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D Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994 TABLE D-1 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Added Sugars (tsp), United States, NHANES III (1988–1994) Percentile Sex/Age Categorya Mean 1st 5th 10th n Both sexes, 2–3 y 2,174 13.2 0.4 1.8 3.4 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 19.3 9.3 11.7 13.1 Standard error 0.4 2.2 1.9 1.6 M, 9–13 y 1,219 28.6 16.8 19.7 21.4 Standard error 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.7 M, 14–18 y 909 36.9 15.5 20.5 23.4 Standard error 1.4 13.8 11.1 9.3 M, 19–30 y 1,902 31.5 10.7 15.3 18.1 Standard error 0.8 2.6 2.4 2.1 M, 31–50 y 2,533 25.4 3.5 6.9 9.5 Standard error 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 M, 51–70 y 1,942 18.0 3.1 5.5 7.2 Standard error 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 M, 71+ y 1,255 14.3 3.9 5.8 7.1 Standard error 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.8 F, 9–13 y 1,216 21.9 9.3 12.1 13.8 Standard error 0.7 1.7 1.5 1.3 F, 14–18 y 949 25.4 9.0 12.6 14.8 Standard error 1.2 5.5 4.8 4.2 F, 19–30 y 1,901 22.3 4.8 8.0 10.2 Standard error 0.7 1.4 1.6 1.4 988

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25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 6.8 10.9 17.7 25.3 30.9 45.5 15.6 18.9 22.4 26.0 28.3 33.0 1.1 0.4 0.9 2.0 2.7 4.3 24.5 28.2 32.3 36.3 38.9 44.1 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.7 28.9 35.7 43.5 51.8 57.3 69.1 6.0 1.9 4.5 10.6 14.9 24.4 23.5 30.3 38.1 46.4 51.9 63.6 1.6 0.9 1.4 2.9 4.1 7.0 15.0 22.8 33.0 44.2 52.2 70.9 0.7 0.7 0.9 1.6 2.3 4.6 10.8 16.2 23.2 31.2 36.8 49.2 0.6 0.6 0.7 1.1 1.5 2.9 9.7 13.3 17.8 22.7 26.0 33.1 0.6 0.4 0.7 1.5 2.1 3.5 17.0 21.1 25.9 30.9 34.3 41.6 1.1 0.8 1.1 1.8 2.5 4.2 18.9 24.3 30.6 37.3 41.8 51.4 2.9 1.4 2.5 5.5 7.8 13.3 14.6 20.8 28.4 36.6 42.1 53.9 1.1 0.7 1.1 2.0 2.9 4.8 continued 989

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990 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE D-1 Continued Percentile Sex/Age Category a Mean 1st 5th 10th n F, 31–50 y 2,939 17.3 2.6 4.9 6.6 Standard error 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.4 F, 51–70 y 2,065 12.8 2.5 4.2 5.3 Standard error 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.5 F, 71+ y 1,368 10.5 2.1 3.5 4.5 Standard error 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 Pregnant 346 21.0 5.5 8.6 10.6 Standard error 1.1 3.5 3.3 3.0 Lactating 99 19.7 12.0 14.0 15.1 Standard error 2.7 1.8 2.0 2.0 Pregnant/lactating 440 21.2 4.9 8.1 10.2 Standard error 1.0 3.6 3.5 3.2 All individuals 25,820 21.1 4.0 6.9 8.9 Standard error 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 All individuals (+P/L) 26,260 21.1 4.0 6.9 8.9 Standard error 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distribution for children 2–3 years of age is unad- justed. The mean and percentiles for this group were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Mean, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but appli- cable” pregnancy and lactating status data or who responded “I don’t know” to ques- tions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who

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991 A PPENDIX D 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 10.4 15.7 22.5 29.8 34.9 47.0 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 2.9 7.8 11.5 16.3 21.7 25.3 34.4 0.4 0.6 1.3 1.8 1.5 3.3 6.6 9.7 13.4 17.6 20.6 27.5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.8 1.1 2.1 14.5 19.7 26.1 33.1 38.0 48.4 2.2 1.2 2.2 4.5 6.4 10.8 17.2 19.5 22.0 24.4 25.8 28.7 2.2 2.6 3.2 4.0 4.7 6.2 14.3 19.8 26.6 34.1 39.2 50.5 2.4 1.4 1.9 4.4 6.6 12.1 13.1 19.2 27.0 35.8 41.9 55.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.3 13.1 19.1 27.0 35.8 42.0 55.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.3 were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable. DATA SOURCES: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics and National Cancer Institute’s Pyramid Servings Database for NHANES III. SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2001.

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992 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE D-2 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Alanine (g), United States, NHANES III (1988–1994) Percentile Sex/Age Categorya Mean 1st 5th 10th n Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 0.72 0.20 0.30 0.40 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 1.32 0.40 0.50 0.60 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 2.19 0.50 0.90 1.10 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 2.82 1.75 2.01 2.16 Standard error 0.04 0.60 0.47 0.39 M, 9–13 y 1,219 3.73 1.90 2.34 2.59 Standard error 0.08 0.24 0.20 0.17 M, 14–18 y 909 4.68 2.25 2.81 3.15 Standard error 0.13 0.70 0.59 0.51 M, 19–30 y 1,902 5.27 2.94 3.50 3.82 Standard error 0.13 0.11 0.14 0.15 M, 31–50 y 2,533 4.88 2.54 3.10 3.43 Standard error 0.09 0.26 0.24 0.22 M, 51–70 y 1,942 4.24 1.75 2.33 2.67 Standard error 0.08 0.12 0.11 0.10 M, 71+ y 1,255 3.49 1.51 1.97 2.24 Standard error 0.06 0.14 0.12 0.11 F, 9–13 y 1,216 2.99 2.04 2.29 2.43 Standard error 0.07 0.60 0.47 0.39 F, 14–18 y 949 2.91 0.96 1.40 1.67 Standard error 0.09 0.17 0.15 0.13 F, 19–30 y 1,901 3.16 1.63 1.99 2.20 Standard error 0.08 0.26 0.22 0.19 F, 31–50 y 2,939 3.23 1.78 2.14 2.34 Standard error 0.05 0.21 0.18 0.15 F, 51–70 y 2,065 2.92 1.37 1.74 1.95 Standard error 0.04 0.10 0.09 0.08 F, 71+ y 1,368 2.62 1.19 1.53 1.73 Standard error 0.05 0.14 0.12 0.10 Pregnant 346 3.76 2.18 2.57 2.79 Standard error 0.18 0.14 0.17 0.18 Lactating 99 4.40 3.07 3.43 3.63 Standard error 0.25 0.19 0.21 0.22 Pregnant/lactating 440 3.91 2.29 2.70 2.94 Standard error 0.15 0.12 0.13 0.13 All individuals 28,575 3.63 1.30 1.79 2.08 Standard error 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.04 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 3.64 1.32 1.81 2.10 Standard error 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.04 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months of age and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating

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993 A PPENDIX D 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.50 0.60 0.80 1.20 1.40 2.10 0.80 1.20 1.70 2.10 2.60 3.40 1.50 2.00 2.70 3.40 3.90 5.10 2.44 2.78 3.15 3.52 3.75 4.23 0.24 0.06 0.20 0.44 0.59 0.92 3.05 3.63 4.29 5.00 5.48 6.52 0.12 0.09 0.13 0.23 0.32 0.62 3.77 4.56 5.45 6.35 6.94 8.15 0.34 0.15 0.30 0.65 0.90 1.46 4.42 5.17 6.00 6.84 7.38 8.49 0.14 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.16 0.23 4.03 4.77 5.61 6.47 7.05 8.30 0.19 0.10 0.17 0.28 0.36 0.61 3.29 4.06 4.98 6.04 6.80 8.51 0.09 0.08 0.10 0.16 0.22 0.40 2.73 3.34 4.08 4.91 5.50 6.84 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.14 0.21 0.39 2.67 2.97 3.28 3.59 3.78 4.16 0.24 0.08 0.21 0.44 0.60 0.93 2.16 2.78 3.51 4.30 4.86 6.05 0.10 0.09 0.14 0.25 0.34 0.59 2.59 3.09 3.66 4.21 4.57 5.37 0.14 0.08 0.15 0.27 0.36 0.63 2.71 3.17 3.68 4.19 4.53 5.25 0.11 0.06 0.08 0.16 0.23 0.41 2.35 2.84 3.40 3.99 4.39 5.23 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.10 0.14 0.24 2.09 2.54 3.06 3.61 3.98 4.77 0.08 0.05 0.07 0.15 0.22 0.40 3.20 3.70 4.25 4.80 5.16 5.87 0.16 0.18 0.31 0.40 0.41 0.35 3.97 4.38 4.80 5.20 5.45 5.93 0.25 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.34 3.36 3.87 4.42 4.95 5.28 5.95 0.14 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 2.65 3.42 4.37 5.44 6.20 7.94 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.16 2.66 3.44 4.38 5.44 6.19 7.88 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.11 0.19 status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), corrected data set (errata submitted to NCHS September 2001). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2001.

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994 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE D-3 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Arginine (g), United States, NHANES III (1988–1994) Percentile Sex/Age Categorya Mean 1st 5th 10th n Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 0.87 0.20 0.40 0.40 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 1.53 0.40 0.60 0.70 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 2.52 0.60 1.00 1.30 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 3.25 2.17 2.43 2.58 Standard error 0.06 0.42 0.34 0.29 M, 9–13 y 1,219 4.34 2.32 2.80 3.08 Standard error 0.16 0.42 0.39 0.36 M, 14–18 y 909 5.33 2.77 3.38 3.74 Standard error 0.14 0.93 0.77 0.67 M, 19–30 y 1,902 6.04 3.36 4.00 4.38 Standard error 0.14 0.11 0.14 0.15 M, 31–50 y 2,533 5.61 2.70 3.40 3.80 Standard error 0.10 0.26 0.23 0.23 M, 51–70 y 1,942 4.88 1.91 2.58 2.98 Standard error 0.10 0.12 0.11 0.11 M, 71+ y 1,255 4.01 1.79 2.29 2.59 Standard error 0.07 0.15 0.13 0.12 F, 9–13 y 1,216 3.46 2.60 2.83 2.96 Standard error 0.08 1.13 0.87 0.71 F, 14–18 y 949 3.39 1.26 1.75 2.04 Standard error 0.10 0.22 0.18 0.16 F, 19–30 y 1,901 3.65 1.78 2.21 2.45 Standard error 0.11 0.24 0.20 0.18 F, 31–50 y 2,939 3.71 2.19 2.57 2.79 Standard error 0.05 0.25 0.21 0.18 F, 51–70 y 2,065 3.33 1.59 2.01 2.25 Standard error 0.05 0.11 0.09 0.08 F, 71+ y 1,368 2.97 1.45 1.81 2.02 Standard error 0.05 0.15 0.13 0.12 Pregnant 346 4.31 2.51 2.96 3.22 Standard error 0.21 0.33 0.44 0.43 Lactating 99 5.08 3.56 3.99 4.23 Standard error 0.27 0.27 0.30 0.30 Pregnant/lactating 440 4.48 2.64 3.12 3.39 Standard error 0.17 0.15 0.15 0.15 All individuals 28,575 4.17 1.51 2.07 2.40 Standard error 0.04 0.06 0.05 0.05 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 4.18 1.54 2.09 2.42 Standard error 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.05 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months of age and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating

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995 A PPENDIX D 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.50 0.70 1.10 1.60 1.90 2.80 1.00 1.40 1.90 2.50 2.90 4.30 1.70 2.30 3.10 3.90 4.60 5.80 2.86 3.21 3.60 3.97 4.20 4.66 0.20 0.07 0.17 0.34 0.45 0.69 3.60 4.23 4.96 5.72 6.25 7.38 0.27 0.19 0.32 0.52 0.70 1.24 4.40 5.22 6.14 7.07 7.66 8.88 0.45 0.18 0.35 0.79 1.10 1.78 5.07 5.92 6.88 7.84 8.46 9.72 0.15 0.15 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.26 4.50 5.50 6.50 7.60 8.30 10.00 0.24 0.11 0.24 0.29 0.36 0.63 3.72 4.64 5.77 7.07 8.01 10.13 0.10 0.10 0.12 0.17 0.22 0.38 3.13 3.83 4.68 5.64 6.33 7.89 0.09 0.07 0.09 0.17 0.24 0.45 3.18 3.45 3.73 3.99 4.15 4.48 0.43 0.11 0.34 0.74 1.00 1.53 2.58 3.25 4.04 4.90 5.49 6.76 0.12 0.10 0.15 0.27 0.38 0.64 2.92 3.54 4.26 4.96 5.43 6.53 0.13 0.09 0.20 0.32 0.42 0.77 3.18 3.65 4.18 4.70 5.04 5.76 0.12 0.06 0.09 0.19 0.27 0.45 2.69 3.24 3.86 4.52 4.96 5.90 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.11 0.15 0.26 2.41 2.91 3.46 4.02 4.37 5.11 0.09 0.05 0.09 0.17 0.22 0.34 3.68 4.25 4.88 5.49 5.89 6.68 0.32 0.25 0.42 0.55 0.56 0.44 4.62 5.07 5.53 5.94 6.19 6.66 0.28 0.28 0.33 0.37 0.39 0.39 3.86 4.43 5.05 5.64 6.01 6.74 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.25 3.04 3.93 5.02 6.25 7.11 9.10 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.18 3.06 3.95 5.03 6.25 7.10 9.04 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.20 status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), corrected data set (errata submitted to NCHS September 2001). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2001.

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996 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE D-4 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Aspartic Acid (g), United States, NHANES III (1988–1994) Percentile Sex/Age Categorya Mean 1st 5th 10th n Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 1.61 0.50 0.70 0.90 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 2.69 0.80 1.10 1.40 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 4.08 1.00 1.70 2.20 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 5.15 3.40 3.84 4.10 Standard error 0.07 0.53 0.42 0.36 M, 9–13 y 1,219 6.76 3.50 4.30 4.80 Standard error 0.16 0.42 0.34 0.29 M, 14–18 y 909 8.34 4.50 5.40 6.00 Standard error 0.22 1.16 0.97 0.84 M, 19–30 y 1,902 9.31 5.30 6.30 6.80 Standard error 0.19 0.16 0.17 0.17 M, 31–50 y 2,533 8.67 4.20 5.20 5.90 Standard error 0.16 0.41 0.36 0.33 M, 51–70 y 1,942 7.58 3.20 4.20 4.80 Standard error 0.14 0.22 0.20 0.19 M, 71+ y 1,255 6.32 2.80 3.60 4.10 Standard error 0.10 0.25 0.21 0.18 F, 9–13 y 1,216 5.47 3.14 3.72 4.06 Standard error 0.13 0.09 0.09 0.09 F, 14–18 y 949 5.32 2.00 2.80 3.30 Standard error 0.15 0.28 0.23 0.20 F, 19–30 y 1,901 5.69 3.04 3.67 4.03 Standard error 0.14 0.46 0.37 0.32 F, 31–50 y 2,939 5.79 3.30 3.92 4.28 Standard error 0.08 0.37 0.30 0.26 F, 51–70 y 2,065 5.27 2.51 3.17 3.55 Standard error 0.07 0.14 0.13 0.12 F, 71+ y 1,368 4.75 2.13 2.77 3.14 Standard error 0.09 0.17 0.14 0.13 Pregnant 346 6.81 4.00 4.70 5.10 Standard error 0.28 0.39 0.39 0.35 Lactating 99 8.09 5.65 6.34 6.71 Standard error 0.45 0.52 0.56 0.55 Pregnant/lactating 440 7.12 4.23 4.97 5.40 Standard error 0.26 0.22 0.22 0.23 All individuals 28,575 6.52 2.50 3.30 3.90 Standard error 0.06 0.09 0.08 0.08 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 6.54 2.50 3.40 3.90 Standard error 0.06 0.10 0.09 0.08 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months of age and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating

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997 A PPENDIX D 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 1.10 1.40 1.90 2.60 3.10 4.30 1.70 2.40 3.40 4.30 5.10 7.00 2.90 3.90 5.00 6.20 7.20 9.40 4.55 5.10 5.69 6.27 6.63 7.36 0.23 0.09 0.17 0.38 0.52 0.81 5.60 6.60 7.70 9.00 9.80 11.60 0.22 0.16 0.22 0.37 0.51 0.89 7.00 8.20 9.50 10.90 11.70 13.50 0.57 0.26 0.45 0.97 1.33 2.13 7.90 9.20 10.60 12.00 12.90 14.70 0.18 0.19 0.21 0.24 0.26 0.32 7.00 8.50 10.10 11.70 12.90 15.40 0.25 0.18 0.20 0.37 0.53 0.95 5.90 7.30 8.90 10.80 12.10 15.10 0.17 0.15 0.17 0.27 0.37 0.66 5.00 6.10 7.40 8.80 9.80 12.10 0.14 0.10 0.13 0.25 0.37 0.67 4.66 5.40 6.20 6.99 7.49 8.49 0.11 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.20 4.10 5.10 6.30 7.60 8.50 10.30 0.16 0.15 0.21 0.35 0.48 0.79 4.70 5.58 6.56 7.47 8.06 9.36 0.23 0.14 0.25 0.44 0.60 1.07 4.92 5.70 6.56 7.42 7.98 9.18 0.18 0.08 0.13 0.27 0.39 0.68 4.25 5.12 6.12 7.16 7.86 9.33 0.10 0.08 0.09 0.13 0.18 0.30 3.80 4.62 5.55 6.52 7.18 8.58 0.10 0.07 0.11 0.21 0.31 0.59 5.83 6.72 7.69 8.65 9.26 10.48 0.29 0.31 0.48 0.63 0.67 0.65 7.35 8.07 8.82 9.50 9.92 10.71 0.51 0.47 0.50 0.56 0.57 0.55 6.14 7.04 8.01 8.93 9.52 10.67 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.32 0.36 4.80 6.20 7.80 9.60 10.90 13.70 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.10 0.14 0.26 4.90 6.20 7.80 9.60 10.90 13.70 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.16 0.30 status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), corrected data set (errata submitted to NCHS September 2001). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2001.

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998 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE D-5 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Cysteine (g), United States, NHANES III (1988–1994) Percentile Sex/Age Categorya Mean 1st 5th 10th n Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 0.21 0.10 0.10 0.10 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 0.39 0.10 0.10 0.20 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 0.64 0.10 0.30 0.30 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 0.82 0.43 0.53 0.58 Standard error 0.01 0.13 0.10 0.08 M, 9–13 y 1,219 1.09 0.61 0.73 0.80 Standard error 0.05 0.12 0.12 0.12 M, 14–18 y 909 1.30 0.64 0.80 0.89 Standard error 0.04 0.13 0.11 0.09 M, 19–30 y 1,902 1.43 0.83 0.99 1.08 Standard error 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 M, 31–50 y 2,533 1.33 0.71 0.86 0.95 Standard error 0.02 0.10 0.09 0.07 M, 51–70 y 1,942 1.16 0.49 0.65 0.74 Standard error 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 M, 71+ y 1,255 0.98 0.45 0.57 0.65 Standard error 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.02 F, 9–13 y 1,216 0.86 0.60 0.67 0.71 Standard error 0.02 0.14 0.11 0.09 F, 14–18 y 949 0.83 0.30 0.43 0.50 Standard error 0.03 0.06 0.05 0.04 F, 19–30 y 1,901 0.89 0.53 0.62 0.67 Standard error 0.02 0.12 0.10 0.08 F, 31–50 y 2,939 0.89 0.52 0.61 0.67 Standard error 0.01 0.05 0.04 0.04 F, 51–70 y 2,065 0.81 0.40 0.50 0.56 Standard error 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.02 F, 71+ y 1,368 0.74 0.34 0.44 0.50 Standard error 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.02 Pregnant 346 1.06 0.64 0.75 0.81 Standard error 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.06 Lactating 99 1.27 0.90 1.01 1.07 Standard error 0.08 0.11 0.11 0.11 Pregnant/lactating 440 1.11 0.68 0.79 0.86 Standard error 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04 All individuals 28,575 1.01 0.39 0.52 0.60 Standard error 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 1.01 0.40 0.53 0.61 Standard error 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months of age and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating

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1017 A PPENDIX D 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.90 1.20 1.60 2.00 2.50 3.80 1.40 2.00 3.10 4.20 5.00 6.10 2.70 3.50 4.60 5.60 6.40 8.50 4.07 4.61 5.20 5.76 6.12 6.83 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.13 5.12 5.89 6.75 7.65 8.24 9.52 0.33 0.15 0.28 0.61 0.86 1.42 5.70 6.80 8.10 9.40 10.30 12.00 0.37 0.22 0.30 0.58 0.79 1.26 6.48 7.23 8.06 8.86 9.37 10.39 0.55 0.17 0.48 1.02 1.39 2.15 5.40 6.40 7.50 8.70 9.60 11.30 0.16 0.10 0.14 0.29 0.40 0.68 4.40 5.40 6.60 8.00 8.90 11.00 0.11 0.09 0.10 0.21 0.30 0.54 3.66 4.56 5.64 6.79 7.55 9.19 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.17 0.22 0.35 4.17 4.73 5.34 5.93 6.31 7.09 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.12 3.63 4.39 5.23 6.06 6.59 7.67 0.21 0.13 0.23 0.42 0.56 0.88 3.76 4.45 5.22 6.02 6.54 7.63 0.15 0.08 0.13 0.27 0.38 0.62 3.69 4.36 5.11 5.87 6.37 7.41 0.09 0.06 0.07 0.13 0.18 0.29 3.18 3.91 4.74 5.59 6.14 7.28 0.08 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.30 2.94 3.60 4.34 5.08 5.57 6.55 0.11 0.07 0.10 0.19 0.27 0.43 5.04 5.75 6.52 7.27 7.74 8.69 0.33 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.36 0.36 6.44 7.02 7.59 8.10 8.40 8.97 0.65 0.53 0.46 0.61 0.63 0.47 5.32 6.05 6.82 7.54 7.99 8.87 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.24 0.25 0.26 3.90 4.90 6.20 7.60 8.50 10.60 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.21 3.90 5.00 6.20 7.60 8.50 10.60 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.21 status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), corrected data set (errata submitted to NCHS September 2001). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2001.

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1018 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE D-15 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Serine (g), United States, NHANES III (1988–1994) Percentile Sex/Age Categorya Mean 1st 5th 10th n Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 0.93 0.30 0.50 0.50 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 1.57 0.50 0.70 0.80 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 2.39 0.60 1.10 1.30 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 2.98 1.77 2.08 2.26 Standard error 0.05 0.52 0.41 0.34 M, 9–13 y 1,219 3.88 2.31 2.71 2.94 Standard error 0.11 0.39 0.32 0.27 M, 14–18 y 909 4.58 2.17 2.74 3.08 Standard error 0.12 0.43 0.38 0.34 M, 19–30 y 1,902 4.91 2.88 3.40 3.68 Standard error 0.10 0.13 0.13 0.12 M, 31–50 y 2,533 4.53 2.20 2.77 3.11 Standard error 0.07 0.19 0.16 0.14 M, 51–70 y 1,942 3.96 1.64 2.18 2.51 Standard error 0.07 0.12 0.10 0.10 M, 71+ y 1,255 3.35 1.54 1.96 2.21 Standard error 0.05 0.11 0.10 0.09 F, 9–13 y 1,216 3.09 1.86 2.18 2.36 Standard error 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.06 F, 14–18 y 949 2.93 1.23 1.63 1.86 Standard error 0.08 0.17 0.14 0.12 F, 19–30 y 1,901 3.06 1.63 1.98 2.18 Standard error 0.06 0.25 0.20 0.17 F, 31–50 y 2,939 3.06 1.67 2.02 2.22 Standard error 0.04 0.15 0.13 0.11 F, 51–70 y 2,065 2.78 1.28 1.64 1.85 Standard error 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.09 F, 71+ y 1,368 2.53 1.14 1.46 1.66 Standard error 0.04 0.11 0.10 0.09 Pregnant 346 3.77 2.27 2.65 2.86 Standard error 0.18 0.15 0.15 0.14 Lactating 99 4.59 3.26 3.64 3.85 Standard error 0.26 0.24 0.25 0.26 Pregnant/lactating 440 3.97 2.40 2.81 3.05 Standard error 0.15 0.13 0.14 0.14 All individuals 28,575 3.51 1.38 1.84 2.12 Standard error 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 3.52 1.40 1.85 2.14 Standard error 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months of age and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating

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1019 A PPENDIX D 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.70 0.80 1.10 1.40 1.70 2.30 1.00 1.40 2.00 2.60 3.00 3.90 1.70 2.20 2.90 3.60 4.10 5.50 2.57 2.94 3.35 3.75 4.01 4.53 0.21 0.06 0.18 0.38 0.52 0.81 3.34 3.82 4.35 4.89 5.26 6.02 0.19 0.11 0.17 0.31 0.42 0.67 3.70 4.48 5.35 6.22 6.78 7.93 0.26 0.15 0.17 0.34 0.48 0.80 4.19 4.82 5.54 6.27 6.75 7.70 0.09 0.13 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.17 3.70 4.42 5.23 6.09 6.68 7.94 0.11 0.07 0.10 0.19 0.26 0.44 3.09 3.82 4.65 5.59 6.26 7.76 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.14 0.20 0.36 2.66 3.22 3.90 4.64 5.16 6.29 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.13 0.19 0.34 2.68 3.06 3.46 3.86 4.11 4.62 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.10 2.30 2.85 3.47 4.09 4.49 5.30 0.10 0.09 0.13 0.19 0.25 0.39 2.54 3.01 3.52 4.01 4.33 5.02 0.12 0.06 0.11 0.20 0.28 0.49 2.57 3.01 3.48 3.96 4.27 4.93 0.08 0.04 0.06 0.12 0.16 0.27 2.23 2.70 3.24 3.79 4.16 4.94 0.07 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.31 2.02 2.46 2.97 3.47 3.80 4.46 0.07 0.04 0.07 0.12 0.16 0.22 3.25 3.72 4.24 4.74 5.06 5.70 0.16 0.21 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.25 4.19 4.59 4.98 5.34 5.55 5.97 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.29 3.46 3.94 4.45 4.94 5.24 5.84 0.15 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.17 0.19 2.65 3.34 4.18 5.09 5.73 7.15 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.14 2.66 3.35 4.19 5.09 5.73 7.11 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.08 0.15 status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), corrected data set (errata submitted to NCHS September 2001). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2001.

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1020 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE D-16 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Threonine (g), United States, NHANES III (1988–1994) Percentile Sex/Age Categorya Mean 1st 5th 10th n Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 0.82 0.30 0.40 0.50 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 1.33 0.40 0.60 0.70 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 1.97 0.50 0.80 1.10 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 2.46 1.55 1.78 1.91 Standard error 0.03 0.35 0.27 0.23 M, 9–13 y 1,219 3.21 1.82 2.15 2.35 Standard error 0.08 0.24 0.20 0.17 M, 14–18 y 909 3.92 1.89 2.37 2.65 Standard error 0.11 0.52 0.44 0.38 M, 19–30 y 1,902 4.29 2.42 2.87 3.14 Standard error 0.09 0.08 0.09 0.10 M, 31–50 y 2,533 3.95 1.93 2.41 2.70 Standard error 0.08 0.19 0.16 0.14 M, 51–70 y 1,942 3.45 1.35 1.83 2.12 Standard error 0.06 0.09 0.08 0.07 M, 71+ y 1,255 2.86 1.22 1.60 1.82 Standard error 0.05 0.09 0.08 0.07 F, 9–13 y 1,216 2.57 1.49 1.77 1.92 Standard error 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 F, 14–18 y 949 2.45 0.93 1.29 1.50 Standard error 0.07 0.15 0.12 0.10 F, 19–30 y 1,901 2.61 1.33 1.64 1.81 Standard error 0.06 0.21 0.17 0.15 F, 31–50 y 2,939 2.64 1.45 1.75 1.91 Standard error 0.04 0.16 0.13 0.11 F, 51–70 y 2,065 2.40 1.12 1.42 1.60 Standard error 0.03 0.08 0.07 0.07 F, 71+ y 1,368 2.17 0.95 1.25 1.42 Standard error 0.04 0.10 0.08 0.08 Pregnant 346 3.22 1.93 2.28 2.48 Standard error 0.20 0.21 0.24 0.27 Lactating 99 3.88 2.72 3.04 3.22 Standard error 0.21 0.18 0.19 0.20 Pregnant/lactating 440 3.36 1.99 2.34 2.54 Standard error 0.13 0.11 0.11 0.12 All individuals 28,575 3.01 1.16 1.55 1.79 Standard error 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.04 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 3.02 1.18 1.56 1.80 Standard error 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.04 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months of age and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating

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1021 A PPENDIX D 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.60 0.70 0.90 1.20 1.50 2.10 0.90 1.20 1.60 2.20 2.60 3.50 1.40 1.80 2.40 3.00 3.50 4.50 2.15 2.43 2.74 3.05 3.24 3.62 0.14 0.04 0.12 0.26 0.35 0.54 2.71 3.15 3.65 4.15 4.47 5.12 0.12 0.07 0.12 0.22 0.31 0.58 3.17 3.82 4.56 5.30 5.78 6.76 0.27 0.13 0.20 0.44 0.60 0.97 3.62 4.21 4.87 5.53 5.95 6.81 0.10 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.16 3.21 3.85 4.57 5.30 5.81 6.90 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.19 0.26 0.43 2.64 3.29 4.08 4.98 5.62 7.07 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.13 0.17 0.29 2.23 2.74 3.36 4.06 4.56 5.67 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.11 0.16 0.29 2.20 2.54 2.91 3.27 3.49 3.95 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 1.89 2.37 2.93 3.51 3.90 4.74 0.08 0.07 0.11 0.18 0.25 0.43 2.13 2.55 3.02 3.47 3.76 4.41 0.11 0.06 0.10 0.19 0.26 0.48 2.22 2.59 3.01 3.43 3.70 4.29 0.08 0.04 0.06 0.13 0.18 0.31 1.93 2.33 2.79 3.27 3.58 4.24 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.19 1.72 2.10 2.54 2.99 3.30 3.94 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.10 0.14 0.27 2.80 3.17 3.58 4.01 4.30 4.92 0.32 0.28 0.25 0.27 0.27 0.27 3.52 3.87 4.23 4.57 4.77 5.17 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.24 0.27 2.90 3.32 3.78 4.22 4.49 5.04 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.16 2.24 2.85 3.60 4.41 4.99 6.27 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.13 2.26 2.87 3.61 4.41 4.98 6.23 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.14 status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), corrected data set (errata submitted to NCHS September 2001). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2001.

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1022 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE D-17 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Tryptophan (g), United States, NHANES III (1988–1994) Percentile Sex/Age Categorya Mean 1st 5th 10th n Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 0.25 0.10 0.10 0.10 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 0.41 0.10 0.20 0.20 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 0.62 0.10 0.30 0.30 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 0.77 0.47 0.54 0.58 Standard error 0.01 0.15 0.12 0.10 M, 9–13 y 1,219 1.00 0.55 0.66 0.72 Standard error 0.02 0.09 0.08 0.07 M, 14–18 y 909 1.20 0.56 0.71 0.80 Standard error 0.03 0.26 0.21 0.18 M, 19–30 y 1,902 1.28 0.74 0.88 0.96 Standard error 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.06 M, 31–50 y 2,533 1.18 0.61 0.76 0.84 Standard error 0.02 0.12 0.10 0.09 M, 51–70 y 1,942 1.04 0.41 0.56 0.64 Standard error 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 M, 71+ y 1,255 0.87 0.38 0.49 0.56 Standard error 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03 F, 9–13 y 1,216 0.80 0.47 0.56 0.61 Standard error 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 F, 14–18 y 949 0.76 0.33 0.43 0.50 Standard error 0.02 0.05 0.04 0.04 F, 19–30 y 1,901 0.80 0.42 0.51 0.56 Standard error 0.02 0.06 0.06 0.05 F, 31–50 y 2,939 0.80 0.43 0.52 0.57 Standard error 0.01 0.05 0.04 0.03 F, 51–70 y 2,065 0.73 0.34 0.43 0.49 Standard error 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 F, 71+ y 1,368 0.67 0.31 0.40 0.45 Standard error 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.02 Pregnant 346 0.99 0.59 0.69 0.75 Standard error 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.11 Lactating 99 1.22 0.87 0.97 1.03 Standard error 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 Pregnant/lactating 440 1.05 0.63 0.74 0.80 Standard error 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.04 All individuals 28,575 0.91 0.36 0.48 0.55 Standard error 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 0.91 0.37 0.48 0.56 Standard error 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months of age and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating

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1023 A PPENDIX D 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.70 0.80 1.00 0.40 0.60 0.80 0.90 1.10 1.40 0.66 0.76 0.86 0.96 1.03 1.16 0.06 0.02 0.05 0.11 0.16 0.23 0.84 0.98 1.14 1.30 1.41 1.62 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.10 0.15 0.97 1.17 1.40 1.63 1.77 2.07 0.12 0.04 0.10 0.22 0.30 0.48 1.09 1.26 1.45 1.64 1.76 2.02 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.98 1.15 1.35 1.55 1.69 1.98 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.11 0.15 0.25 0.80 1.00 1.23 1.49 1.68 2.11 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.10 0.68 0.84 1.02 1.23 1.37 1.69 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.13 0.69 0.79 0.90 1.00 1.07 1.20 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.61 0.74 0.89 1.05 1.16 1.37 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.11 0.66 0.78 0.92 1.06 1.14 1.33 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.07 0.09 0.14 0.66 0.78 0.91 1.04 1.13 1.31 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.09 0.59 0.71 0.85 0.99 1.08 1.28 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.54 0.65 0.78 0.90 0.98 1.16 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.08 0.85 0.98 1.12 1.25 1.34 1.51 0.09 0.04 0.09 0.13 0.13 0.09 1.12 1.22 1.32 1.41 1.47 1.57 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.91 1.04 1.18 1.30 1.38 1.54 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.69 0.87 1.09 1.32 1.48 1.80 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.69 0.88 1.09 1.32 1.47 1.79 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), corrected data set (errata submitted to NCHS September 2001). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2001.

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1024 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE D-18 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Tyrosine (g), United States, NHANES III (1988–1994) Percentile Sex/Age Categorya Mean 1st 5th 10th n Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 0.78 0.30 0.40 0.40 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 1.29 0.40 0.50 0.60 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 1.90 0.40 0.80 1.00 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 2.37 1.48 1.71 1.84 Standard error 0.03 0.41 0.32 0.26 M, 9–13 y 1,219 3.09 1.79 2.12 2.31 Standard error 0.08 0.26 0.21 0.18 M, 14–18 y 909 3.69 1.85 2.29 2.55 Standard error 0.10 0.39 0.33 0.29 M, 19–30 y 1,902 4.00 2.29 2.71 2.96 Standard error 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 M, 31–50 y 2,533 3.62 1.75 2.21 2.47 Standard error 0.06 0.16 0.14 0.12 M, 51–70 y 1,942 3.11 1.22 1.65 1.91 Standard error 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.06 M, 71+ y 1,255 2.59 1.11 1.45 1.65 Standard error 0.04 0.08 0.07 0.06 F, 9–13 y 1,216 2.47 1.47 1.73 1.87 Standard error 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.06 F, 14–18 y 949 2.33 0.99 1.30 1.49 Standard error 0.06 0.21 0.18 0.15 F, 19–30 y 1,901 2.43 1.23 1.52 1.69 Standard error 0.05 0.21 0.17 0.15 F, 31–50 y 2,939 2.41 1.30 1.58 1.73 Standard error 0.03 0.11 0.09 0.08 F, 51–70 y 2,065 2.17 0.98 1.26 1.42 Standard error 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.05 F, 71+ y 1,368 1.96 0.83 1.09 1.24 Standard error 0.04 0.09 0.08 0.07 Pregnant 346 2.97 1.88 2.18 2.33 Standard error 0.23 0.41 0.41 0.30 Lactating 99 3.63 2.56 2.87 3.03 Standard error 0.22 0.33 0.45 0.46 Pregnant/lactating 440 3.15 1.90 2.23 2.41 Standard error 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.11 All individuals 28,575 2.78 1.09 1.44 1.66 Standard error 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.03 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 2.79 1.10 1.46 1.68 Standard error 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.04 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months of age and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating

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1025 A PPENDIX D 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.60 0.70 0.90 1.10 1.40 2.10 0.80 1.10 1.60 2.10 2.60 3.20 1.40 1.80 2.30 3.00 3.30 4.30 2.07 2.35 2.65 2.94 3.13 3.50 0.16 0.04 0.14 0.30 0.40 0.61 2.64 3.04 3.48 3.94 4.24 4.87 0.13 0.09 0.10 0.18 0.25 0.41 3.03 3.62 4.28 4.93 5.35 6.21 0.21 0.12 0.16 0.32 0.44 0.72 3.40 3.94 4.54 5.13 5.51 6.28 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.13 2.94 3.52 4.18 4.88 5.36 6.38 0.09 0.07 0.09 0.16 0.23 0.39 2.38 2.97 3.68 4.49 5.06 6.33 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.10 0.14 0.26 2.01 2.48 3.04 3.66 4.10 5.07 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.09 0.13 0.23 2.13 2.44 2.77 3.09 3.30 3.72 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 1.83 2.27 2.75 3.24 3.55 4.17 0.11 0.07 0.12 0.21 0.28 0.43 1.99 2.37 2.81 3.24 3.52 4.14 0.10 0.05 0.10 0.19 0.26 0.46 2.02 2.37 2.76 3.15 3.40 3.94 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.09 0.13 0.21 1.73 2.11 2.55 2.99 3.28 3.87 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.13 1.53 1.90 2.32 2.75 3.02 3.58 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.10 0.13 0.21 2.57 2.89 3.30 3.74 4.03 4.60 0.17 0.42 0.45 0.31 0.23 0.25 3.31 3.63 3.95 4.24 4.42 4.75 0.38 0.24 0.27 0.36 0.38 0.33 2.74 3.12 3.54 3.94 4.18 4.67 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.15 2.09 2.66 3.34 4.06 4.55 5.59 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.10 2.10 2.67 3.34 4.06 4.54 5.55 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.11 status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), corrected data set (errata submitted to NCHS September 2001). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2001.

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1026 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TABLE D-19 Mean and Percentiles for Usual Daily Intake of Valine (g), United States, NHANES III (1988–1994) Percentile Sex/Age Categorya Mean 1st 5th 10th n Both sexes, 2–6 mo 793 1.04 0.40 0.50 0.60 Both sexes, 7–12 mo 827 1.80 0.50 0.70 0.90 Both sexes, 1–3 y 3,309 2.70 0.60 1.10 1.50 Both sexes, 4–8 y 3,448 3.36 2.08 2.40 2.59 Standard error 0.05 0.60 0.47 0.39 M, 9–13 y 1,219 4.33 2.59 3.04 3.29 Standard error 0.09 0.40 0.33 0.28 M, 14–18 y 909 5.18 2.52 3.15 3.53 Standard error 0.14 0.54 0.46 0.41 M, 19–30 y 1,902 5.63 3.23 3.82 4.16 Standard error 0.11 0.09 0.10 0.10 M, 31–50 y 2,533 5.17 2.57 3.19 3.56 Standard error 0.10 0.25 0.22 0.19 M, 51–70 y 1,942 4.51 1.81 2.42 2.79 Standard error 0.08 0.12 0.10 0.10 M, 71+ y 1,255 3.76 1.59 2.09 2.39 Standard error 0.06 0.11 0.09 0.08 F, 9–13 y 1,216 3.48 2.06 2.42 2.63 Standard error 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 F, 14–18 y 949 3.31 1.33 1.80 2.08 Standard error 0.09 0.26 0.21 0.18 F, 19–30 y 1,901 3.47 1.78 2.19 2.42 Standard error 0.07 0.27 0.22 0.19 F, 31–50 y 2,939 3.48 1.91 2.30 2.52 Standard error 0.05 0.21 0.17 0.14 F, 51–70 y 2,065 3.16 1.45 1.86 2.10 Standard error 0.04 0.08 0.07 0.07 F, 71+ y 1,368 2.88 1.25 1.63 1.86 Standard error 0.05 0.16 0.14 0.12 Pregnant 346 4.25 2.75 3.09 3.24 Standard error 0.26 0.53 0.23 0.41 Lactating 99 5.19 3.66 4.10 4.33 Standard error 0.31 0.29 0.33 0.33 Pregnant/lactating 440 4.51 2.71 3.17 3.43 Standard error 0.17 0.14 0.15 0.15 All individuals 28,575 3.98 1.54 2.06 2.39 Standard error 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.05 All individuals (+P/L) 29,015 3.99 1.56 2.08 2.41 Standard error 0.03 0.06 0.05 0.05 a M = male, F = female, P/L = pregnant and/or lactating. NOTE: Data are limited to individuals who provided a complete and reliable 24-hour dietary recall on Day 1. The intake distributions for infants 2–6 and 7–12 months of age and children 1–3 years of age are unadjusted. Means and percentiles for these groups were computed using SAS PROC UNIVARIATE. For all other groups, data were adjusted using the Iowa State University method. Means, standard errors, and percentiles were obtained using C-Side. Standard errors were estimated via jackknife replication. Each standard error has 49 degrees of freedom. Infants and children fed human milk and females who had “blank but applicable” pregnancy and lactating

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1027 A PPENDIX D 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 99th 0.80 0.90 1.20 1.50 1.90 2.90 1.10 1.60 2.20 3.00 3.60 4.40 1.90 2.50 3.30 4.10 4.70 6.30 2.92 3.32 3.75 4.17 4.43 4.96 0.23 0.06 0.20 0.43 0.58 0.89 3.73 4.26 4.85 5.45 5.84 6.65 0.19 0.10 0.18 0.33 0.45 0.74 4.21 5.07 6.02 6.98 7.60 8.85 0.30 0.17 0.23 0.45 0.62 1.02 4.78 5.54 6.37 7.20 7.73 8.79 0.10 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.15 0.19 4.23 5.05 5.96 6.90 7.55 8.95 0.14 0.15 0.14 0.23 0.32 0.53 3.47 4.32 5.32 6.45 7.27 9.14 0.09 0.08 0.09 0.15 0.20 0.39 2.93 3.60 4.41 5.32 5.97 7.41 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.13 0.18 0.33 3.00 3.44 3.91 4.37 4.66 5.24 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 2.59 3.21 3.92 4.66 5.15 6.18 0.13 0.09 0.14 0.27 0.38 0.67 2.85 3.40 4.01 4.60 4.98 5.82 0.13 0.07 0.13 0.24 0.33 0.59 2.93 3.42 3.97 4.51 4.87 5.63 0.10 0.05 0.08 0.17 0.23 0.40 2.53 3.08 3.70 4.34 4.77 5.67 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.11 0.17 2.28 2.80 3.40 4.00 4.39 5.17 0.09 0.05 0.08 0.16 0.23 0.36 3.57 4.14 4.83 5.45 5.80 6.53 0.58 0.36 0.80 0.67 0.41 0.32 4.73 5.18 5.64 6.05 6.31 6.79 0.33 0.33 0.35 0.37 0.37 0.37 3.90 4.46 5.06 5.64 6.00 6.72 0.16 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.20 0.22 2.99 3.78 4.75 5.80 6.55 8.19 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.15 3.00 3.80 4.77 5.80 6.54 8.15 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.17 status data or who responded “I don’t know” to questions on pregnancy and lactating status were excluded from all analyses. Females who were both pregnant and lactating were included in both the Pregnant and Lactating categories. The sample sizes for the Pregnant and Lactating categories were very small so their estimates of usual intake distributions are not reliable. DATA SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), corrected data set (errata submitted to NCHS September 2001). SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics, 2001.