FLORIDA BAY RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN

Committee on Restoration of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem

Water Science and Technology Board

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan FLORIDA BAY RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN Committee on Restoration of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem Water Science and Technology Board Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Supported by the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force, U.S. Department of the Interior, under assistance of Cooperative Agreement No. 5280-9-9029. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08491-1 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V.Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan COMMITTEE ON RESTORATION OF THE GREATER EVERGLADES ECOSYSTEM (CROGEE)1 JEAN M.BAHR2, Chair, University of Wisconsin, Madison SCOTT W.NIXON2, Vice-Chair, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett JOHN S.ADAMS, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis LINDA K.BLUM2, University of Virginia, Charlottesville PATRICK L.BREZONIK2, University of Minnesota, St. Paul FRANK W.DAVIS, University of California, Santa Barbara WAYNE C.HUBER2, Oregon State University, Corvallis STEPHEN R.HUMPHREY, University of Florida, Gainesville DANIEL P.LOUCKS, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York KENNETH W.POTTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison LARRY ROBINSON, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee REBECCA R.SHARITZ, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina, and University of Georgia, Athens HENRY J.VAUX, JR. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oakland JOHN VECCHIOLI, U.S. Geological Survey (ret.), Odessa, Florida JEFFREY R.WALTERS, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg NRC Staff STEPHEN D.PARKER, Director, Water Science and Technology Board DAVID J.POLICANSKY, Associate Director, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology WILLIAM S.LOGAN2, Senior Staff Officer, Water Science and Technology Board PATRICIA JONES KERSHAW, Staff Associate, Water Science and Technology Board 1   The activities of the Committee on Restoration of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem (CROGEE) are overseen and supported by the NRC’s Water Science and Technology Board (lead) and Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. 2   A subgroup consisting of CROGEE members Wayne Huber (subgroup chair), Linda Blum, Patrick Brezonik, Scott Nixon, and CROGEE chair Jean Bahr, with support by NRC senior staff officer William Logan, took the lead in drafting the report.

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD RICHARD G.LUTHY, Chair, Stanford University, Stanford, California JOAN B.ROSE, Vice Chair, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg RICHELLE M.ALLEN-KING, Washington State University, Pullman GREGORY B.BAECHER, University of Maryland, College Park KENNETH R.BRADBURY, Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey, Madison JAMES CROOK, CH2M Hill, Boston, Massachusetts EFI FOUFOULA-GEORGIOU, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis PETER GLEICK, Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security, Oakland, California JOHN LETEY, JR., University of California, Riverside DIANE M.MCKNIGHT, University of Colorado, Boulder CHRISTINE L.MOE, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia ROBERT PERCIASEPE, National Audubon Society, Washington, D.C. RUTHERFORD H.PLATT, University of Massachusetts, Amherst JERALD L.SCHNOOR, University of Iowa, Iowa City LEONARD SHABMAN, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg R.RHODES TRUSSELL, Montgomery Watson, Pasadena, California Staff STEPHEN D.PARKER, Director LAURA J.EHLERS, Senior Staff Officer JEFFREY W.JACOBS, Senior Staff Officer WILLIAM S.LOGAN, Senior Staff Officer MARK C.GIBSON, Staff Officer STEPHANIE E.JOHNSON, Consulting Staff Officer M.JEANNE AQUILINO, Administrative Associate ELLEN A.DE GUZMAN, Research Associate PATRICIA JONES KERSHAW, Study/Research Associate ANITA A.HALL, Administrative Assistant ANIKE L.JOHNSON, Project Assistant JON Q.SANDERS, Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY GORDON ORIANS (Chair), University of Washington, Seattle JOHN DOULL (Vice Chair), University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City DAVID ALLEN, University of Texas, Austin INGRID C.BURKE, Colorado State University, Fort Collins THOMAS BURKE, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland WILLIAM L.CHAMEIDES, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta CHRISTOPHER B.FIELD, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Stanford, California DANIEL S.GREENBAUM, Health Effects Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts BRUCE D.HAMMOCK, University of California, Davis ROGENE HENDERSON, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico CAROL HENRY, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, Virginia ROBERT HUGGETT, Michigan State University, East Lansing JAMES H.JOHNSON, Howard University, Washington, D.C. JAMES F.KITCHELL, University of Wisconsin, Madison DANIEL KREWSKI, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario JAMES A.MACMAHON, Utah State University, Logan WILLEM F.PASSCHIER, Health Council of the Netherlands, The Hague ANN POWERS, Pace University School of Law, White Plains, New York LOUISE M.RYAN, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts KIRK SMITH, University of California, Berkeley LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, New York Staff JAMES J.REISA, Director DAVID J.POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Senior Program Director for Applied Ecology RAYMOND A.WASSEL, Senior Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Program Director for the Committee on Toxicology ROBERTA M.WEDGE, Program Director for Risk Analysis K.JOHN HOLMES, Senior Staff Officer SUSAN N.J.MARTEL, Senior Staff Officer SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Staff Officer RUTH E.CROSSGROVE, Managing Editor

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan This page in the original is blank.

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Preface This report is a product of the Committee on Restoration of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem (CROGEE; an acronym list is given in Appendix A), which provides consensus advice to the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force (“Task Force”). The Task Force was established in 1993 and was codified in the 1996 Water Resources Development Act (WRDA); its responsibilities include the development of a comprehensive plan for restoring, preserving and protecting the South Florida ecosystem, and the coordination of related research. The CROGEE works under the auspices of the Water Science and Technology Board and the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology of the National Research Council. The CROGEE’s mandate includes providing the Task Force not only with scientific overview and technical assessment of the restoration activities and plans, but also providing focused advice on technical topics of importance to the restoration efforts. One such topic was to examine “the linkage between the upstream components of the greater Everglades and adjacent coastal ecosystems.” This report addresses this issue by breaking it down into three major questions: What is the present state of knowledge of Florida Bay (“the Bay”) on scientific issues that relate to the success of the overall CERP? What are the potential long-term effects of Everglades restoration as currently designed on the nature and condition of the Bay? What are the critical science questions that should be answered early in the restoration process to design a system that benefits not only the terrestrial and freshwater aquatic Everglades but the Bay as well? This study was inspired in part by the 2001 Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Science Conference held on April 23–26, 2001 in Key Largo, Florida. An overlapping meeting of the CROGEE was held at the same location on April 26–28, 2001. The conference was organized by the Program Management Committee (PMC) of the Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Science Program (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/flbay/). The PMC organized the conference around five questions suggested by the Florida Bay Science Oversight Panel (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/flbay/oversight_panel.html). These questions related to circulation, salinity patterns, and outflows of the Bay; nutrients and the nutrient budget; onset, persistence and fate of planktonic algal blooms; temporal and spatial changes in seagrasses and the hardbottom community; and recruitment, growth and survivorship of higher trophic level species (http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/ocd/sferpm/stratpla.html). Some of these issues are discussed in the present report. However, as noted earlier, this report focuses on the subset of questions that relate to linkages between the Bay and the upstream portion of the Everglades system that arose at the 2001 Florida Bay Conference. As such, many science issues of importance to the health of the Bay but not directly related

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan to the CERP are not discussed here, nor is this report intended to be a comprehensive review of the literature. The conference provided an excellent environment to engage Bay scientists formally and informally during poster sessions, “synthesis sessions,” and other venues. This report is based on an analysis of information presented at the Florida Bay Conference and a review of pertinent peer-reviewed literature. The CROGEE is grateful for the assistance of many individuals during the data collection phase of this report. These include Peter Ortner (NOAA), South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Working Group liaison to CROGEE; Terrence “Rock” Salt, Executive Director of the Task Force; members of the Program Management Committee and Florida Bay Science Oversight Panel of the Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Science Program; and the many scientists at the conference who freely shared their insights into the complex issues regarding the ecology, hydrology, and water quality of the Bay. I would also like to thank the CROGEE members for their work on this report, especially a subgroup led by Wayne Huber and including Linda Blum, Patrick Brezonik, and Scott Nixon who took the lead in drafting the report with assistance from NRC staff officer Will Logan. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Donald F.Boesch, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Christopher Field, Carnegie Institution of Washington Mandy Joye, University of Georgia W.Michael Kemp, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Diane McKnight, University of Colorado Len Pietrafesa, North Carolina State University Joe Rudek, North Carolina Environmental Defense Sybil Seitzinger, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO Y.Peter Sheng, University of Florida William Wise, University of Florida Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Jerry Robert Schubel, President and CEO, Aquarium of the Pacific, Long Beach, California. Appointed by the National Research Council, Dr. Schubel was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Jean M.Bahr, Chair Committee on Restoration of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   5 2   POTENTIAL EFFECT OF THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN (CERP) ON FLORIDA BAY   9 3   RESEARCH NEEDS   17 4   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   25     REFERENCES   29 APPENDIX A   ACRONYM LIST   35 APPENDIX B   DEFINITIONS OF MODEL RUNS OF THE SOUTH FLORIDA WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL (SFWMM) AND NATURAL SYSTEM MODEL (NSM)   37 APPENDIX C   BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE ON RESTORATION OF THE GREATER EVERGLADES ECOSYSTEM   39

OCR for page R1
Florida Bay Research Programs and their Relation to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan This page in the original is blank.