press cell growth. Inheriting an altered version of BRCA1 predisposes an individual to breast, ovarian, or prostate cancer.

BRCA2 gene.

A breast cancer gene located on chromosome 13.


Any substance that causes cancer.


Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.


A section of DNA (three nucleotide pairs in length) or RNA (three nucleotides in length) that codes for a single amino acid. A sequence of three RNA or DNA nucleotides that specifies (codes for) either an amino acid or the termination of translation.

DNA methylation.

Modification of a DNA molecule by the addition of a methyl group.


The sum total of all the conditions and elements that make up the surroundings and influence the development and actions of an individual.


Altering the activity of genes without changing their structure.

Ewing’s sarcoma.

A highly malignant, metastasizing, primitive small round cell tumor of bone, usually occurring in the diaphyses of long bones, ribs, and flat bones of children or adolescents.

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).

Multiple adenomatous polyps with high malignant potential, lining the mucous membrane of the intestine, particularly the colon, beginning at about puberty.


The total set of genes carried by an individual or cell.


The specific allelic composition of a cell—either of the entire cell or, more commonly, of a certain gene or set of genes. The genes that an organism possesses.


An extremely common benign tumor, occurring most commonly in infancy and childhood, made up of newly formed blood vessels and resulting from malformation of angioblastic tissue of fetal life.

Hepatocellular carcinoma.

A type of adenocarcinoma, the most common type of liver tumor.


The ability or capacity to develop an immune response (i.e., antibody production and/or cell-mediated immunity) following exposure to an antigen.

Li–Fraumeni syndrome.

Li–Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an inherited form of cancer, affecting children and young adults and characterized by a wide

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