Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 112
Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report Appendix I Glossary 20.4.1 (The New Mexico Administrative Code Chapter 20, Section 4, Part 1): New Mexico Environment Department. Establishes the regulations for the management of hazardous waste consistent with the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act and Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, Titles 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Parts 260 through 270. 22.214.171.124: New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). This regulation (incorporating Title 40 CFR Parts 261.24, 261.31, and 361.33) requires the US. Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and list hazardous wastes. 126.96.36.1990: New Mexico Environment Department. This regulation (incorporating Title 40 CFR 264) requires DOE to conduct a detailed analysis of the hazardous waste components of transuranic mixed waste to obtain all the information on how to treat, store or dispose of the waste. DOE must demonstrate that the design and operation of the facility will minimize the possibility of the release of transuranic mixed waste, a fire, or an explosion. NMED prohibits the following at WIPP: 1. liquid waste; 2. pyrophoric materials; 3. non-mixed hazardous wastes; 4. chemically incompatible wastes; 5. explosives and compressed gases; 6. polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations; 7. ignitable, corrosive, and reactive waste; and 8. remote-handled transuranic mixed waste. 188.8.131.520: New Mexico Environment Department. This document contains the hazardous waste permit program requirements issued by the NMED (incorporating 40 CFR 270). These requirements must be met by the DOE to receive NMED approval of the waste analysis plan submitted as Part B of the permit application (see Hazardous Waste Permit) for mixed transuranic waste. 10 CFR 20: (Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 20): United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Standards for Protection Against Radiation. 10 CFR 835: U.S. Department of Energy. Occupation Radiation Protection. Establishes the standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from DOE activities.
OCR for page 113
Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report 40 CFR 191: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, Final Rule. December 20, 1993. Federal Register (FR) 58(242): 66398–66416. This regulation prescribes EPA environmental radiation protection standards that will apply to all sites (except Yucca Mountain) for the deep geologic disposal of highly radioactive waste. Congress required EPA to evaluate whether the WIPP complies with Subparts B and C of the disposal regulations set forth in this document for the management and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes. 40 CFR 194: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Criteria for the Certification and Recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant’s compliance with the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations, Final Rule. May 18, 1998. Federal Register 63(95): 27353–2740. This regulation stipulates that DOE must provide a list to the EPA that identifies and describes waste characteristics that can impact the WIPP’s performance. This list may be derived from methods that include process knowledge and non-destructive assay/examination. On May 18, 1998, the EPA issued a final rule certifying that the WIPP was compliant with applicable EPA TRU waste disposal regulations set forth in 40 CFR 191 and the compliance criteria of 40 CFR 194 (63 FR 27354). 40 CFR 194.22(b): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This section includes the quality assurance requirements for waste characterization activities and assumptions. The quality assurance provisions allow the characterization of waste by 1) peer review; 2) corroboration with new data, 3) confirmation by measurement, or 4) qualification of previous QA programs. 40 CFR 261: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste. This part identifies those solid wastes that are subject to regulation as hazardous wastes under Parts 262–265, 268, 270, 271, and 124 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Codified in New Mexico as 20 NMAC 4.1, Subpart II. 40 CFR 264: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This part consists of “Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.” This subpart establishes minimum national standards, that define the acceptable management of hazardous waste. Codified in New Mexico as 20 NMAC 4.1, Subpart V. 40 CFR 270: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This regulation establishes provisions for the Hazardous Waste Permitting Program under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This regulation and the associated State of New Mexico regulations require the permitting of the WIPP as a hazardous waste management unit. Codified in New Mexico as 20 NMAC 4.1, Subpart IX. Acceptable Knowledge (AK): a term used by the EPA that encompasses process knowledge and results from previous testing, sampling, and analysis of waste. Acceptable knowledge includes information regarding the raw materials used in a process or operation, process description, products, and associated wastes. Acceptable knowledge documentation includes the site history and mission, site-
OCR for page 114
Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report specific processes or operations administrative building controls, and all previous and current activities that generate a specific waste. ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable): radiation protection program for minimizing personnel exposure to radiation. ALARA means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits in the DOE guidance as is practical consistent with the purpose for which the activity is undertaken. Audit: a planned and documented investigative evaluation of an item or process to determine the adequacy and effectiveness as well as compliance with established procedures, instructions, drawings, and other applicable documents. Buried Transuranic Waste: radioactive waste meeting the current definition of TRU waste, which was disposed of by shallow land burial and other techniques at a number of sites owned and operated by the federal government in support of the nuclear weapons program from the 1940s through 1970. In 1970 the Atomic Energy Commission first identified TRU waste as a separated category of radioactive waste, and all TRU waste generated after 1970 has been segregated from low-level waste and placed in retrievable storage pending shipment to and disposal in an approved geologic repository. Most of this buried waste is considered irretrievable. Compliance Certification Application (CCA): DOE submits this application (Title 40 CFR Part 191, Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot) to the EPA in order to request certification from the EPA for the WIPP facility. Certified Waste: containers of waste that meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR): 1) a codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the department and agencies of the federal government. The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation. It is issued quarterly and revised annually. 2) All federal regulations in force are published annually in codified form in the CFR. Contact-handled (CH) waste: Transuranic waste that has a measured radiation dose rate at the container surface of 200 millirem per hour or less and can be safely handled without special equipment when in closed containers. [LWA] Cellulosics, Plastic, Rubber (CPR): the characterization objectives for RH-TRU waste set forth by the EPA in 40 CFR 191 and 40 CFR 194 require that DOE account for the volume of CPR because of the potential gas generation from the decomposition of these organic materials. Curies (Ci): unit of radioactivity. One curie equals 3.7×1010 nuclear transformations per second. This unit reflects the intensity of a radioactive source. Data Quality Objectives (DQO): qualitative and quantitative statements that clarify program technical and quality objectives, define the appropriate type of data, and specify tolerable levels of potential decision errors that will be used as the basis for establishing the quality and quantity of data needed to support decisions.
OCR for page 115
Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report Defense Waste: radioactive waste from any activity performed in whole or in part in support of DOE atomic energy defense activities; excludes waste under purview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or generated by the commercial nuclear power industry. It consists of nuclear waste derived mostly from the manufacturing of nuclear weapons, weapons-related research programs, the operation of naval reactors, and the decontamination of weapons production facilities. Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG): the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group conducts an independent technical evaluation of the operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to ensure the protection of public health and safety, and the environment of New Mexico. The EEG has been serving New Mexico in this capacity since 1978. Public Law 100–456 articulates EEG’s role and responsibilities relating to WIPP. Gray (Gy): the standard unit of absorbed ionizing-radiation dose. One gray is equivalent to one joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of matter. One gray is equal to 100 rad. Hazardous Constituent: those chemicals identified in Appendix VIII of 20 NMAC 4.1 Subpart II (40 CFR Part 261). Hazardous Waste: as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, waste that because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical or infectious characteristics, may cause or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness, or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, or disposed of, or otherwise managed. Hazardous wastes are listed in 20 NMAC 4.1 Subpart II (40 CFR Part 261) and/or exhibit one of the four characteristics—ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity in 20 NMAC 4.1 Subpart II (40 CFR Part 261). Hazardous Waste Codes: numbers assigned to identify the EPA category of hazardous waste. Hazardous waste codes’ assignment for RH TRU waste ensures that only those wastes that are permitted at the WIPP are disposed of and to ensure waste compatibility during the operational phase at the WIPP. Headspace Gas: the gas within the free volume at the top of a closed container (between the container lid and the waste inside the container) or containment, such as a drum or bin, containing TRU mixed or simulated waste. The gas may be generated from biological, chemical, or radiolytic processes; this includes contributions from volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in the waste. Headspace Gas Analysis: headspace gas is sampled using a gas-tight syringe to draw a gas sample from beneath the drum or box lid. The sample is analyzed by gas chromatography and/or mass spectrometry for hydrogen, methane, and volatile organic compounds. Land Withdrawal Act (LWA): Public Law 102–579 withdraws the land at the WIPP site from “entry, appropriation, and disposal.” It transfers jurisdiction of the land from the secretary of the interior to the secretary of energy and reserves the land for activities associated with the development and operation of the WIPP. It requires DOE to comply with the EPA’s radioactive waste standards and final disposal regulations
OCR for page 116
Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report and to conduct studies to analyze the impact of RH-TRU wastes on repository performance. It includes many other requirements and provisions pertaining to the protection of public health and the environment. The LWA was signed into law on October 30, 1992. New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (HWA): the New Mexico legislation that establishes the state hazardous waste management program. Newly Generated TRU Waste: waste generated after the development, approval, and implementation of the TRU waste characterization program that meets the requirements outlined in the TRU waste characterization quality assurance program plan. Part of the inventory might not have been generated yet but is estimated to be generated at some time in the future by the TRU waste generator/storage sites. Non-destructive Assay (NDA): NDA is a general term for a number of techniques, such as gamma spectroscopy and passive/active neutron measurement. These techniques provide information on the radionuclide content of waste and sometimes on its spatial distribution inside containers. Non-destructive Examination (NDE): NDE is a general term for a number of techniques, such as radiography or computer tomography. Radiography is a non-destructive qualitative and semi-quantitative technique that involves X-ray scanning of waste containers to identify and verify waste container contents. Because of the shielding associated with RH TRU waste, computer tomography, which involves several sources to produce a three-dimensional image may be required rather than the more commonly used radiography. Packaging: the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with packaging requirements, it may consist of one or more receptacles, absorbent material, spacing structures, thermal insulation, radiation shielding, and devices for cooling or absorbing mechanical shocks. Performance Assessment: risk-based assessment of the safety performance of a nuclear waste facility. The purpose of the performance assessment for WIPP is to evaluate the ability of the repository to isolate radioactive waste from the accessible environment. The performance assessment organizes information relevant to long-term (i.e., over a 10,000-year period) repository behavior by assessing the probabilities and consequences of major scenarios by which radionuclides can be released to the environment surrounding the WIPP site. Important scenarios include those due to human activities, whether deliberate or unintentional, that might occur near the WIPP site and potentially compromise the integrity of the repository. Pyrophoric: spontaneously ignitable materials. Process Knowledge: the determination of waste container contents through the study of existing records on the production history of the waste. Quality Assurance: the planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a structure, system, or component will perform satisfactorily in service.
OCR for page 117
Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report Quality Assurance Program Plans (QAPP): documents that describe the overall program plans and activities to meet the project’s quality assurance goals. Rad: unit of absorbed dose. It represents 0.01 joules of energy absorbed per kilogram of matter. Rad and rem are important units regarding WIPP because requirements are expressed in rem, a derivative or rad. Radioassay: a term used to define measurement methods for determining the radionuclide content of waste and includes both non-destructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay (e.g. radiochemistry). Radiological Survey: Measurements of radioactive contamination levels or dose rates associated with a site together with the appropriate documentation and data evaluation. When AK indicates that some containers may approach 1000 rem/h or that some containers exceed 100 rem/h then radiological surveys of each container may be required. Industry standard survey instruments can be used in this process and are required to discriminate at 100 rem/h and 1000 rem/h. Radiography: a non-destructive, non-intrusive radiographic examination technique that enables a qualitative (and in some cases quantitative) evaluation of the contents of a waste container. Radiography utilizes X rays to inspect the contents of the waste container in real time. It is used to examine and verify the physical form of the waste for certain waste forms, identify individual waste components, and verify the absence of certain non-compliant items. RCRA: see Resources Conservation and Recovery Act. RCRA Part B Permit: issued for the WIPP on October 27, 1999 by the NMED. This permit (incorporating 184.108.40.2060 and 220.127.116.110) determines that DOE’s disposal plan for mixed TRU waste is acceptable. Also called the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit. Rem (Roentgen Equivalent Man): unit of absorbed radiation dose used to derive a quantity called equivalent dose. This relates the absorbed dose in human tissue to the effective biological damage of the radiation. Not all radiation has the same biological effect, even for the same amount of absorbed dose. Equivalent dose is often expressed in terms of thousandths of a rem, or mrem. The equivalent dose (rem) is determined by multiplying the absorbed dose (rad) by a quality factor (Q) that accounts for different biological effects caused by different radiations. Dose requirements regarding WIPP are expressed in this unit. Remote-handled (RH) Waste: transuranic wastes that have a measured radiation dose rate at the container survey of 200 millirem per hour or greater but not more than 1,000 rem per hour. This waste must be handled remotely (i.e., with machinery designed to shield the handler from radiation). Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA): established a system for tracking and regulating hazardous wastes from the time of their generation through disposal. The law requires safe and secure procedures to be used by hazardous waste generators in treating, handling, transporting, storing, and disposing of hazardous substances. RCRA is designed to prevent new uncontrolled hazardous waste sites.
OCR for page 118
Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report The law also regulates the disposal of solid waste that may not be considered hazardous. Note: 20 NMAC 4.1 and 40 CFR Parts 260–281 are the regulations for complying with RCRA with respect to hazardous waste and hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities in New Mexico. Retrievably Stored TRU Waste: waste generated after 1970. In 1970 the Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) first identified TRU waste as a separate category of radioactive waste. The same year, the Atomic Energy Commission determined that all TRU waste generated after 1970 must be segregated from low-level waste and placed in retrievable storage pending shipment to and disposal in an approved geologic repository. Federal facilities in Washington, Idaho, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, South Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, and Illinois are currently storing TRU waste. See also Buried Transuranic Waste. Roentgen: unit used to measure a quantity called exposure. The roentgen is that quantity of X or gamma radiation less than 3 MeV in energy that produces 1 electrostatic unit of charge, 2.58×10−4 coulombs, in 1 kilogram of dry air at 0 degree Celsius and at an atmospheric pressure of 760 mmHg. Many radiation measuring instruments measure the roentgen (ionization) directly. It is a measure of the ionizations of the molecules in a mass of air. The main advantage of this unit is that it is easy to measure directly, but it is limited because it is only for deposition in air, and only for gamma and X rays. Safety Analysis Report (SAR): document representing a statement and commitment by the DOE that the WIPP can be operated safely and at acceptable risk. This document summarizes the safety analyses to ensure the safety of workers, the public, and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The WIPP SAR is prepared to satisfy: (1) the commitments in the Working Agreement for Consultation and Cooperation between the State of New Mexico and the U.S. Department of Energy; and (2) to ensure compliance with DOE’s 10 CFR 830 about nuclear safety management. Sievert: unit of measurement of radiation dose equivalent. One sievert is the absorbed dose, expressed in gray, multiplied by a quality factor to account for different biological effects caused by different radiations. Summary Category Group: categories for each waste stream to facilitate RCRA waste characterization that reflect the final waste forms acceptable for WIPP disposal. The waste summary categories are identified by the generators and are the following: S3000: Homogeneous solids S4000: Soils/gravel S5000: Debris waste Transuranic Waste: radioactive waste consisting of radionuclides with atomic numbers greater than 92 in excess of agreed limits. A more precise definition, in DOE Order 5820.2A, EPA regulation 40 CFR 191, and the Land Withdrawal Act, is waste that is not high-level waste “contaminated with alpha-emitting radionuclides of atomic number greater than 92 and half-lives greater than 20 years in concentrations greater than 100 nanocuries per gram.” The regulatory definition excludes actinide elements with atomic numbers between 90 and 92 (most significantly, Th and U
OCR for page 119
Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report isotopes), in agreement with the literal meaning of “transuranic.” However, common usage of “transuranic waste” is often understood to include all actinides. Transuranic mixed waste: transuranic waste contaminated with hazardous constituents as identified in 20 NMAC 4.1 Subpart II (40 CFR 261), Subparts C and D. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): Act enacted by Congress in 1976 to give EPA the ability to track the 75,000 industrial chemicals currently produced or imported into the United States. EPA repeatedly screens these chemicals and can require reporting or testing of those that may pose an environmental or human-health hazard. EPA can ban the manufacture and import of those chemicals that pose an unreasonable risk. Visual Examination (VE): process consisting of physically examining TRU waste by removing it from the container it was originally packaged in. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC): RCRA regulated organic compounds that readily pass into the vapor state and are present in transuranic mixed waste. Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC): set of conditions established for permitting transuranic wastes to be packaged, shipped, managed, and disposed of at the WIPP. Waste Analysis Plan (WAP): document describing the procedures that will be carried out at a facility to obtain chemical and physical analysis of each waste managed so that all information will be known to treat, store or dispose of the waste in accordance with 40 CFR 264.13. Waste Characterization: sampling, monitoring, and analysis activities to determine the nature of the waste. Waste Matrix Code: code assigned by the TRU waste generator/storage sites to categorize mixed and some non-mixed waste streams in the DOE system into a series of five-digit alphanumeric codes (e.g., S5400; Heterogeneous Debris) that represent different physical/chemical matrices. These codes were developed by DOE in response to the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. Waste Profile Form: form that waste generator must complete to properly identify and document the characterization of any solid, liquid, hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste. The Waste Profile Form must provide a complete and concise description of the waste, including the details of the generating process. The Waste Profile Form process provides generators with guidance to help make the determination of the waste’s physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics with sufficient accuracy to permit proper segregation, treatment, and disposal according to the final treatment/disposal facility’s waste acceptance criteria. Waste Stream: waste material generated from a single process or activity or as multiple containers with similar physical, chemical, or radiological characteristics.
Representative terms from entire chapter: