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This study was supported by grants from the Ford Motor Company, DaimlerChrysler, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. National Research Council, U.S. National Academy of Engineering, Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation, China FAW Group Corporation, Dongfeng Motor Corporation, and Chinese Academy of Engineering. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.
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