gree in the United States. The survey was begun in 1958 by NSF and cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Education, National Institutes of Health, National Endowment for the Humanities, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. It includes information on demographic characteristics such as date of birth, marital status, education of parents, and geographic location of high school attended (Sanderson and Dugoni, 1999). There are also questions about field of training, sources of financial support during graduate education, and postgraduate employment plans. NSF issues an annual report which provides the same information just on the science and engineering doctorates (Hill, 1999).
The SDR is a longitudinal demographic survey of science and engineering doctorate holders conducted biennially for the NSF and other federal agencies since 1973. In this survey, a sample of holders of doctorates in science and engineering earned at U.S. institutions is followed throughout their careers from year of degree award until age 76. Every 2 years, a sample of new S&E doctoral degree earners is added to the SDR from the SED. In 1999, for example, the sample frame included U.S.-earned S&E doctorates through the 1998 academic year. Detailed statistical tables in this report provide information on the number of scientists and engineers by demographic characteristic such as citizenship, place of birth, field of degree, and employment-related characteristic such as occupation, sector of employment, median salary, and various labor force statistics (e.g., unemployment rate).
Stephan, in her background paper, used data from the SDR to illustrate three trends in the deployment of skilled human resources that reflect changes in the structure of innovation. First, in all S&E fields there is a marked increase in the share of PhDs working in industry. Second, with the exception of chemistry, the share of PhDs employed in manufacturing industries has declined over time. Third, an increasing number of PhDs in industry are not engaged in R&D or R&D management.
The NSCG was first administered in 19931 and biennially thereafter to a nationally representative sample of all college degree holders who were identified through the 1990 decennial census. The target population