85 and 1993–94) and served as a member of the Red Team advising the Agency on the capability of the U.S. to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1997–1998). He spent a sabbatical at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1989–90). During the CTBT negotiations in Geneva he presented an experts paper (1994) for the U.S. on the problems posed by chemical explosions. He is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and former president of its seismology section. Dr. Richards is currently a member of the Board of the Seismological Society of America.

SEYMOUR SACK retired in 1990 after a career at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where he still consults. In his career he specialized in nuclear weapons design. He played a major role in the design of the “physics package” of many of the nuclear weapons in the current U.S. arsenal, and managed the development of two weapons systems still in the current stockpile. He participated in the JASON 1995 study on maintaining the nuclear stockpile under a comprehensive test ban. He is a recipient of the E.O. Lawrence Award (1973) from DOE and the Fleet Ballistic Missile Achievement Award from the U.S. Navy’s Strategic Systems Program (1997).

ALVIN W.TRIVELPIECE (NAE) is a consultant at Sandia National Laboratories. Previously he was President, Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation and Director, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1989–2000). He was Executive Director of the AAAS (1987–1988), and the Director (1981–1987) of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Research (now Science). He was the Head-of-Delegation to the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy meeting between the United States and the Soviet Union (1986). He served as Chairman of the NAS Mathematical Science Education Board (1990–1995) and has served on numerous NRC committees. His formal training is in electrical engineering and physics. His research specialties include plasma physics, microwave devices, and particle accelerators.

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