth and in the light of comparative knowledge various policy options that might be implemented in the successor states to the Soviet Union. We anticipate that these collaborations will include discussions in autonomous political regions outside Moscow, where political systems are being redesigned and the experiences of other multiethnic societies may be of the greatest practical use. The workshop would not have been possible without the long-term commitment of the cochairs, John Comaroff and Valery Tishkov, who foresaw the importance of the activity in 1990 and were active at all stages. The staff of the Committee on International Conflict and Cooperation and the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology were also indispensable for their persistence, commitment, and organizational efforts. Special thanks are due to Lee Walker, Paul Stern, and Mary Thomas at the committee and Anatoly Yamskov and Yelena Sorokina at the institute. The transformation of a long and full workshop program into a coherent summary document is due to the work of Lee Walker and Paul Stern, at the committee, and the institute staff, who translated the report into Russian. Finally, we gratefully acknowledge the support of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the United States Institute of Peace, which provided funds for U.S. participation and for producing the report, and the Russian Academy of Sciences, which provided support on the Russian side. Sidney Verba, Chair Committee on International Conflict and Cooperation