RICHARD L.GARWIN (NAS, NAE, IOM) is the Phillip D.Reed Senior Fellow for Science and Technology at the Council on Foreign Relations, New York, and an emeritus Fellow at the T.J.Watson Research Center of IBM. His expertise in experimental and computation physics includes contributions to nuclear weapons design, instruments and electronics for nuclear and low-temperature physics, computer elements and systems, superconducting devices, communications systems, behavior of solid helium, and detection of gravitational radiation. He was a member of the President’s Science Advisory Committee from 1962–65 and 1969–72, and of the Defense Science Board from 1966–69. He currently consults for the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and the Council on Foreign Relations, and is an active member of the JASONs. In 1998, he was a member of the 9-person Rumsfeld Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States. He has written extensively on nuclear-weapons-related issues over the course of several decades, particularly on the question of maintaining the nuclear stockpile under a comprehensive test ban regime. He chaired the State Department’s Arms Control and Nonproliferation Advisory Board from 1993 to August, 2001. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a member of the American Philosophical Society.

RAYMOND JEANLOZ is a Professor in Earth and Planetary Science and in Astronomy, and is Executive Director of the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science at the University of California at Berkeley. His expertise is in the properties of materials at high pressures and temperatures and in the nature of planetary interiors, for which he received a MacArthur Award. He serves on the University of California’s President’s Council and National Security Panel, is a member of the National Nuclear Security Administration Advisory Committee and of JASON, and chairs the NRC Board on Earth Sciences and Resources. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Geophysical Union.

SPURGEON M.KEENY, JR. is Senior Fellow, National Academy of Sciences. He served as an Air Force officer and civilian in the Directorate of Intelligence, HQ, USAF (1948–1954) in charge of the Special Weapons Section, responsible for intelligence on the Soviet nuclear weapons program and represented the Air Force on the Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Committee, which produced national estimates of Soviet capabilities. Starting in 1956, he was in charge of the Atomic Energy Division, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Engineering, Department of Defense, and was a member of the Gaither Security Resources Panel. In 1958, he was a delegate to the Geneva Conference of Experts on Nuclear Test Detection and subsequently to the negotiations on the Discontinuance of Nuclear Weapon Tests (1958–1960). From 1958 to 1969 he served as the technical assistant to the President’s Science Advisor and concurrently from 1963 to 1969 as a senior member of the National Security Council staff, responsible for arms control and nuclear programs and policy. In 1965, he was staff director of the (Gilpatric) Presidential Committee on Nuclear Proliferation. From 1969 to 1973, he was Assistant Director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), responsible for backstopping the SALT I negotiations, and from 1973 to 1977 he was Director, Policy and Program Development, MITRE Corporation and Chairman of the Nuclear Energy Policy Study Group which produced the report Nuclear Power Issues and Choices. From 1977 to 1981 he was Deputy Director of ACDA, responsible for backstopping the SALT II and Comprehensive Test Ban negotiations. From 1981 to 1985 he was the NAS scholar-in-residence. From 1985 to 2001 he was President

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