in ways that appeal to students from underrepresented groups, and (2) achieve better meshing between K-12 and college-level Earth science education; and
workshops for K-12 and college-level educators to demonstrate and encourage the use of educational resources, curricula, and field-based experiences, in accordance with established career development standards.
The programmatic support required for earthquake research during the next 10 years will outstrip the resources currently available through NEHRP and other federal programs. The ANSS and EarthScope initiatives, for example, would greatly improve the observational capabilities for earthquake science in the United States and would contribute substantially to the objectives outlined in this report. To bring ANSS into full operation will require capital investments of approximately $170 million, and its annual operational costs are estimated to be about $47 million (Box 6.1). In comparison, the congressional appropriation for the entire USGS component of the NEHRP budget was only $50 million in FY 2001. Deployment costs for the EarthScope instrumental systems are estimated to be $91.3 million for PBO, $245 million for InSAR, $64 million for USArray, and $17.4 million for SAFOD (Box 6.2). Data analysis and management activities will require an additional $15 million to $20 million per year during the first decade of EarthScope operations. The total FY 2001 geoscience expenditures by the NSF in support of NEHRP were only about $12 million. The research opportunities for characterizing the structure and history of active fault systems warrant a severalfold increase in the neotectonic and paleoseismic studies currently supported by the USGS and the NSF. Work in this area is limited by the small number of earthquake geologists engaged in this type of research, underlining the need for increasing efforts in geoscience education at both the undergraduate and the graduate levels.
Research to understand earthquakes and their effects is central to continuing efforts to decrease earthquake risk. The technological and conceptual developments documented in this report have positioned the field of earthquake science for major advances. Investments made now will eventually pay off in terms of saved lives and reduced damage. These returns can be realized sooner by encouraging unconventional lines of research; coordinating scientific activities across disciplines and organizations, especially between scientists and engineers; and supporting international programs to investigate the global diversity of earthquake behavior. The transition to a systems-oriented science has important ramifications for the types of cooperative research activities and organiza-