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H Body Composition Data Based on the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994 TABLE H-1 Body Measurement Summary Statistics, Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older, NHANES III (1988–1994) Standard Sex a nb Meanc Error c Measure Percent body fate M 7,324 21.9 0.1 F 7,724 32.4 0.2 Body mass index (kg/m2) M 7,918 26.5 0.1 F 8,522 26.4 0.1 Weight (kg) M 7,918 82.0 0.3 F 8,524 69.2 0.3 Height (cm) M 7,921 175.6 0.1 F 8,540 161.8 0.1 Waist circumference (cm) M 7,559 95.1 0.2 F 8,105 88.6 0.3 Triceps skinfold (mm)f M 7,532 13.1 0.1 F 7,870 23.5 0.2 a M = male, F = female. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. b n = Number of individuals with valid measurements; total sample size was 7,936 men and 8,553 women (nonpregnant/nonlactating). c Means and standard errors were calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. d Standard deviation = standard error multiplied by the square root of the sample size (n). e Percent body fat = 100 × (W – FFM)/W; FFM for each survey respondent was derived using the following equations: 1078

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1079 A PPENDIX H Standard Deviationd Minimum Maximum 11.6 0.4 49.4 17.8 0.6 58.6 7.8 13.8 70.2 11.7 11.7 79.6 29.4 38.4 241.8 31.1 31.2 213.5 9.9 139.4 206.5 9.9 126.9 183.1 18.6 58.9 174.1 30.2 57.5 170.4 9.7 2.6 46.8 15.2 1.9 48.5 FFM = –10.68 + 0.65 H2/R + 0.26 W + 0.02 R Men: Women: FFM = –9.53 + 0.69 H2/R + 0.17 W + 0.02 R where FFM = fat free mass (kg), H = height (cm), R = resistance (ohms), W = weight (kg). The estimate of FFM exceeded W for eight individuals; these individuals were excluded from analyses involving percent body fat. f Skinfold thickness exceeding 48.5 mm was too large for the caliper; measurements were not recorded for these individuals and they were excluded from analyses involving triceps skinfold. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS.

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1080 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE H-2 Body Measurement Summary Statistics, Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older with Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 and < 25 kg/m2, NHANES III (1988–1994) Standard Sex a nb Mean c Error c Measure Percent body fate M 2,828 17.6 0.1 F 2,899 26.7 0.2 BMI (kg/m 2) M 3,055 22.7 0.1 F 3,170 22.0 < 0.05 Weight (kg) M 3,055 69.7 0.3 F 3,170 57.9 0.1 Height (cm) M 3,055 175.3 0.2 F 3,170 162.3 0.1 Waist circumference (cm) M 2,907 84.7 0.2 F 3,024 78.0 0.2 Triceps skinfold (mm) M 2,937 9.7 0.1 F 3,039 18.2 0.1 a M = male, F = female. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. b n = Number of individuals with valid measurements; total sample size was 3,055 men and 3,170 women (nonpregnant/nonlactating). c Means and standard errors were calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. d Standard deviation = standard error multiplied by the square root of the sample size (n).

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1081 A PPENDIX H Standard Deviation d Minimum Maximum 7.8 0.4 31.7 8.9 6.8 37.8 3.2 18.5 24.9 2.2 18.5 24.9 13.9 40.7 103.5 6.9 32.5 79.1 10.9 142.7 206.5 7.7 126.9 183.1 8.9 62.8 106.0 13.4 59.4 114.3 5.6 2.8 28.9 7.2 1.9 40.0 e Percent body fat = 100 × (W – FFM)/W; FFM for each survey respondent was derived using the following equations: FFM = –10.68 + 0.65 H2/R + 0.26 W + 0.02 R Men: Women: FFM = –9.53 + 0.69 H2/R + 0.17 W + 0.02 R where FFM = fat free mass (kg), H = height (cm), R = resistance (ohms), W = weight (kg). The estimate of FFM exceeded W for four individuals; these individuals were excluded from analyses involving percent body fat. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS.

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1082 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE H-3 Regression Analysis of Body Measurements: Percent Body Fata Versus Body Mass Index (BMI), Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older, NHANES III (1988–1994) Results c Parameter Standard Error Sex (n )b Parameter Estimate of Estimate M (7,324) Intercept –4.3422 0.6765 BMI (kg/m2 ) 0.9921 0.0261 R square value 0.5549 F (7,724) Intercept 1.4303 0.6787 BMI (kg/m2 ) 1.1735 0.0256 R square value 0.7745 a Percent body fat = 100 × (W – FFM)/W; FFM for each survey respondent was derived using the following equations: FFM = –10.68 + 0.65 H2/R + 0.26 W + 0.02 R Men: Women: FFM = –9.53 + 0.69 H2/R + 0.17 W + 0.02 R where FFM = fat free mass (kg), H = height (cm), R = resistance (ohms), W = weight (kg). The estimate of FFM exceeded W for eight individuals; these individuals were excluded from analyses involving percent body fat.

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1083 A PPENDIX H Test for H0: Parameter = 0 Probability > |T| –6.4190 0.0000 38.0077 0.0000 2.1073 0.0399 45.8088 0.0000 b M = male, F = female, n = number of individuals with valid measurements. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactat- ing status were excluded from all analyses. c Regression calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS.

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1084 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE H-4 Regression Analysis of Body Measurements: Percent Body Fata Versus Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference, Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older, NHANES III (1988–1994) Resultsc Parameter Standard Error Sex (n )b Parameter Estimate of Estimate M (7,142) Intercept –11.8819 0.5909 BMI (kg/m2) 0.3632 0.0442 Waist circumference (cm) 0.2547 0.0134 R square value 0.6082 F (7,498) Intercept –3.5296 0.6029 BMI (kg/m2) 0.8294 0.0334 Waist circumference (cm) 0.1588 0.0085 R square value 0.7910 Numerator Degrees of F Value Freedom M Overall fit 1,669.3326 2 F Overall fit 1,812.6733 2 a Percent body fat = 100 × (W – FFM)/W; FFM for each survey respondent was derived using the following equations: FFM = –10.68 + 0.65 H2/R + 0.26 W + 0.02 R Men: Women: FFM = –9.53 + 0.69 H2/R + 0.17 W + 0.02 R where FFM = fat free mass (kg), H = height (cm), R = resistance (ohms), W = weight (kg). The estimate of FFM exceeded W for eight individuals; these individuals were excluded from analyses involving percent body fat.

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1085 A PPENDIX H Test for H0: Parameter = 0 Probability > |T| –20.1097 0.0000 8.2191 0.0000 18.9496 0.0000 –5.8545 0.0000 24.8456 0.0000 18.6091 0.0000 Denominator Degrees of Freedom Probability > F 51 0.0000 51 0.0000 b M = male, F = female, n = number of individuals with valid measurements. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactat- ing status were excluded from all analyses. c Regression calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS.

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1086 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE H-5 Regression Analysis of Body Measurements: Percent Body Fat Versus Body Mass Index (BMI) and Triceps Skinfold,a Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older, NHANES III (1988–1994) Results c Parameter Standard Error Sex ( n)b Parameter Estimate of Estimate M (7,091) Intercept –2.5154 0.5854 BMI (kg/m 2) 0.7997 0.0261 Triceps skinfold (mm) 0.2499 0.0162 R square value 0.5796 F (7,266) Intercept 1.1686 0.4238 BMI (kg/m 2) 0.9386 0.0214 Triceps skinfold (mm) 0.2765 0.0102 R square value 0.8167 Numerator Degrees of F Value Freedom M Overall fit 1,384.0891 2 F Overall fit 4,851.3613 2 a Percent body fat = 100 × (W – FFM)/W; FFM for each survey respondent was derived using the following equations: FFM = –10.68 + 0.65 H2/R + 0.26 W + 0.02 R Men: Women: FFM = –9.53 + 0.69 H2/R + 0.17 W + 0.02 R where FFM = fat free mass (kg), H = height (cm), R = resistance (ohms), W = weight (kg). The estimate of FFM exceeded W for eight individuals; these individuals were excluded from analyses involving percent body fat. Skinfold thickness exceeding 48.5

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1087 A PPENDIX H Test for H 0: Parameter = 0 Probability > |T| –4.2966 0.0001 30.5997 0.0000 15.4193 0.0000 2.7573 0.0080 43.9202 0.0000 26.9924 0.0000 Denominator Degrees of Freedom Probability > F 51 0.0000 51 0.0000 mm was too large for the caliper; measurements were not recorded for these individu- als. These individuals were excluded from analyses involving triceps skinfold. b M = male, F = female, n = number of individuals with valid measurements. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactat- ing status were excluded from all analyses. c Regression calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS.

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1088 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE H-6 Regression Analysis of Body Measurements: Percent Body Fata Versus Height, Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older, NHANES III (1988–1994) Results c Parameter Standard Error Sex (n )b Parameter Estimate of Estimate M (7,324) Intercept 21.6690 2.6860 Height (cm) 0.0016 0.0155 R square value 0 F (7,724) Intercept 42.4383 2.5259 Height (cm) –0.0620 0.0156 R square value 0.0026 a Percent body fat = 100 × (W – FFM)/W; FFM for each survey respondent was derived using the following equations: FFM = –10.68 + 0.65 H2/R + 0.26 W + 0.02 R Men: Women: FFM = –9.53 + 0.69 H2/R + 0.17 W + 0.02 R where FFM = fat free mass (kg), H = height (cm), R = resistance (ohms), W = weight (kg). The estimate of FFM exceeded W for eight individuals; these individuals were excluded from analyses involving percent body fat.

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1093 A PPENDIX H Test for H0: Parameter = 0 Probability > |T| 58.5945 0.0000 53.0528 0.0000 59.6845 0.0000 102.6052 0.0000 mm was too large for the caliper; measurements were not recorded for these individu- als. These individuals were excluded from analyses involving triceps skinfold. b M = male, F = female, n = number of individuals with valid measurements. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactat- ing status were excluded from all analyses. c Regression calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS.

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1094 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE H-9 Regression Analysis of Body Measurements: Percent Body Fata Versus Waist Circumference, Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older, NHANES III (1988–1994) Results c Parameter Standard Error Sex ( n)b Parameter Estimate of Estimate M (7,142) Intercept –13.3247 0.6059 Waist circumference (cm) 0.3712 0.0062 R square value 0.5949 F (7,498) Intercept –8.6807 0.5524 Waist circumference (cm) 0.4645 0.0060 R square value 0.7133 a Percent body fat = 100 × (W – FFM)/W; FFM for each survey respondent was derived using the following equations: FFM = –10.68 + 0.65 H2/R + 0.26 W + 0.02 R Men: Women: FFM = –9.53 + 0.69 H2/R + 0.17 W + 0.02 R where FFM = fat free mass (kg), H = height (cm), R = resistance (ohms), W = weight (kg). The estimate of FFM exceeded W for eight individuals; these individuals were excluded from analyses involving percent body fat.

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1095 A PPENDIX H Test for H 0: Parameter = 0 Probability > |T| –21.9934 0.0000 59.6373 0.0000 –15.7148 0.0000 77.4189 0.0000 b M = male, F = female, n = number of individuals with valid measurements. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactat- ing status were excluded from all analyses. c Regression calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS.

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1096 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE H-10 Regression Analysis of Body Measurements: Percent Body Fata Versus Waist Circumference Squared, Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older, NHANES III (1988–1994) Resultsc Parameter Standard Error Sex (n )b Parameter Estimate of Estimate M (7,142) Intercept 5.1113 0.3783 Waist circumference 0.0018 0.0000 squared (cm2) R square value 0.5739 F (7,498) Intercept 13.1167 0.3910 Waist circumference 0.0024 0.0000 squared (cm2) R square value 0.6753 a Percent body fat = 100 × (W – FFM)/W; FFM for each survey respondent was derived using the following equations: FFM = –10.68 + 0.65 H2/R + 0.26 W + 0.02 R Men: Women: FFM = –9.53 + 0.69 H2/R + 0.17 W + 0.02 R where FFM = fat free mass (kg), H = height (cm), R = resistance (ohms), W = weight (kg). The estimate of FFM exceeded W for eight individuals; these individuals were excluded from analyses involving percent body fat.

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1097 A PPENDIX H Test for H0: Parameter = 0 Probability > |T| 13.5125 0.0000 46.6337 0.0000 33.5446 0.0000 52.9711 0.0000 b M = male, F = female, n = number of individuals with valid measurements. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactat- ing status were excluded from all analyses. c Regression calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS.

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1098 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE H-11 Regression Analysis of Body Measurements: Percent Body Fata Versus Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference Squared, Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older, NHANES III (1988–1994) Results c Parameter Standard Error Sex ( n)b Parameter Estimate of Estimate M (7,142) Intercept –0.0181 0.7131 BMI (kg/m 2) 0.4438 0.0427 Waist circumference 0.0011 0.0001 squared (cm2) R square value 0.5923 F (7,498) Intercept 2.7339 0.6573 BMI (kg/m 2) 0.9833 0.0289 Waist circumference 0.0005 0.0000 squared (cm2) R square value 0.7790 Numerator Degrees of F Value Freedom M Overall fit 1,091.7233 2 F Overall fit 1,069.7605 2 a Percent body fat = 100 × (W – FFM)/W; FFM for each survey respondent was derived using the following equations: FFM = –10.68 + 0.65 H2/R + 0.26 W + 0.02 R Men: Women: FFM = –9.53 + 0.69 H2/R + 0.17 W + 0.02 R where FFM = fat free mass (kg), H = height (cm), R = resistance (ohms), W = weight (kg). The estimate of FFM exceeded W for eight individuals; these individuals were excluded from analyses involving percent body fat.

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1099 A PPENDIX H Test for H 0: Parameter = 0 Probability > |T| –0.0254 0.9798 10.3803 0.0000 16.5537 0.0000 4.1596 0.0001 34.0405 0.0000 10.3676 0.0000 Denominator Degrees of Freedom Probability > F 51 0.0000 51 0.0000 b M = male, F = female, n = number of individuals with valid measurements. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactat- ing status were excluded from all analyses. c Regression calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS.

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1100 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE H-12 Regression Analysis of Body Measurements: Body Mass Index Versus Percent Body Fat,a Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older, NHANES III (1988–1994) Results c Parameter Standard Error Sex ( n)b Parameter Estimate of Estimate M (7,324) Intercept 14.2220 0.3354 Percent body fat 0.5594 0.0162 R square value 0.5549 F (7,724) Intercept 5.0073 0.3761 Percent body fat 0.6600 0.0120 R square value 0.7745 a Percent body fat = 100 × (W – FFM)/W; FFM for each survey respondent was derived using the following equations: FFM = –10.68 + 0.65 H2/R + 0.26 W + 0.02 R Men: Women: FFM = –9.53 + 0.69 H2/R + 0.17 W + 0.02 R where FFM = fat free mass (kg), H = height (cm), R = resistance (ohms), W = weight (kg). The estimate of FFM exceeded W for eight individuals; these individuals were excluded from analyses involving percent body fat. TABLE H-13 Regression Analysis of Body Measurements: Body Mass Index Versus Triceps Skinfold,a Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older, NHANES III (1988–1994) Results c Parameter Standard Error Sex (n )b Parameter Estimate of Estimate M (7,530) Intercept 19.9043 0.1401 Triceps skinfold (mm) 0.4924 0.0103 R square value 0.4770 F (7,858) Intercept 13.3202 0.1626 Triceps skinfold (mm) 0.5412 0.0082 R square value 0.6269 a Skinfold thickness exceeding 48.5 mm was too large for the caliper; measurements were not recorded for these individuals. These individuals were excluded from analyses involving triceps skinfold. b M = male, F = female, n = number of individuals with valid measurements. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and

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1101 A PPENDIX H Test for H 0: Parameter = 0 Probability > |T| 42.4069 0.0000 34.6035 0.0000 13.3153 0.0000 55.2223 0.0000 b M = male, F = female, n = number of individuals with valid measurements. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactat- ing status were excluded from all analyses. c Regression calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS. Test for H0: Parameter = 0 Probability > |T| 142.1172 0.0000 47.9364 0.0000 81.9403 0.0000 65.6884 0.0000 lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactat- ing status were excluded from all analyses. c Regression calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS.

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1102 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE H-14 Regression Analysis of Body Measurements: Body Mass Index Versus Waist Circumference, Men and Women 19 Years of Age and Older, NHANES III (1988–1994) Results b Parameter Standard Error Sex (n )a Parameter Estimate of Estimate M (7,558) Intercept –4.2050 0.3413 Waist circumference (cm) 0.3230 0.0037 R square value 0.8142 F (8,096) Intercept –6.2774 0.3461 Waist circumference (cm) 0.3692 0.0042 R square value 0.8014 a M = male, F = female, n = number of individuals with valid measurements. Pregnant and/or lactating women and women who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating status or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactat- ing status were excluded from all analyses.

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1103 A PPENDIX H Test for H0: Parameter = 0 Probability > |T| –12.3199 0.0000 87.2406 0.0000 –18.1401 0.0000 88.0352 0.0000 b Regression calculated with National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) sampling weights and WesVar Complex Samples Version 3.0. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NCHS.