Emerging Animal Diseases

Global Market, Global Safety

A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

By

Debra P. Davis

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

National Research Council



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the group responsible for the planning of the workshop were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This summary has been reviewed by a group other than the author(s) according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This workshop was supported by the National Academies. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08468-7 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

OCR for page R1
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. iii

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
PLANNING GROUP FOR A WORKSHOP ON EMERGING ANIMAL DISEASES BARBARA P. GLENN, Chair, Federation of Animal Science Societies, Bethesda, MD DALE E. BAUMAN, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY LONNIE J. KING, Michigan State University, East Lansing WHITNEY MACMILLAN, Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, MN GARY D. OSWEILER, Iowa State University, Ames NANCY J. RACHMAN, Novigen Sciences, Inc., Washington, DC Science Writer DEBRA P. DAVIS, Alexandria, VA Staff TINA I. ROUSE, Study Director MICHAEL R. KISIELEWSKI, Research Assistant CINDY LOCHHEAD, Project Assistant STEPHANIE PADGHAM, Project Assistant v

OCR for page R1
BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES HARLEY W. MOON, Chair, Iowa State University, Ames CORNELIA B. FLORA, Iowa State University, Ames ROBERT B. FRIDLEY, University of California, Davis BARBARA P. GLENN, Federation of Animal Science Societies, Bethesda, MD W. R. GOMES, University of California, Oakland LINDA F. GOLODNER, National Consumers League, Washington, DC PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN, Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, MA GEORGE R. HALLBERG, The Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham, MA CALESTOUS JUMA, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA GILBERT A. LEVEILLE, Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, MI WHITNEY MACMILLAN, Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, MI TERRY L. MEDLEY, DuPont BioSolutions Enterprise, Wilmington, DE WILLIAM L. OGREN, retired, Hilton Head Island, SC ALICE N. PELL, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY NANCY J. RACHMAN, Novigen Sciences, Inc., Washington, DC G. EDWARD SCHUH, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis BRIAN J. STASKAWICZ, University of California, Berkeley JOHN W. SUTTIE, University of Wisconsin, Madison JAMES H. TUMLINSON, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Gainesville, FL JAMES J. ZUICHES, Washington State University, Pullman Staff CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Director JULIE ANDREWS, Senior Project Assistant vi

OCR for page R1
Preface The recent appearance of certain animal diseases, both familiar and novel, accidental and deliberate, has put the U.S. veterinary, medical, food, and regulatory systems on notice. Increase in global trade has been identified as a key factor in the appearance, control, and prevention of emerging animal diseases, since the most common source of recent animal disease outbreaks is the importation of pathogens. These concerns have raised questions about our scientific knowledge and nationwide preparedness. On January 15th, 2002, the National Academies’ Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources of the Division on Earth and Life Studies held a workshop on “Emerging Animal Diseases: Global Markets, Global Safety,” where leading scientists and policymakers discussed issues such as the potential for animal diseases to reach epidemic proportions, mechanisms in place to prevent and control these diseases in the immediate and long-term, and impacts of diseases on industries, populations, and international trade. This summary describes the issues presented and discussed by the workshop participants. vii

OCR for page R1
viii PREFACE The workshop’s original stated task was to discuss the realm of potentially threatening animal diseases, current strategies to prevent their introduction and spread in the United States, as well as future needs for protection. Major objectives of the workshop include: (1) elucidating information on the U.S. position with regard to potentially threatening animal diseases; (2) identifying critical problems, barriers, and data gaps; and (3) defining potential future National Academies’ activities. Planning for the workshop was begun prior to the tragic events of September 11th, and the subsequent deliberately introduced outbreak of anthrax. In responding to changing public health and safety concerns, the workshop agenda was modified to encompass both intentional and accidental introductions. The workshop was designed to explore the following topics: · The British battle against foot-and-mouth disease · Global security in a global economy · Animal pathogens: What should we be looking for? · Detection and prediction: How will we know it’s a problem? · Disease diagnostics: How can we identify it—quickly, cheaply, and accurately? · Treatment and eradication: How do we get rid of it? A steering group assisted NRC staff in planning the workshop, and consisted of Barbara P. Glenn (chair), Federation of Animal Science Societies; Dale E. Bauman, Cornell University; Lonnie J. King, Michigan State University; Whitney Macmillan, Cargill, Inc. (Retired); Gary D. Osweiler, Iowa Sate University; and Nancy J. Rachman, Novigen Sciences, Inc. The planning group suggested topics and speakers and provided comments on the drafts of the workshop agenda; they did not participate in the preparation of the workshop summary. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with the procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the workshop charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Bernadette Dunham of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Washington, DC; Mo Salman of Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado; and James Schaub of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

OCR for page R1
PREFACE ix Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Shadduck of Optibrand, Ft. Collins, Colorado. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the author and the institution.

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Contents WORKSHOP SUMMARY Introduction 1 FMD and BSE in the United Kingdom 4 Potential Threats to Animal Health and Food Safety 11 U.S. Vulnerability and Response Capabilities 14 Detection, Data Collection, and Reporting 19 Critical Role of Science and Research 23 Role of Communication and Education 27 Summary 29 Appendix A Workshop Agenda 31 Appendix B Speaker Biographies 35 xi

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1