FIGURE 1.2 Direct economic losses, given in inflation-adjusted 1994 dollars on a logarithmic scale, from some major earthquakes in the United States and Japan. The plot shows a near-exponential rise in the losses caused by urban earthquakes of approximately equal size from 1971 to 1995. SOURCE: Compiled from Office of Technology Assessment, Reducing Earthquake Losses, OTA-ETI-623, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 162 pp., 1995; R.T. Eguchi, J.D. Goltz, C.E. Taylor, S.E. Chang, P.J. Flores, L.A. Johnson, H.A. Seligson, and N.C. Blais, Direct economic losses in the Northridge earthquake: A three-year post-event perspective, Earthquake Spectra, 14, 245-264, 1998; National Institute of Standards and Technology, January 17, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu (Kobe) Earthquake: Performance of Structures, Lifelines, and Fire Protection Systems, NIST Special Publication 901, Washington, D.C., 573 pp., July 1996.



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