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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report Appendix E Information About Selected Transuranic Waste Generator Sites The Department of Energy (DOE) provided this information in the March 2002 draft of both Document 1 (Notification of Proposed Change to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 194 Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Attachment 3) and Document 2 (Request for RCRA Class 3 Permit modification to the NMED, Supplement 1). The committee did not verify or review this information. Table E.1 lists the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hazardous waste codes relevant to the sites mentioned in this appendix. E.1 Hanford Site The Hanford Site is one of the major contributors to the remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste inventory projected in WIPP (see Chapter 2). E.1.1 Location and Description The Hanford Site is located north of the Tri Cities (Richland, Kennewick, and Pasco), in Washington on a 1,450 km2 area of semiarid land in the Columbia River Basin in the southeastern corner of the State. Normal Columbia River elevations range from 119m, where the Columbia River enters the Hanford Site near the Priest Rapids Dam, to 104 m where it leaves the Hanford Site near the 300 area. Activities at Hanford are centralized in numerically designated areas. The reactor facilities are located along the Columbia River in what is known as the 100-Area. The reactor fuel processing and waste management facilities are in the 200-Area. The 300-Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains the reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and the research and development laboratories. The 400-Area, 5 miles northwest of the 300-Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility, a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. The 600-Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. Adjacent to and north of Richland, the 1100-Area contains facilities associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 3000-Area contains engineering and administrative offices. Administrative buildings, including the Federal Building, are located in the 700-Area, which is in downtown Richland. The Hanford Site is administered by the DOE Richland Operations Office.
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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report E.1.2 Mission The Hanford Site was acquired by the federal government in 1943 for the construction and operation of facilities to produce plutonium for the atomic weapons program during World War II. For more than 30 years, Hanford Site facilities were primarily dedicated to the production of plutonium for national defense and management of the wastes generated by chemical processing operations. In later years, programs at the Hanford Site became increasingly diverse, involving research and development for advanced reactors, renewable energy technologies, waste disposal technologies, and cleanup of contamination from past practices. The DOE has ended the production mission at the Hanford Site and is currently reorienting activities toward waste management and cleanup at the site. The mission now is one of environmental management, demonstration and application of advanced remediation technologies, and restoration of the Hanford Site. E.1.3 Waste Information Remote-handled TRU wastes from Hanford are the result of multiple sources. Some of these sources generated waste that now needs to be segregated between the categories of low-level waste, contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU), and remote-handled transuranic waste. Some RH-TRU waste is currently stored in the 200-W Area in the Central Waste Complex and retrievably stored in the 200-E and 200-W areas in the Low-Level Burial Grounds. Future generation is forecast from activities related to the Hanford cleanup. The mission of the Central Waste Complex is to receive and store solid radioactive waste in a safe and environmentally compliant manner. The Central Waste Complex provides interim storage for mixed low-level waste, transuranic waste, and a small amount of low-level waste, awaiting treatment and final disposal. The design storage capacity is approximately 80,000 55-gallon drum equivalents; the operational capacity is 64,000 drum equivalents. The Central Waste Complex receives waste from both on-site and off-site waste generators. Receipt of transuranic waste drums retrieved from the Low Level Burial Grounds began in 1999. All newly generated waste must meet acceptance criteria set by the Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Program. Waste is generally packaged in 55-gallon drums unless alternate packages are dictated by size, shape, or other form of waste. Each drum is handled individually using a hand truck, forklift, or crane. Drums are placed on wooden pallets with a maximum of four drums banded together; the pallets can then be stacked three high, or 12 drums per stack. The storage buildings or pads have physical features that provide for segregated storage areas to maintain appropriate separation between groups of incompatible waste. Some RH-TRU waste will be segregated from the waste retrieved from the Low-Level Burial Grounds in the 200-Area. The waste to be retrieved from the Low-Level Burial Grounds is believed to primarily be low-level waste, though the waste will be segregated as it is retrieved and characterized. The RH-TRU wastes will be characterized and packaged at the M-91 facility. Another source of RH-TRU waste is the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant located in the 200-E Area. Products from this plant were weapons-grade plutonium, fuel-grade plutonium, depleted uranium, slightly enriched uranium, neptunium, and thorium. The plutonium conversion, process solution sampling, laboratory analyses, plant ventilation, and facility ventilation generated waste that was common to all these PUREX operations, including surgical gloves, plastic (polyvinyl
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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report chloride and polyethylene), tape, paper, glass, glovebox gloves, and metal tools and equipment. The overall PUREX plant process consisted of seven fundamental interfacing processing units: feed preparation; solvent extraction, separation, and purification; solvent recovery and treatment for recycling; back-cycle waste system; acid recovery; waste treatment; off-gas treatment; and conversion of plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide. Wastes generated were old failed equipment, port covers, replaced windows, brackets and hardware, and acid-soaked rags. Process solution sampling operations extract liquid samples from process control points to be used in system analysis and control. After use, all liquids were drained to the PUREX liquid waste system. Waste generated at this facility included broken glassware and plasticware, wet rags and paper, and piping and valving equipment. Laboratory Analysis Operations were performed on liquid process samples used for system analysis and control. After use, all liquids were drained to the PUREX liquid waste system. Again, wastes generated were broken glassware and plastic-ware, and wet rags and paper. RH-TRU waste is also being stored in two spent nuclear fuel basins known as the K-Basins in Hanford’s 100-K Area. This source consists of approximately 50 cubic meters of layered particulate material, which is generally called sludge. This sludge will be collected and transported to a stable interim storage location away from the Columbia River and eventually sent to a final disposal location. Sludge is found on the K-Basins, floors, in canisters, and in the basin pits. Several different types of sludge exist depending on the basin, canister type, and pit location where the particular sludge is found. Each type of sludge is a unique nonhomogeneous mixture possibly containing corroded fuel (i.e., uranium oxides, hydrates, hydride), cladding pieces, debris such as wind-blown sand or insects, rack and canister corrosion products, ion exchange resin beads, polychlorinated biphenyls, and/or fission products. In addition to the existing sludge material, other particulate materials are expected to be generated in the processing of fuel elements for dry storage. The sludge in the basins is commingled with spent nuclear fuel and is not considered a waste; however, when the sludge is separated from the spent nuclear fuel and removed from the basins, it will be dispositioned as RH-TRU waste. For the purposes of differentiating spent nuclear fuel and debris from sludge, any material that is less than or equal to 0.64 cm (1/4 in.) in diameter is defined as sludge. Finally, RH-TRU waste will be generated from future activities related to facility stabilization and cleanup, maintenance of process equipment, laboratory operations, and Office of River Protection tank farm cleanup operations. This waste includes miscellaneous debris, equipment, and components and instrumentation trains removed during remediation of the high level waste tanks. The current estimates are that 207 cubic meters of RH-TRU is stored and an additional 944 cubic meters of waste will be generated. No canisterization of this waste has been performed with the majority of this waste to be generated (i.e., packaged) in the future. The major radionuclides reported are cobalt-60, cesium/barium-137, strontium/yttrium-90, uranium-233, americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, and plutonium -241. Based on known information about program activities, the estimated dose rate range is expected to be between 0.2 to 1,000 rem per hour. Due to the variety of processes, the presence of hazardous constituents will need to be ascertained on a stream-by-stream evaluation of the acceptable knowledge available on the generating process. Based on information previously reported in the TRU Waste Baseline Inventory Report, the following hazardous waste codes have been reported for RH-TRU wastes: F001, F002, F003, F004, F005, D001, D002, D005, D006, D007, D008, D009.
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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report E.2 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory The Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory stores RH-TRU waste generated in national defense programs and research activities from across the country. For volume and radioactive waste inventory information, see Chapter 2. E.2.1 Location and Description The Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory is located in two primary areas: (1) the remote areas known as “the site” along the northern edge of the Snake River Plain in southeastern Idaho and (2) multiple locations southeast of the site in the city of Idaho Falls. Lying at the foot of the Lost River, Lemhi, and Bitterroot-Centennial Mountain ranges, the site covers nearly 2,300 square km (890 mi2) of dry, cool desert. Most of the land withdrawn from public domain for use by DOE is undeveloped. The facilities located in Idaho Falls include administrative, scientific support, and nonnuclear research laboratories. During World War II, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Army Air Corps used a portion of the present site as a gunnery range. In 1949 the site was formally established as the National Reactor Testing Station, a place where the Atomic Energy Commission could build, test, and operate various types of nuclear reactors. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory; of these, seven are operating or operable. The Radioactive Waste Management Complex encompasses 144 acres in the southwestern corner of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Radioactive Waste Management Complex was established in 1952 as a controlled area for burial of solid radioactive wastes generated by Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory operations. In 1954 the burial ground was designated as a solid TRU waste disposal site. Until 1970, all TRU was buried below grade at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. In November 1970 the Transuranic Storage Area was established for retrievable storage of waste contaminated with greater than 10 nanocuries of TRU alpha activity per gram of waste. In November 1976 the Intermediate Level TRU Storage Facility was established for retrievable storage of RH-TRU contaminated waste (greater than 200 millirem per hour). At the Intermediate Level TRU Storage Facility the radioactive waste is stored in above-grade vaults. E.2.2 Mission The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is a multi-program laboratory and has provided innovative technologies, defense-related support, and unique scientific and engineering capabilities to the nation. At present, areas of primary emphasis include nuclear reactor technology research and development, waste management and environmental restoration, advanced energy production and utilization technology development, defense-related support, technology transfer, and nonnuclear research and development projects. Development, transfer, and deployment of technologies to avoid and/or dispose of hazardous and/or radioactive waste and for remediation/restoration of previous disposal sites to protect the public, employees, and environment are also part of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory’s mission.
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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report E.2.3 Waste Information RH-TRU waste generated in national defense programs and research activities from across the country was buried or stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The majority of the RH-TRU was generated at off-site facilities and shipped to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for disposal or storage. These wastes came from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Argonne National Laboratory-East, Argonne National Laboratory-West, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, and other sites. The physical descriptions for these wastes are therefore consistent with the physical waste descriptions provided for each of these sites in different sections of this appendix, and the reader is directed there for those descriptions. In the case of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the RH-TRU was only differentiated from the CH-TRU shipped for disposal or storage at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory by its surface dose rate. The physical constituents of this TRU waste were typically the same and included cloth, paper, plastics, metals, rubber, sludge, or concrete. The TRU waste received at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory from November 1970 through July 1980 was placed on asphalt pads with an earthen cover to protect the waste from the environment until it could be permanently disposed of. Waste received after this time frame was placed in air-supported buildings for interim storage. The current estimate is that 84 cubic meters of RH-TRU is stored and that an additional 52 cubic meters of waste will be generated or recovered. No canisterization of this waste has been performed. Storage drums are typically 30 or 55 gallons. Major radionuclides reported include cobalt-60, cesium/barium-137, strontium/yttrium-90, uranium-235, americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, and plutonium-241. Due to the wide variety of program activities, the estimated dose rate range is expected to vary from 0.2 to 100 rem per hour. Due to the variety of sources of RH-TRU at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the hazardous constituents could be varied, ranging from solvents and degreasers to metals, such as lead or cadmium. The presence of these hazardous wastes will need to be ascertained on a stream-by-stream evaluation of the acceptable knowledge available on the generating process at each generating sites. Based on information previously reported in the TRU Waste Baseline Inventory Report, the following hazardous waste codes have been reported for RH-TRU wastes: D008, D022, D028, D029, F001, F002, F003, and F005. E.2.4 Supplemental Information Additional potential sources of RH-TRU waste are being identified during review of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory programs. One source is anticipated to be generated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory from the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This volume is anticipated to be about 900 cubic meters. The facility was previously known as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant and was established in the early 1950s. Its original mission was to reprocess spent nuclear fuels by chemically separating out the reusable uranium and subsequently calcining the resultant high-level waste. The current mission is the storage of low-level, mixed low-level, and high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel and the development of treatment methods for high-level waste. Several evaluations are now in process to assess the treatment options for packaging the RH-TRU waste generated during processing of the high-level waste. This waste is expected to be classified as Waste Incidental to Reprocessing and disposed of at WIPP. Evaluations are also under way to examine treatment and packaging options for disposal. Depending on the option
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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report selected, the final packaged volume could be significantly greater than the current estimate of 900 cubic meters. E.3 Los Alamos National Laboratory The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory was established in 1943 by the U.S. Army’s Manhattan Engineering District for the purpose of developing the first atomic weapons. Known as the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for many years, the name was changed to the Los Alamos National Laboratory in December 1980. E.3.1 Location and Description The Los Alamos National Laboratory is located approximately 97 km north of Albuquerque and 40 km west of Santa Fe in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. The laboratory facilities are dispersed among numerous technical areas spread over a 111-km2 site on the Pajarito Plateau. The plateau consists of several finger-like mesas extending eastward from the Jemez Mountains to the Rio Grande Valley, with steep eroded canyons separating the mesas. The elevation of the mesas ranges from 1,890 to 2,377 m. Some Technical Areas are located in canyons. E.3.2 Mission Los Alamos National Laboratory was the research, development, engineering, design, and testing center for the Manhattan Project. The mission was the application of science and technology to problems of national security, including the maintenance of a strong defense, the fulfillment of arms controls commitments, and the guarantee of a secure energy supply for the future. Los Alamos National Laboratory’s mission since World War II has included nuclear device design, research, development, testing, stockpile certification, and plutonium storage. Major programs currently include research in nuclear and conventional weapons development; nuclear fission and fusion; nuclear safeguards and security; verification and control technologies; fundamental research in particle physics, mathematics, chemistry, and materials; and waste management technology development and testing. Research on peaceful uses of nuclear energy has included space applications, power reactor programs, magnetic and inertial fusion, radiobiology, and medicine. Other programs include astrophysics, earth sciences, lasers, computer sciences, solar energy, geothermal energy, biomedical and environmental research, and nuclear waste management research. E.3.3 Waste Information RH-TRU waste is primarily generated by the Irradiated Materials Examination Group. This waste consists of solid wastes from laboratory and hot cell operations and includes small laboratory and hot cell equipment, materials such as fines resulting from grinding and cuttings, miscellaneous fuel specimens and their containers, and general debris from hot cell cleanup and decontamination. The general debris consists primarily of combustible waste, such as paper, rags, plastic, and rubber, with the plastic component consisting of tape, polyethylene and vinyl gloves, Tygon tubing, polystyrene, plastic vials, Teflon, and plexiglass. The cellulosic portion consists of rags, wood, cardboard, lab coats and coveralls, and paper. Noncombustible wastes that are present include
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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report cans, lids, graphite molds, furnaces, pyrochemical salts and related equipment, and glassware. Some RH-TRU waste will be received from programmatic activities at the Sandia National Laboratory. The current estimate is that 98 cubic meters of RH-TRU is in storage and that 24 cubic meters of RH-TRU waste will be generated. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is unique in that it is the only site with waste packaged into canisters for handling and disposal at WIPP. Seventeen canisters of waste are currently packaged and stored in the waste storage area at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Other RH-TRU wastes are typically stored in small (1- to 5-gallon containers) and will be canisterized prior to disposal at WIPP. Major radionuclides reported include cesium/barium-137, strontium/yttrium-90, americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, and plutonium-241. The estimated dose rate ranges are expected to be 1 to 100 rem per hour. Potential hazardous wastes included various cleaners and degreasers, cadmium, and lead. Based on information previously reported in the TRU Waste Baseline Inventory Report, the following hazardous waste codes have been reported for TRU wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: F001, D006, D008. E.4 Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is the site that stores most of the existing RH-TRU waste in DOE’s inventory (see Chapter 2). E.4.1 Location and Description The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is located 10 miles southwest of downtown Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and 32 km northwest of Knoxville, Tennessee. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory site occupies about 10,000 acres of the 35,252-acre-Oak Ridge Reservation. The site covers portions of both Melton and Bethel valleys. Approximately 1,100 acres in the Melton and Bethel valleys has been developed. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is under the auspices of the DOE/Oak Ridge Operations Office, which supports production of nuclear weapon components for national defense programs, production of enriched uranium for defense requirements and for fueling nuclear power plants, processing of uranium feed materials for DOE’s plutonium production reactors, and extensive energy research and development in all DOE program areas. E.4.2 Mission The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was established in 1942 in support of the Manhattan Project. The primary mission of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been to carry out applied research and engineering development in fission, fusion, and other energy technologies and to conduct scientific research in basic physical and life sciences. Relevant missions include isotope production and processing, research and development, waste management, and decontamination and decommissioning of operating units, and advanced reactor development work. In addition, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts several activities for DOE defense programs. The principal nonweapons-related activities include nuclear power development and magnetic fusion research.
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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report E.4.3 Waste Information Most of the RH-TRU waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been generated as a result of special isotope separation activities. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has processed americiumcurium targets that were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor to produce higher actinides such as californium, berkelium, einsteinium, and fermium. The ion exchange processing of these targets generated and consists of two distinct waste streams, a solid stream (debris waste) and a sludge/liquid stream. Solid RH-TRU debris waste consists primarily of miscellaneous hot cell waste (e.g., paper, glass, plastic tubing, shoe covers, wipes), high-efficiency particle activated filters from off-gas cleanup systems, and discarded equipment (e.g., chemical processing racks, vacuum pumps). This waste was contaminated with the original target material and the higher actinides, except for the einsteinium and fermium, which decayed quickly due to their very short half-lives. This solid debris is stored in concrete casks as RH-TRU waste. There is substantial historical process knowledge about the content of each cask (ORNL, 1989). For example, some casks contain a large number of 1 gallon pails of hot cell waste while others may have a single failed piece of equipment. The unshielded individual waste packages in the casks typically have radiation levels that measure 10 to 2,000 rem per hour; the majority are below 100 rem per hour. Hazardous wastes in RH-TRU solid waste primarily consist of lead that was used as shielding and limited amounts of mercury from discarded mercury vapor lamps. The RH-TRU solid waste is typically contained in cylindrical concrete casks 1.4 m (4.5 ft.) in diameter by 2.3 m (7.5 ft.) high. Wall thickness of the casks are currently either 15.2 or 30.5 cm (6 or 12 in.) thick, depending on the radiation level of the contents. The majority of RH-TRU sludges at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are the result of waste accumulation from the past 50 years of liquid waste operations there. These sludges are residuals from sluicing operations conducted in the early 1980s when the majority of the inactive gunite tank contents were removed for hydrofracture disposal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This liquid waste is now stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. RH-TRU sludges continue to accumulate due to on going research and development programs, that produce transuranic isotopes for medical, industrial, and government applications. The surface dose rates of these sludges are generally near 10 rem per hour (unshielded). The current estimate is that 1,308 cubic meters of RH-TRU is stored and that an additional 534 cubic meters of waste will be generated. No canisterization of this waste has yet been performed, but canisterization is scheduled to begin in fiscal year 2003 and will be performed by Foster-Wheeler, the contractor performing the characterization and packaging activities. Major radionuclides reported include cobalt-60, cesium/barium-137, strontium/yttrium-90, europium-152, europium-154, uranium-233, uranium-235, uranium-238, americium-241, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, plutonium-241, curium-244, and californium-252. The estimated dose rate range is expected to be 0.2 to 1,000 rem per hour. Based on information previously reported in the TRU Waste Baseline Inventory Report, the following hazardous waste codes have been reported for RH-TRU wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: D006, D007, D008, D009, D011.
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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report E.5 Energy Technology Engineering Center The Energy Technology Engineering Center is a small generator site. This site will serve as model to other small generator sites in the implementation of the RH-TRU waste characterization plan. The site-specific RH-TRU waste characterization implementation plan from this site will be submitted to the regulatory agency along with Documents 1 and 2 (see Chapters 4 and 5). E.5.1 Location and Description The Energy Technology Engineering Center occupies 90 of 290 acres of land shared with the Santa Susana Field Laboratory. The Santa Susana site consists of a total of 2,700 acres located in the Simi Hills of Ventura County, California, approximately 48 km northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The facilities include former fuel fabrication facilities, a hot cell, a reactor test building, a storage vault, an on-site transport cask, and other radiologically contaminated support laboratories and areas. E.5.2 Mission Energy Technology provides facilities for the testing of equipment, materials, and components for nuclear and other energy programs. Components include steam generators, pumps, valves, instrumentation, and other support elements for power plant design. Various types of testing include reliability, seismic, and performance demonstrations. Current activities include non-nuclear testing and cleanup and environmental restoration from prior nuclear testing programs, such as decontamination and decommissioning of a hot cell licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that was used for DOE activities. E.5.3 Waste Information The RH-TRU waste at Energy Technology Engineering Center was generated during DOE fuel decladding and decontamination and decommissioning operations. The RH-TRU waste consists of two waste streams: (1) hot laboratory drain line residue and (2) a single drum of debris waste from multiple sources. The drain line residue is currently stored in 28 concrete-shielded 55-gallon drums and one 30-gallon drum. An additional amount of about 22 gallons of sludge is estimated to be in a 3,000-gallon drain tank and about 10 gallons of residue in two weir boxes. The total volume of the unpackaged waste is about 0.3 cubic meters. The total volume of the drain line residue material when all of the material is repackaged for on-site storage in concrete-shielded drums is estimated to be forty 55-gallon drums plus one 30-gallon drum, or about 8.5 cubic meters. The single 55-gallon drum from the debris waste has a total volume of 0.21 cubic meters. The total RH-TRU volume is therefore 8.7 cubic meters. There are no plans to canisterize RH-TRU waste at the Energy Technology Engineering Center. The RH-TRU waste will be sent to an intermediate site for final waste disposal characterization and final packaging. It is anticipated that the intermediate site may either be Oak Ridge or Hanford. Major radionuclides expected include cobalt-60, cesium/barium-137, strontium/yttrium-90, americium-241, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, and plutonium-241. Dose rates are relatively low in the range of 0.2 to 10 rem per hour. Based on acceptable knowledge documentation, such as process records, and supplemental analyses, the Energy Technology Engineering Center has assigned waste codes below to these waste streams. Recent tests have also shown that the drain line
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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report residue stream has polychlorinated biphenil levels approaching 100 ppm. The Energy Technology Engineering Center plans to manage its RH-TRU waste as three separate waste streams. Based on information previously reported in the TRU Waste Baseline Inventory Report, the following hazardous waste codes have been reported for RH-TRU wastes at this site: D008 and D009. E.6 Battelle Columbus Laboratories This site is the only one actively characterizing its RH-TRU waste inventory. This site is seeking authorization to ship its RH-TRU waste to the Hanford Site for interim storage (see Chapter 2). E.6.1 Location and Description The Battelle Columbus Laboratories consists of two research complexes: one at 505 King Avenue in the city of Columbus, Ohio, and the second, the West Jefferson Site in Madison County west of Columbus. The King Avenue facility houses corporate offices and general research laboratories. The West Jefferson site consists of a number of facilities formerly dedicated to nuclear research. The King Avenue facility is located in the western central portion of the city of Columbus. The 10-acre complex accommodates 21 buildings and is bounded on the north by King Avenue, on the east by Battelle Boulevard, on the south by Fifth Avenue, and on the west by the Olentangy River. The Columbus campus of Ohio State University lies immediately north across King Avenue. The remaining contiguous area is a moderately dense residential neighborhood. The West Jefferson Site is located in West Jefferson, Ohio, approximately 24 km west of the King Avenue facility. The 1,000-acre tract accommodates 21 buildings in the Engineering Area, Experimental Ecology Area, and Nuclear Services Area. The site boundary on the north is about 1 mile south of I-70, on the east is Big Darby Creek, on the south are the Conrail tracks, and on the west is the Georgeville-Plain City Road. The land to the north, west, and south for 2 miles is cleared farmland and/or wood lots. E.6.2 Mission The mission of Battelle in 1943 was to perform atomic energy research and development activities for the Manhattan Engineering District. Since that time Battelle has continuously performed research and development at these facilities. Past programs have included uranium ore processing and benefaction studies, metallurgical and ceramic process development, corrosion studies, fabrication of weapons components, ballistics experiments, hot cell work, critical assembly and criticality experiments, and an experimental reactor. E.6.3 Waste Information The main DOE-sponsored work currently being done at Battelle Columbus Laboratories is decontamination and decommissioning of the contaminated buildings and hot cells at the West Jefferson location. This work is being performed under the direction of the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project. The decontamination and decommissioning activities involve removing from the hot cells equipment used in the fuel examination process, materials such as fines resulting from grinding and cuttings, miscellaneous fuel specimens and their containers, and general
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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report debris. The current estimate is that a total of 20.8 cubic meters of RH-TRU waste will be generated; some of this waste is currently in the process of being packaged. The proposal is to consolidate this waste at an intermediate facility for disposal characterization and any additional packaging. A memorandum of agreement is currently under development for use of the Hanford Reservation as the intermediate site. None of the RH-TRU waste is canisterized for transport in the RH-72B cask. The current plan is to use the CNS 10–160B to ship the majority of waste; therefore, the RH-TRU waste is being packaged in 55-gallon drums. Major radionuclides reported include cobalt-60, cesium/barium-137, strontium/yttrium-90, americium-241, plutonium-239, plutonium-240, and plutonium-241. Measured dose rates range from 0.2 to 150 rem per hour. Based on acceptable knowledge documentation (e.g., production and process records, analytical lab records), the following hazardous waste codes have been reported for RH-TRU wastes: D005, D007, D009, D011, F001, F002, and F005. TABLE E.1 EPA Hazardous Waste Codes Relevant to this Appendix Hazardous Waste Code Criteria and Characteristics of Hazardous Waste D001 Ignitability D002 Corrosivity D003 Reactivity D004–D029 Toxicity: A solid waste whose extract under the test procedure specified under 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 261.24 contains one or more constituents at concentrations greater than those specified in the Maximum Concentration of Contaminants for the Toxicity Characteristic Table. The toxicity characteristics of selected hazardous waste codes together with their maximum concentration of contaminants are listed below (D004–029). D004 Arsenic >5 mg/L D005 Barium >100 mg/L D006 Cadmium >1 mg/L D007 Chromium >5 mg/L D008 Lead >5 mg/L D009 Mercury >0.2 mg/L D011 Silver >5 mg/L D022 Chloroform >6 mg/L D028 Dichloroethane (1,2-) >0.5 mg/L D029 Dichloroethylene (1,1-) >0.7 mg/L Hazardous Waste from Non Specific Sources The following spent halogenated solvents used in degreasing: F001 Tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, 1,1,1- trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chlorinated fluorocarbons; all spent solvent mixtures/blends used in degreasing containing, before use, a total of 10% or more (by volume) of one or more of the above-halogenated solvents or those solvents listed in F002, F004, and F005 and still bottoms from the recovery of these spent solvents and spent solvent mixtures. The following spent halogenated solvents: F002 Tetrachloroethylene, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chlorobenzene, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, ortho-dichlorobenzene, trichlorofluoromethane, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane; all spent solvent mixtures/blends containing, before use, a total of 10% or more (by volume) of one or more of the
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Characterization of Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Final Report above-halogenated solvents or those listed in F001, F004, or F005 and still bottoms from the recovery of these spent solvents and spent solvent mixtures. The following spent non halogenated solvents: F003 xylene, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzene, ethyl ether, methyl isobutyl ketone, N-butyl alcohol, cyclohexanone, and methanol; all spent solvent mixtures/blends containing, before use, only the above spent non halogenated solvents; and all spent solvent mixtures/blends containing, before use, one or more of the above non halogenated solvents, and a total of 10% or more (by volume) of one or more of those solvents listed in F001, F002, F004, and F005; and still bottoms from the recovery of these spent solvents and spent solvent mixtures. The following spent non halogenated solvents: F004 Cresols and cresylic acid, and nitrobenzene; all spent solvent mixtures/blends F004 containing, before use, a total of 10% or more (by volume) of one or more of the above non halogenated solvents or those solvents listed in F001, F002, and F005; and still bottoms from the recovery of these spent solvents and spent solvent mixtures. The following spent non halogenated solvents: F005 Toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, carbon disulfide, isobutanol, pyridine, benzene, 2-ethoxyethanol, and 2-nitropropane; all spent solvent mixtures/blends containing, before use, a total of 10% or more (by volume) of one or more of the above non halogenated solvents or those solvents listed in F001, F002, or F004; and still bottoms from the recovery of these spent solvents and spent solvent mixtures. REFERENCE ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratories). 1989. L.S.Dickerson, Remote-Handled Transuranic Solid Waste Characterization Study: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL/TM-11050. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oak Ridge, Tenn.
Representative terms from entire chapter: