quantum effects on very narrow gates and when it goes beyond the use of copper as an interconnect. In other words, it now funds longer-range, mission-oriented research in universities aimed at solving particular R&D problems.

Concluding Points on a National Initiative . . .

Dr. Wessner recalled Dr. Spencer’s reference to “selling” SEMATECH when the industry, despite its military importance, was under great threat. Members of the optoelectronics industry also face the challenge of trying to sell an opportunity and a somewhat distant threat.

A second issue is the desire to form quickly a U.S. consortium to help U.S firms become competitive in the global market. In today’s global economy the major lighting companies are international, and consortia tend to be international as well. SEMATECH solved that in two stages, moving from a national to an international stance. One could argue in favor of forming an international consortium once a position of strength has been achieved.

He reemphasized the importance of industry leadership and persistence. During the mid-1980s, the government was opposed to the idea of SEMATECH, and a sustained effort by Clark McFadden and many others from the private and public sector was required to convince government leaders to support a partnership.

A final challenge is how to create a new industry for general lighting in parallel with a second effort to transform building and architectural lighting. Again, the initiative of private industry in providing funds for the Semiconductor Research Corporation may be relevant. Although the private sector should not be alone in taking such initiatives, it may be that innovations must begin there.

. . . and a Final Note of Optimism

Dr. Spencer echoed a point made earlier by Dr. Trimble. A governmentindustry partnership is best shaped by not restricting the natural innovative energy of private firms. Valuable collaborations can be created between ongoing research programs in government labs and federally funded, university-based R&D. He suggested a strong effort to leverage programs that now exist and to include private funding mechanisms, including venture capital firms. He concluded the symposium on a note of optimism, suggesting that both the private and government sectors had showed the ability and willingness to create the productive collaborations needed to bring solid-state lighting to a far larger marketplace.

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