CHARLES C. J. CARPENTER, M.D., is professor of medicine at Brown University and director of the Brown University International Health Institute. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and has held offices in several national professional organizations. He chairs the AIDS Research Advisory Committee of the National Institutes of Health, is a member of the Committee on Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy of the Department of Health and Human Services, was a member of the Institute of Medicine panel on Priorities in Vaccine Development, and has served on numerous scientific advisory committees and panels. He is a principal investigator associated with the Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research, is the chair of the U.S. Delegation of the U.S.–Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, and has served as chair of the American Board of Internal Medicine and as president of the Association of American Physicians. He has received several awards for outstanding contributions to medicine.

CIRO A. de QUADROS, M.D., M.P.H., is director of the Division of Vaccines and Immunization, Pan American Health Organization. Dr. de Quadros served as a member of the Institute of Medicine Committee on Microbial Threats to Health and as a member of the Institute of Medicine Steering Committee on the Children’s Vaccine Initiative. He is a member of the American Public Health Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Global Health Council, the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and the European Society of Microbiology and Infectious Disease. His areas of interest and expertise include epidemiology, disease control, maternal and child health, vaccinology, and vaccine research. Dr. de Quadros has received many honors and awards including the 1988 Dean’s Medal awarded by the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, the 1990 International Child Survival Award from the USA Committee for UNICEF and the Carter Center, and the year 2000 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal awarded by the Sabin Vaccine Institute.

R. GORDON DOUGLAS, Jr., M.D., is a former president of the Merck Vaccine Division, Merck & Co. Inc., (he retired in May 1999). Until his retirement, he was primarily responsible for the research, development, and manufacturing and marketing of Merck’s vaccine products. Prior to joining Merck in 1989, Dr.Douglas was a career physician and academician, specializing in infectious diseases. From 1982 to 1990 he was professor of medicine and chairman, Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, and physician-in-chief, The New York Hospital. He also served as head of the Infectious Disease Unit at the University of Rochester School of Medicine. Dr. Douglas is a graduate of Princeton University and Cornell University Medical College. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the Association of American Physicians, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and numerous other organizations and has served on the National Vaccine Advisory Committee.

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