types of MNC molecules. Individual patients can react against multiple antigens. It is the cellular arm of the immune response that is predominantly involved in immune reactivities, and a key question is whether we can use this information to generate antitumor T cells by immunizing patients using a vaccine.

In a pilot trial, we demonstrated that a modified peptide could consistently immunize cancer patients and generate T cells in their circulation that can recognize the cancer. Work by us and others has opened new possibilities for the development of effective immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer.

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