2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. CMRC/WASC/NOAA 50ABNF-0-00013 (BAA00360) between the National Academy of Sciences and Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number: 0-309-08473-3

Copies of this report are available from:

Polar Research Board, TNA 751

500 5th Street, NW

Washington, DC 20001



National Academy Press
2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 800–624–6242 202–334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area)

Cover: The background is a SeaWiFS satellite image showing the brilliant phytoplankton bloom in the Gulf of Alaska. This photo was provided by the SeaWiFS Project, National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE. The second image, the inlay of the two Orcas, Orcinus orca, affectionately known as Maverick and his wingman Iceman, was taken in June 1992 by Retired Commander John Bortniak of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Corps. Photo courtesy of NOAA photo library. Cover design by Van Nguyen of the National Academy Press.

Printed in the United States of America

Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement