1984; J.W. Gephart and D.W. Forsyth, An improved method for determining the regional stress tensor using earthquake focal mechanism data: Application to the San Fernando earthquake sequence, J. Geophys. Res., 89, 9305-9320, 1984. This method can also be used to constrain the relative magnitude of the maximum deviatoric stress, s1s3, which governs the amount of scatter.


B.C. Haimson and C. Fairhurst, In-situ stress determination at great depth by means of hydraulic fracturing, in Rock Mechanics—Theory and Practice, Proceedings, 11th Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Berkeley, 1969, W.H. Somerton, ed., Society of Mining Engineers of AIME, New York, pp. 559-584, 1970; A. McGarr and N.C. Gay, State of stress in the Earth’s crust, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.,6, 405-436, 1978. Stress orientations can also be estimated from the strain observed inside boreholes after overcoring relieves a component of the in situ stress, although this method cannot be used far from the free surface and is more sensitive to local inhomogeneities.


See summary comments in the special volume on mechanical involvement of fluids in faulting by S. Hickman, R. Sibson, and R. Bruhn (Introduction to special session: Mechanical involvement of fluids in faulting, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 12,831-12,840, 1995).


R. Emmermann and J. Lauterjung, The German Continental Deep Drilling Program KTB: Overview and major results, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18,179-18,201, 1997.


See M.D. Zoback and R. Emmermann, eds., Scientific Rationale for Establishment of an International Program of Continental Scientific Drilling, Report of the International Conference on Scientific Drilling, Potsdam, Germany, 126 pp., August 20-September 1, 1993; H.C. Larsen and I. Kushiro, eds., Report of the Conference of Cooperative Ocean Riser Drilling (CONCORD), Tokyo, 116 pp., July 22-24, 1997.

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