Index

A

Acceleration, 47, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 177, 273-274, 311, 312, 319, 323

see also Peak ground acceleration

free-field, 70-71

seismic networks, 179, 185

strong-motion seismology, 190, 318-322

Accelerator mass spectrometry, 223, 356

Acoustic measures, 197, 217, 357, 358

Active faults, general, 15, 18, 21, 46, 128, 132, 205, 225, 240, 317, 353, 382

see also specific faults

geological record, 1, 40, 216, 224

hazard analysis, 108, 123, 151, 152, 153, 267-268, 370

seafloor, 357

thermal factors, 53

Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), 10, 190, 191, 351-352, 353, 362, 371, 373, 379, 382, 391, 396-397

Africa, 144, 183, 184

see also specific countries

Aftershocks, 12, 44, 50-51, 258, 269-273, 289

equations, 50-51, 270-272

portable arrays, 191, 193, 373

prediction, 10, 61, 270-271

Alaska, 6, 42, 44-45, 50, 114, 117, 135-136, 222, 228, 266

Aleutian Islands, 40, 42, 44, 50, 56, 121, 136

Alquist-Priolo Special Studies Act (California), 153

Altimetry, 131, 356, 389

American Society of Civil Engineers, 71, 113, 153

Annualized earthquake losses, 2, 5, 150, 163

Applied Technology Council, 73, 153

Archaeological evidence, 20, 21, 22

Aristotle, 21-23, 84(n.3)

Aseismic deformation, 209, 215, 275, 316, 383

Assam earthquake, 26, 31

Attenuation, 33, 43, 74, 80, 112, 177, 302, 306, 309-310, 313-314, 364, 376

hazard analysis, 318-321, 371

imaging, 193

strong-motion seismology, 190, 318-319, 373

tsunamis, 119

Atwater, Tanya, 43, 45

Australia, 86(n.22), 147, 159, 161

B

Basement rock, 45, 128, 135, 141-142, 319

Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science, 367



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Index A Acceleration, 47, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 177, 273-274, 311, 312, 319, 323 see also Peak ground acceleration free-field, 70-71 seismic networks, 179, 185 strong-motion seismology, 190, 318-322 Accelerator mass spectrometry, 223, 356 Acoustic measures, 197, 217, 357, 358 Active faults, general, 15, 18, 21, 46, 128, 132, 205, 225, 240, 317, 353, 382 see also specific faults geological record, 1, 40, 216, 224 hazard analysis, 108, 123, 151, 152, 153, 267-268, 370 seafloor, 357 thermal factors, 53 Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), 10, 190, 191, 351-352, 353, 362, 371, 373, 379, 382, 391, 396-397 Africa, 144, 183, 184 see also specific countries Aftershocks, 12, 44, 50-51, 258, 269-273, 289 equations, 50-51, 270-272 portable arrays, 191, 193, 373 prediction, 10, 61, 270-271 Alaska, 6, 42, 44-45, 50, 114, 117, 135-136, 222, 228, 266 Aleutian Islands, 40, 42, 44, 50, 56, 121, 136 Alquist-Priolo Special Studies Act (California), 153 Altimetry, 131, 356, 389 American Society of Civil Engineers, 71, 113, 153 Annualized earthquake losses, 2, 5, 150, 163 Applied Technology Council, 73, 153 Archaeological evidence, 20, 21, 22 Aristotle, 21-23, 84(n.3) Aseismic deformation, 209, 215, 275, 316, 383 Assam earthquake, 26, 31 Attenuation, 33, 43, 74, 80, 112, 177, 302, 306, 309-310, 313-314, 364, 376 hazard analysis, 318-321, 371 imaging, 193 strong-motion seismology, 190, 318-319, 373 tsunamis, 119 Atwater, Tanya, 43, 45 Australia, 86(n.22), 147, 159, 161 B Basement rock, 45, 128, 135, 141-142, 319 Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science, 367

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Basic Safety Earthquake, 169 Basin effects, 82, 193-194 see also Sediments and sedimentary basins hazard analysis, 112, 151, 371, 375 wave propagation, 193, 194, 302, 311, 375 Bathymetry, 137-140, 217, 224, 357 Berkeley Digital Seismic Network, 185 Blind thrust faults, 84-85(n.9), 128, 129, 208, 225, 226, 228, 356 Bolivia, 50, 300 Borah Peak earthquake, 50, 131-132 Boreholes, 99, (n.112), 113, 189, 209, 215, 226, 239, 240, 283, 353, 365-366, 367, 371, 389-390, 397 Bridges, 15, 82, 87(n.27), 109, 152-153, 304, 309 Brittleness, 46, 108, 256, 300, 385 brittle-ductile boundary, 36, 47, 48, 231-233 crustal deformation, 1, 11, 26, 269 volcano seismology, 198, 199, 201 Broadband instruments, 40, 161, 174(n.101), 176, 179, 180, 185, 187, 190, 191, 198, 305, 351, 354, 358 Building codes, 2, 6, 66-68, 80, 152, 154-159, 163, 309 cost factors, 6 historical perspectives, 66-68, 70-74 International Building Code, 113 performance-based engineering, 155-159 public education, 379-380 seismic hazard maps, 79, 122 soil conditions and, 105(n.162), 113, 155, 307-308 Uniform Building Code (UBC), 66, 71, 73, 79, 113, 322 Buildings, 2, 6, 8, 10, 11, 14, 28, 54, 62, 66, 82, 122, 149, 155, 157, 159, 190, 352, 371, 373, 377, 397 deformation, 157, 377 foundations, 66, 67, 87(n.27), 152, 156 ground shaking, 67-68, 70-71, 73, 152, 157, 158-159 high-rise buildings, 71, 190 hospitals, 152, 397 masonry buildings, 6, 67, 109 seismic hazard maps, 79, 122 Building Seismic Safety Council, 153 Burridge-Knopoff spring-slider models, 260 C Calaveras fault (California), 293, 297 California, 2, 6, 67-69, 71-73, 75, 77, 78, 82, 123-129, 193-196, 206, 213, 222, 228, 240, 266, 267, 268 see also Los Angeles, California; San Andreas fault; San Francisco, California Alaskan earthquake, tsunamis, 44-45 engineering, 152-153, 155, 164 Global Positioning System (GPS), 203-205, 210 Hayward fault, 85(n.15), 123, 128, 293 hazard analysis, 14, 60, 114, 123-129, 131, 152-153, 363 San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), 189, 280, 354, 364, 366, 368, 374, 382, 392 Southern California Earthquake Center, 128, 190, 318, 356, 376 Hector Mine earthquake, 13, 50, 128, 206, 211, 213 Imperial fault, 67, 74, 123, 268, 321, 336(n.100, n.104), 339(n.127), 340(n.132) Landers earthquake, 50, 128, 207, 272, 296, 297 Loma Prieta earthquake, 28, 50, 60, 112, 153, 212, 286, 304 legislation, 67, 118, 153 Northridge earthquake, 50, 73, 111-112, 118, 131, 156, 187, 289, 309, 312, 322, 323, 379 Parkfield, 60, 64, 71, 189, 211, 297, 366 seismic networks, 180, 185 subsidence, 114 warning systems, 161, 162 California Division of Mines and Geology, 318 California Geological Survey, 190 California Integrated Seismic Network, 185 California Strong-Motion Instrument Program, 190 Canada, 186, 190, 212, 229, 355 Cataclastic processes, 26, 238, 276, 278, 366 Casualties, 62, 149, 376, 379 Centroid moment tensor, 182, 184 Characteristic earthquakes, 55, 56, 60, 122, 259, 261, 267, 275, 315-316, 317-318, 322, 359

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Chile, 10, 23, 42, 44-45, 49-50, 114, 140, 212 China, 50, 62, 82, 224, 267 prediction, 62-63 secondary ground failures, 114 Chinnery, Michael, 36 Clustering, 56, 61, 189, 200, 229, 269-274, 315, 316-317, 358, 361-362, 386, 389 Coastal areas, 10, 28, 42, 44-45, 55, 59, 225, 229 see also Tsunamis dendrochronology, 222 Pacific Northwest, 129-131 subsidence, 114, 229 Coast and Geodetic Survey, see U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Coats, Robert, 40, 42 Compensated linear vector dipole, 37 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, 197 Compression, 26, 40, 46, 62, 128, 193, 279, 296 waves, 34 Computer applications, 1-2, 262, 263, 364, 373, 375, 391 earthquake dynamics, 257, 259-260, 369 geoinformatics, 353 hazard analysis, general, 149-150 real-time, 8, 161, 162, 175(n.109), 185, 188, 352, 386 seismic cycle, 274 seismic information systems, 8-11, 373, 375, 378-379, 388 seismicity patterns, 61-62 strong-motion simulations, 370-371 tsunamis, 120 warning systems, 161-163 Continental drift, 36-38, 40, 90(n.45), 91(n.52), 92(n.57), 93(n.67), 94(n.68-69), 203 Convection, 11, 40, 42, 47, 182, 265 Coral, 137, 224, 229 Core (Earth), 32 Corinth fault, 225 Cost factors see also Funding earthquake damage, 2-6, 147, 149-151, 155-156, 350, 376, 377, 384 annualized earthquake losses, 2, 6, 150, 157 computer models, 149-150 prediction/risk assessment, 5-6, 147, 149-151 emergency response, 162-163 geodetic measures, 202, 203 Global Seismic Network (GSN), 182 remote sensing, 217 research, general, 15-16, 356, 382-383, 391-393 seismic hazard maps, 123, 318 seismic networks, 176, 182, 185, 352, 353, 382 seismic safety investments, 6, 154-155, 156-157, 163-164 tsunamis, 119, 292-293 volcano damage, 200 Coulomb criteria, 26, 27, 46, 269-270, 362 Creep, 48, 49, 102(n.131), 123, 128, 189, 267, 275, 277, 278, 280, 390 geodetic measures, 201, 208-209, 211, 212 rupture dynamics, 293, 297 Creep meters, 339(n.115) D Darwin, Charles, 23, 42, 216 Deep-focus earthquakes, 32-35 (passim), 42, 43, 47, 48, 53, 137, 256 rupture dynamics, 298-301, 302, 369 Defense Threat Reduction Agency, 397 Deformation, 1, 11, 17-18(n.15), 23, 26, 36, 263, 265, 359-360 see also Creep; Brittleness; Ductility aseismic, 209, 215, 275, 316 building, 157, 377 cataclastic processes, 26, 238, 276, 278, 366 crustal, 1, 2, 93(n.63), 108, 110, 176, 201-207 (passim), 212, 222, 263, 265, 351, 386 brittleness, 1, 11, 26, 269 fault zones, 266, 281, 353 geodetic measures, 201-209 (passim), 212, 214, 215, 216, 322-323, 354, 369 ground, 103(n.143), 152 rock, 48, 49, 229-240 cataclastic processes, 26, 238, 276, 278, 366 seafloor, 119, 142 tectonic, 23, 45-46, 56, 108, 135, 176-177, 201, 274 Venus, 11 wave propagation, 309, 314

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Dendrochronology, 130, 222, 223 Department of Commerce, 395 Department of Defense, 197, 397 Department of Energy, 397 see also EarthScope Department of Housing and Urban Development, 397 Department of the Interior, 395 Department of Transportation, 397 Department of Veterans Affairs, 397 Developing countries see also specific countries economic losses, 6 hazard analysis, 137 Dietz, Robert, 38 Digital elevation models, 217, 356, 389 Dip-slip faults, 141, 309 Ductility brittle-ductile boundary, 36, 47, 48, 231, 233 building design, 156, 159 crust, 95(n.78), 212, 257 mantle, 11 rock deformation, 46-47, 48, 231 San Andreas fault, 28, 36 Dynamical systems theory, 256, 257, 258 E Early Post-Earthquake Damage Assessment Tool, 173(n.78) Earth Change and Hazard Observatory, 205 Earth Science National Laboratory Program, 367 Earthquake Early Alerting Service, 196 Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, 153 Earthquake Hazards Reduction Acts, 396-397 Earthquake Prediction: A Proposal for a Ten Year Program of Research, 62 EarthScope, 12, 189, 190, 280, 353, 354, 364, 366, 382 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), 17-18(n.15), 205-208, 215, 322-323, 353, 354, 362, 364, 386, 389, 392, 398 Plate Boundary Observatory, 17-18(n.15), 204, 209, 353, 354, 355, 358, 364, 382, 392 San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), 189, 280, 354, 364, 366, 368, 374, 382, 392 USArray, 17-18(n.15), 354, 364, 373, 374 Eastern United States, 132, 135, 229, 307 see also specific states strong-motion seismology, 191 Economic factors see also Cost factors earthquake damage, 2-6, 14, 147, 149-151, 155-156, 350, 376, 377, 384 annualized earthquake losses, 2, 6, 150, 157 computer programs, 149-150 prediction/risk assessment, 5-6, 147, 149-151 global, 83(n.1) insurance, 13, 54, 147, 163 risk reduction incentives, 163 tsunamis, damage, 119, 292-293 volcano damage, 200 Education, see Professional education; Public education and outreach Elasticity, 27-31, 47, 48, 49, 89(n.39), 114 Elastic rebound model, 27-31 Elastic waves, 11, 36, 198, 303, 304, 308, 375 Electromagnetic measurements, 103(n.143), 105(n.156), 217, 276 prediction, 64 El Salvador, 50, 114 Emergency response, 8-11, 83, 159-163 see also Prediction; Warning systems cost factors, 162-163 evacuation, 10, 62, 161, 200, 386 hazard analysis, 123 mass media, 8-9, 185 rapid dissemination of information, 2, 8-9, 83 seismic hazard maps, 122 seismic information systems, 8-10, 191, 378-379, 388 seismic networks, 185, 189-190 volcanoes, 200 Engineering, 8, 15, 28, 152-160 (passim), 163, 164-165, 262, 392-393, 397 see also Bridges; Building codes; Buildings; Safety issues ground shaking, 15, 65-68, 70, 71-74, 155, 157-159, 377-378 historical perspectives, 28, 65-84 performance-based, 155-159

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prediction issues, 8, 155-159 public information, 13, 379-380 retrofitting, 6, 13, 16(n.2), 54, 147, 152-153, 155, 163, 164 seismic hazard maps and, 122-123, 318 spectral analysis, 70-71 strong-motion seismology, 190, 318-319, 371 Environmental Protection Agency, 397 Epicenters aftershocks, 270 maps, 41, 133, 360 public education, 12-13 seismometry, 32 Equations aftershocks, 50-51, 270-272 building response, 71, 73 earthquake magnitude, 33, 34, 35, 49-50 fault mechanics, 26-27 hazard analysis, 315 rock friction, 232, 277 rupture dynamics, 282-283, 291 state-dependent seismicity, 270-271 wave propagation, 303, 304, 309 Evacuation, 10, 62, 161, 200, 386 Ewing, Maurice, 38 Explosions, 84(n.4), 193, 196, 200, 318, 354, 397 see also Volcanism nuclear, 11, 34, 88-89(n.34), 178, 197 F Faulting and fault systems, 11, 12, 15, 185, 256, 257, 259, 263, 264-282, 361-367, 373, 375, 386-389 see also Frictional processes; Prediction; Rupture dynamics; Seismology; Slippage, faults; Stick-slip faults; Strike-slip faults; Thrust faults; specific faults architecture, 265-266, 385 chaos, 261-262 cores of, 276, 280, 301 fault-zone geology, 216-217 geodetic measures, 201, 209-212, 214, 216, 351-358, 359-360, 364, 389 hazard analysis, 315-317 historical perspectives, general, 23-31, 39, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 48, 51, 53-54, 385 kinematics, 11, 42, 45, 56, 142, 224, 266-268, 294-295, 361, 364, 375 laboratory studies, 11-12, 48, 64, 230-234 fault-friction processes, 214, 216, 262, 277, 279, 282, 365, 389-390 modeling, 257, 259-262, 263-264, 265, 274-278, 362-364, 367, 387, 390 rupture dynamics, 177, 282-297 (passim), 300-301, 368-369, 375 slip models, 15, 49, 225 neotectonics, 224-226 paleoseismology, 227, 228, 229 petrology, 237-238 portable-array studies, 191, 193, 388-389 reverse faults, 40, 42, 53, 128, 225, 248(n.70), 314, 324 seafloor spreading, 39, 40, 42, 43, 142, 144, 217 segmentation, 296, 362 seismic hazard maps, 122 time factors, 12, 30, 58, 177, 193, 264-265, 266-268, 269-275, 322, 376 tsunamis, 119-120 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 118, 149, 164, 396 National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP), 2, 64, 73, 80, 113, 122, 156, 163, 164, 165, 350, 380, 382, 384, 395-397 performance-based engineering, 156, 158 Federal government, 16, 154, 164 see also specific departments and agencies; terms beginning “National…” Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks, 180-182 Field Act (California), 67 Fires, 2, 8, 21, 28, 84(n.3), 105(n.157), 149, 165(n.2) Fold structures, 128, 224, 229, 356, 375, 389 Flooding, 114, 149 see also Tsunamis Forecasting, see Prediction Foreshocks, 271, 272-273 rupture initiation, 286, 290 Fracture mechanics, 281-282, 291-292 see also Rupture dynamics historical perspectives, 30, 47 laboratory studies, 11-12, 48 modeling, 262

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Frictional processes, 262-263, 265, 277-278, 281 see also Shear stress equations, 232-233 historical perspectives, 26, 46, 47-49, 86(n.18) laboratory studies, 11-12, 48, 156, 230-233, 268, 279-280 modeling, 11-12, 214, 230-231 rupture dynamics, 301 Funding, 382-383, 391-393, 395-397 see also Cost factors Advanced National Seismic System, 352 EarthScope, 354 mitigation, 118, 164 prediction, 58 seismic networks, 176, 182, 185 G General Services Administration, 397 Geochronology, 222-224 Geodesy, 11, 14, 201-216, 322-323, 351, 353, 357-358, 389 see also Global Positioning System cost factors, 202, 203 creep, 201, 208-209, 211, 212 earthquake prediction, 64, 387 historical perspectives, 25, 26, 36, 42, 44, 51, 64, 176 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), 17-18(n.15), 205-208, 215, 322-323, 353, 354, 362, 364, 386, 389, 392, 398 postseismic effects, 201, 202, 205, 212 seismic hazard maps, 122 slippage, faults, 201, 209-211, 212, 214, 216, 351 strain, 202, 211-213, 214-216, 356, 357 strainmeters, 17-18 (n.15), 42, 64, 93(n.62/n.63), 176, 201, 209, 212, 215, 216, 231, 283, 353, 354, 368 Geodynamics, 53 Geological Survey, see U.S. Geological Survey Geology, general, 176, 216-229, 276 see also Basin effects; Faulting and fault systems; Paleoseismology; Tectonics active faults, geological record, 1, 216, 351 fault-zone geology, 353, 356 geochronology, 222-224 neotectonics, 11, 128, 137, 216, 217, 224-226, 356-357 remote sensing, 216-222 rupture processes, 368 Gilbert, G.K., 54, 216 Global Fault Mapping Project, 390 Global Positioning System (GPS), 131, 134, 151, 176-177, 201-215 (passim), 217, 322-323, 353, 354, 356, 358, 362, 376, 386, 389, 398 Plate Boundary Observatory, 17-18(n.15), 204-205, 209, 353, 354, 355, 358, 364, 382, 392 Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP), 137, 139, 360-361, 390 Global Seismic Network (GSN), 176, 178-182, 190, 359, 388, 390 Global Strain Rate Map Project, 361, 390 Greece, 220 Ground shaking, 1, 2, 8, 15, 23, 28, 33, 44, 74, 116, 369-376 see also Acceleration; Liquefaction; Strong-motion seismology; Velocity; Vibration; terms beginning “Seis…” building codes, 67-68, 70-71, 73, 152, 157, 158-159 engineering for, 15, 65-68, 70, 71-74, 152, 155, 157-159, 377-378 hazard analysis, 71-73, 77, 107-108, 110-114, 121-122, 136, 149, 151, 155, 156, 318-322, 323-324 hypocenters, 112 modeling, 318-322, 370, 371, 377 paleoseismology, 227 peak ground acceleration (PGA), 8, 67-68, 71-72, 74-75, 77, 78, 192 hazard analysis, 110, 122, 319, 320 seismic hazard maps, 124, 139 peak ground velocity (PGV), 110, 322 portable arrays, 193 prediction, 177, 318-322, 369-376, 377-378, 386, 387, 388; see also “hazard analysis” supra rupture dynamics, 282, 292, 293-294, 309 seismic networks, 189-190 shear stress, 112, 113-114 time factors, 71, 110-111, 308, 321-322, 377, 391

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warning systems, 161-163 wave propagation and scattering, 110-114, 177, 369-370, 371, 373, 375 Groundwater, 15, 61, 205, 279 pore fluids/pressure, 54, 240, 262, 276, 278, 279, 280, 309, 389 Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, 156 Gutenberg, Beno, 32, 33-35, 56, 257 Gutenberg-Richter relation, 33, 34, 35, 38, 51, 56, 122, 257, 259, 261, 268, 273 H Hawaii, 10, 119, 136-137, 138, 271 Hayward fault, 85(n.15), 123, 128, 293 Hazardous materials, 149, 153, 397 nuclear power plants, 74, 76, 165(n.2), 397 Hazards and hazard analysis, 2, 6, 11, 13, 15, 107-147, 151-152, 185, 193, 256, 262, 314-324, 358, 376-378, 387, 388, 390 see also Prediction; Risk assessment; Seismic hazard maps active faults, general, 108, 151, 152, 153, 267-268 basin effects, 151, 371, 375 California, 114, 123-129, 152-153, 363 San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), 189, 280, 354, 364, 366, 368, 374, 382, 392 Southern California Earthquake Center, 128, 190, 318, 356, 376 clustering, 316-317 developing countries, 137 emergency response and, 162-163, 376, 384, 386 engineering, 122-123, 152-159, 376 fault systems, 108, 151-153, 315-317 fires, 2, 8, 21, 28, 105(n.157), 149, 165(n.2) flooding, 114, 149; see also Tsunamis Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP), 137, 139, 360-361, 390 ground shaking, 71-73, 77, 107-108, 110-114, 121-122, 136, 149, 151, 155, 156, 318-322, 323-324 historical perspectives, 74-80, 315 landslides, 108, 114, 117-120 (passim), 131, 153 lateral spreading, 108, 114, 116-117 paleoseismology, 130, 131, 137, 147 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), 77, 79-80, 122, 124, 137, 314, 315, 317-318, 377, 380 site response characterization, 73, 74, 113, 151, 319-321 slippage, faults, 107-108, 123, 140,315-316 strike-slip faults, 108, 123, 144-145, 360 subduction, 129-130, 137, 140-142 tectonics, 108, 137-147 (passim), 182 thrust faults, 128, 135-136 types of hazards, 107-121; see specific hazards supra wave propagation, 376, 377 HAZUS, 8, 149-151, 162 Hebgen Lake earthquake, 131 Hector Mine earthquake, 13, 50, 128, 206, 211, 213 Historical perspectives, 1, 2, 395 archaeological evidence, 20, 21, 22 computer applications, 70 earthquake science, 19-65, 176 economic losses, 4 engineering, 28, 65-80 fracture mechanics, 30, 47 frictional processes, 26, 46, 47-48, 49, 53, 86(n.18) geodesy, 25, 26, 64, 176 hazard analysis, 56, 74-80, 315 paleoseismology, 25 prediction, 54-65, 315 seismology, 23-36, 40, 42, 46, 47, 50-52, 176, 303 slippage, faults, 19, 23-26, 28, 36, 42, 43, 46, 55 tectonics, 23-24, 26, 30-31, 36-47, 53, 55-56, 256, triangulation, 201-202 warning systems, 159, 161 wave propagation and scattering, 32, 33-34, 36, 83(n.4) Hollywood fault, 108 Hospitals, 152, 397 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake (Kobe), 3, 50, 80-84, 111, 113, 141, 144, 273, 304, 309, 312, 322, 379 Hypocenters, 32, 36, 82, 83, 84(n.4) rupture propagation, 292, 309

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I Idaho, 132 Imperial fault, 67, 74, 102(n.133), 123, 268, 321, 327(n.27), 336(n.100, n.104), 339(n.127), 340(n.142) Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), 176, 180-182, 191 Global Seismic Network (GSN), 176, 180-182, 190, 359, 388, 390 India, 13, 16, 19, 23, 26, 38, 46, 50, 94, 132 Indonesia, 140, 141 Insurance, 13, 54, 147, 163 Interdisciplinary approaches, see Multidisciplinary approaches Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), 17-18(n.15), 205-208, 215, 322-323, 353, 354, 362, 364, 386, 389, 392, 398 Interferometry, see Very long baseline interferometry Intermontane Western U.S., 101(n.125), 128, 131-132 see also specific states International Association of Seismology, 87(n.25) International Building Code, 113 International Data Center, 197 International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, 137 International GPS Service for Geodynamics, 359 International Lithosphere Project, 361 International Monitoring System, 196 International Ocean Network Program, 358 International perspectives see also Developing countries; specific countries Global Fault Mapping Project, 390 Global Positioning System (GPS), 131, 134, 151, 176-177, 201-215 (passim), 217, 322-323, 353, 354, 356, 358, 362, 376, 386, 389 Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program, 137, 139, 360-361 Global Seismic Network (GSN), 176, 180-182, 190, 359, 388, 390 Global Strain Rate Map Project, 361 International Seismological Centre, 87(n.25), 180, 196 International Seismological Summary, 32, 34 Internet public information, 13, 165, 381 seismic information systems, 379 Information technology, see Computer applications Italy, 33 Izmit earthquake, 16(n.2), 211, 213, 269, 360 J Japan, 32, 36, 114, 141, 213, 214, 266 Global Positioning System (GPS), 203-204, 212 ground motion measurements, 67, 81 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake (Kobe), 3, 50, 80-84, 111, 113, 141, 144, 273, 304, 309, 312, 322, 379 Kanto earthquake, 55, 66 Niigata earthquake, 50 Nobi earthquake, 24, 50, 65-66, 97(n.97), 141 strong-motion stations, 191 Tokai seismic gap, 58-59 Tokyo earthquake, 31 warning systems, 161 Jeffreys-Bullen model, 303 Johnson Valley fault, 296 K Kanto earthquake, 55, 66 Kinematics, faulting, 11, 42, 45, 56, 142, 224, 266-268, 294-295, 361, 364, 375 Kobe earthquake, 3, 50, 80-84, 111, 113, 141, 144, 273, 304, 309, 312, 322, 379 Koto, B., 23, 216 Kyoshin Net, 191 L Laboratory studies, 62, 64, 321, 365, 389-390 damage mechanics, 276, 281 fault-friction processes, 214, 262, 268, 277-280, 282, 365, 390 fracture mechanics, 11-12, 48 frictional processes, general, 11-12, 48, 230-233 rupture dynamics, 282-283

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shear stress, 230, 279 stick-slip faults, 58, 230, 282 Landers earthquake, 50, 128, 207, 270, 272, 296, 297 Landsat satellites, 216, 219 Landslides, 2, 16(n.2), 44, 87(n.27), 229 hazards, 108, 114, 117-120 (passim), 131, 153, 370 tsunamis and, 119, 120 Land-use policies, 152, 153, 163 Large-Scale Earthquake Countermeasures Act, 59 Laser altimetry, 131, 356, 389 Lateral force, 66, 67, 70-71, 73 Lateral spreading, 16(n.2) hazards, 108, 114, 116-117 Lawson, Andrew, 28, 30, 55 Legislation, 134 see also building codes Alquist-Priolo Special Studies Act (California), 153 Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act, 396 Field Act (California), 67 Large-Scale Earthquake Countermeasures Act (Japan), 59 NEHRP Reauthorization Act, 396 Riley Act (California), 67 Seismic Hazards Mapping Act (California), 118, 153 Stafford Act, 118, 153 Lehmann, Inge, 32 LIDAR, 217, 356 Liquefaction, 2, 44, 108, 114-116, 117-118, 136, 227, 229, 370 Lithosphere, 231, 265, 300, 356-357, 385 see also Faulting and fault systems; Subduction; Tectonics central and eastern U.S., 132, 134 continental, 46, 144, 147, 191, 257 oceanic, 40-43, 46, 47, 137-140, 266, 357-358 stress observations and modeling, 239 tomographic mapping, 182 wave propagation, 309 Lithology, 232, 260, 266, 274, 279, 342-343(n.156) Loma Prieta earthquake, 28, 50, 60, 112, 153, 212, 286, 304 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 397 Los Angeles, California, 128, 193 building codes, 67 ground shaking, 71 Northridge earthquake, 50, 73, 111-112, 118, 131, 156, 187, 289, 309, 312, 322, 323, 379 seismic networks, 185 tectonic strain, 205 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, 193 Lyell, Charles, 23, 145 M Mainshock, 50-51, 62, 97(n.98), 248(n.70-71, 73), 269-270, 272, 273, 289 Mantle, 32, 38, 43, 45, 112, 303 convection, 40, 42, 47, 182, 265 seismic tomography, 182, 183 Masonry buildings, 6, 67, 109 Mass media, 8-9, 185 McKenzie, Dan, 42 Mechanics, 47-54 see also Fracture mechanics; Frictional processes; Rock mechanics; Shear stress damage, 276-277 fault, 35-36, 229-240, 276-282, 362 Melting, 45, 171(n.57), 198, 238, 278, 280, 281, 290, 300, 365, 367, 389 Mexico, 50, 61, 112, 113, 304, 355 warning systems, 161 Microcracking, 62, 64, 96(n.88), 233, 280 Microseismicity, 188, 189, 275, 286, 297, 397 Middle East, 11, 144, 145 see also specific countries and earthquakes Milne, John, 31, 32, 159, 161 Mines, 185-186, 283 Missouri, New Madrid earthquakes, 122, 133, 134, 229 Mitigation, 14, 102(n.129), 122, 147, 163, 164 see also Emergency response Models and modeling, 256, 257, 259-261, 397 see also Equations: Laboratory studies; Prediction aftershocks, 50-51, 270 digital elevation models, 217, 356, 389 dislocation, 35-36, 49, 51-52 earthquake recurrence intervals, 58 elastic rebound model, 27-31 faults and fault zones, 257, 259-262, 263-264, 265, 274-278, 362-364, 367, 387, 390

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slip models, 15, 49, 225 see also “rupture dynamics” infra friction and fracture mechanics, 11-12, 214, 230-231 ground motion, 318-322, 370, 371, 377 rupture dynamics, 177, 282-297 (passim), 300-301, 368-369 seismic-gap method, 55-60 stress, 61, 239-240, 317, 364 tsunamis, 121 wave propagation, 302-314, 369 Modified Mercalli Intensity, 77 Moho reflections, 32, 193, 304, 322, 373 Morgan, Jason, 42 Mountains, 318 see also Orogenesis Wasatch Front, 54-55 Multidisciplinary approaches, 11, 15, 164-165, 189, 256, 366-367, 378, 380, 382-383, 385, 387 N Nakano, H., 36 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 202-203, 398 see also EarthScope National Bureau of Standards, 73 National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, 73 National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP), 2, 64, 73, 80, 113, 122, 156, 163, 164, 165, 350, 380, 382, 384, 395-398 (passim) National Earthquake Information Service, 196 National Earthquake Loss Reduction Program, 398 National Hazard Data Center, 397-398 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 164, 396 National Institutes for Building Standards, 149 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 397-398 National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, 177 National Science Foundation, 382, 393 see also EarthScope Earth Science National Laboratory Program, 367 education, 381, 382 Global Seismic Network, 176, 182 Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation, 164, 378, 397 National Seismic Network, 189-190, 352 National Strong-Motion Program, 190 NEHRP, see, National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program NEHRP Reauthorization Act, 396 Neotectonics, 11, 128, 137, 216, 217, 224-226, 356-357 Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation, 164, 378, 397 Nevada, 131, 132 New Madrid earthquakes, 122, 133, 134, 229 Newport-Inglewood fault, 123 New Zealand, 114, 171(n.64), 224, 228, 229, 359 Niigata earthquake, 50 Nisqually earthquake, 13, 17(n.12), 18(n.16), 131, 164 Nobi earthquake, 50, 65-66, 97(n.97), 141 Nonlinear behavior, 12, 73, 74, 113, 160, 257, 260, 282, 310, 313, 369, 370, 371 see also Rupture dynamics tsunamis, 121 North Anatolian fault, 144, 224, 228, 250(n.89), 267, 268, 273, 360 Northridge earthquake, 50, 73, 111-112, 118, 131, 156, 187, 289, 309, 312, 322, 323, 379 Nuclear explosions, 11, 34, 88(n.34), 178, 197 Nuclear power plants, 74, 76, 397 O Ocean Hemisphere Project, 188 Ocean trenches, 32, 38, 40, 44, 45, 56, 137, 140, 144 Office of Science and Technology, 62 Oil fields and wells, 225, 367 Oldham, R.D., 32 Omori’s Law, 50-51, 270, 271 Oregon, 114, 229 Orogenesis, 45-46 Outreach, see Public education and outreach

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P Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, 164, 190 Pacific Northwest, 129-131, 212, 229, 266 see also Oregon; Washington State Paleomagnetic data, 38, 39 Paleoseismology, 11, 226-229, 268, 274 dendrochronology, 130, 222, 223 hazards, 130, 131, 137, 147 historical perspectives, 25 radiocarbon dating, 130, 223-224, 356 seismic hazard maps, 122 sea level change, 229 Parker, Robert, 42 Parkfield, California, 60, 64, 71, 189, 211, 297, 366 Peak ground acceleration (PGA), 8, 67-68, 71-72, 74-75, 77, 78, 192, 309 seismic hazard maps, 124, 125, 136, 138, 139 Peak ground velocity (PGV), 74, 110, 322 Peru, 50, 114, 115 Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, 200 Philippines, 141, 200 Plafker, George, 42 Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), 17-18(n.15), 204-205, 209, 353, 354, 355, 358, 364, 382, 392 Plate tectonics, see Tectonics Poisson models, 315, 322 Poland, 186 Political factors, 6, 380 see also Funding Pore fluids/pressure, 54, 240, 262, 276, 278, 279, 280, 309, 389 Portable arrays, 191, 193, 388-389, 390 aftershocks, 191, 193, 373 Postseismic effects, 102(n.131), 147, 193, 265, 269, 275, 277, 280 frictional processes, 277 geodetic measures, 201, 202, 205, 212 remote sensing, 217 Prediction, 5, 8, 10, 11, 14-15, 151, 214, 256, 257, 262, 274, 315-324, 350, 358-361 see also Hazards and hazard analysis; Risk assessment; Seismic hazard maps; Warning systems aftershock, 10, 61, 270-271 chaos and, 261-262 economic losses, 5-6, 149 engineering issues, 8, 155-159 geodetic measures, general, 64, 387 ground shaking, 177, 318-322, 369-376, 377-378, 386, 387, 388 historical perspectives, 54-65, 315, 385 intermediate-term, 60-62, 273-274, 314, 361-364, 368, 387 long-term, 54-60, 314, 358, 368, 384, 386-387 Japan, 161 rupture nucleation, 290 seismic-gap method, 55-60, 61, 316 short-term, 62-65, 107, 269-273, 314, 387 volcanoes, 200, 386 Principles of Geology,23, 145 Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), 77, 79-80, 122, 124, 137, 314, 315, 317-318, 377, 380 Program of Array Seismic Studies of the Continental Lithosphere, 191, 358 Project Impact, 164 Project NEPTUNE, 357-358 Project Vela Uniform, 40 Public education and outreach, ix,2, 12-14, 163, 164, 165, 379-382, 383, 384-385, 388 see also Warning systems building codes, 379-380 mass media, 8-9, 185 rapid dissemination of information, 2, 8-9, 83 seismic networks, 185 R Radiocarbon dating, 130, 223-224, 225, 356 Rapid Array Mobilization Program, 191 Ray theory, 303 Real-time analysis, 8, 147, 155, 161, 162, 163, 174(n.101), 175(n.109), 176, 178, 185, 188, 203, 352, 376, 386 von Rebeur-Paschwitz, Ernst, 31 Regulatory issues, 163, 379-380, 384 see also Building codes; Land-use policies; Legislation; Standards Reid, Henry Fielding, 30-31, 47, 55, 58, 214 Remote sensing, 12, 216-222, 356, 368, 398 see also Satellite technology

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Response spectra, 70, 71, 74, 76, 79, 159, 312, 319, 347(n.201) Retrofitting, 6, 13, 16(n.2), 54, 147, 152-153, 155, 156, 163, 164 Reverse faults, 40, 42, 53, 128, 225, 248(n.70), 314, 324 Richter (Charles) Scale, 33-35 Rifts, 43, 142 Riley Act (California), 67 Risk assessment, 11, 147-155, 370 see also Hazards and hazard analysis; Prediction; Safety issues economic losses, 5-6, 147, 149-151 mitigation, 14, 122, 147, 163-164 Risk Assessment Tools for Diagnosis of Urban Areas Against Seismic Disasters, 361 Rock deformation, 48, 49, 229-240 cataclastic processes, 26, 238, 276, 278, 366 ductility, 46-47, 48, 231 Rockfalls, 114, 198, 229 Rock mechanics, 46-47, 176, 229-240, 276, 279, 280, 291-292 cataclastic processes, 26, 238, 276, 278, 366 laboratory studies, 230-234, 279, 280, 281, 365 Rossi-Forel Intensity Scale, 33 Runcorn, S.K., 38 Rupture dynamics, 35-36, 82, 256-257, 282-302, 309, 350, 368 arrest, 295-298 creep, 293, 297 damage mechanics, 276-277 deep-focus earthquakes, 298-301, 369 equations, 282-283, 291 fault zones, 278-282, 296, 362, 367, 368-369 slippage, faults, 283, 284-298 (passim), 301 foreshocks, 286, 290 frictional processes, 301 geology, general, 368 ground shaking, 282, 292, 293-294, 309 hazards and hazard analysis, 107-110, 111-112, 120, 371, 376, 377 hypocenters, 292, 309 laboratory studies, 282-283 modeling, 177, 282-297 (passim), 300-301, 368-369 portable arrays, 193 temperature factors, 282-283, 300 time factors, 293-294, 301-302 velocity, 291, 292, 309 wave propagation, 292, 293-294, 368-369, 375 S Safety issues, 2-8 see also Building codes; Emergency response; Engineering; Hazards and hazard analysis; Prediction; Risk assessment; Warning systems cost of safety investments, 6, 154-155, 156-157 San Andreas fault, 27-31, 36, 42, 53-54, 55-60, 124, 128, 211, 225, 228, 238, 267, 279-280, 297 clustering, 269 dendrochronology, 222 Interferomic Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), 207 paleoseismology, 177 prediction, 55, 60, 128 seismic networks, 189, 359, 360 San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), 189, 280, 354, 364, 366, 368, 374, 382, 392 San Francisco, California, 28, 44, 50, 66, 304 geodetic measures, 212 Hayward fault, 85(n.15), 123, 128, 293 hazard, 112, 123, 128, 144 Loma Prieta earthquake, 28, 50, 60, 112, 153, 212, 286, 304 San Jacinto fault, 102(n.133), 123 Satellite technology, 202-203, 216-219, 398 see also EarthScope; Global Positioning System; Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar laser ranging, 202-203 very long baseline interferometry, 202-203 Seafloor spreading, 38-40, 42, 43, 142, 144, 217 Sea level, 229 Secondary ground failures, 114-118 Sediments and sedimentary basins, 28, 45, 82, 112, 128, 130, 193, 196, 227, 293, 318, 370, 371, 389 liquefaction, 44, 370

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landslides, 117, 370 radiocarbon dating, 223 wave propagation, 302, 304, 307-308, 310, 311, 314, 369-370 Segmentation, faults, 296, 362 Seismic-gap method, 55-60, 316 Seismic hazard analysis, see Hazards and hazard analysis; Seismic networks Seismic Hazard Mapping Act (California), 118, 153 Seismic hazard maps, 15, 79-80, 118, 122-127, 136-139, 152, 153, 386 building codes, 79, 122 cost factors, 123, 318 engineering, 122-123, 318 geodetic measures, 122 paleoseismology, 122 peak ground acceleration (PGA), 124, 125, 136, 138, 139 urban areas, general, 126-127, 152, 153, 318, 371 Seismic information systems, 8-11, 373, 375, 378-379, 388 Seismicity of the Earth,34-35 Seismic moment, 44, 49-54 (passim), 82, 112, 119, 134, 140, 187, 259, 286, 289, 315, 316 Seismic networks, 40, 41, 103(n.138), 134, 161, 162, 176, 178-190, 193, 197-198, 351-352, 357-360, 369, 370-371, 386, 388 acceleration, 179, 185 Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), 10, 190, 191, 351-352, 353, 362, 371, 373, 379, 382, 391, 396-397 cost factors, 176, 182, 185, 352, 353, 382 emergency response, 185, 189-190 Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks, 180-182 funding, 176, 182, 185 Global Seismic Network (GSN), 176, 178-182, 190, 359, 388, 390 ground shaking, 189-190 International Ocean Network Program, 358 National Seismic Network, 189-190, 352 public information, 185 slippage, faults, 185, 189 TERRAscope Network, 185 USArray, 17-18(n.15), 354, 364, 373, 374 World Wide Standardized Seismographic Network, 40, 41, 179, 395 Seismic reflection, 225, 356, 357, 371, 389 Seismic refraction, 112, 356, 357, 371, 389 Seismic tomography, 182, 183, 185, 198, 303-304, 364 Seismology, general, 14-15, 177-201 see also Faulting and fault systems; Ground shaking; Prediction; Strong-motion seismology; Tectonics; Wave propagation and scattering deep-focus earthquakes, 32-35, 42, 43, 47-48, 53, 137, 256 historical perspectives, 23-36, 37, 40, 42, 46, 47, 50-52, 176, 303 nuclear explosions, 11, 34, 88(n.34), 178, 197 volcanism, 198-201 Seismometry, seismograms, and seismographs, 8, 110, 113, 177-201 (passim), 352, 376 see also Seismic networks epicenters, 32 historical perspectives, 31-36, 40, 49 portable arrays, 191, 193, 388-389, 390 rupture propagation, 292 seismicity catalogs, 196-198, 361-362 travel time, 31-32 ShakeMap, 162 Shear stress, 26, 47, 53, 238, 269, 279 ground shaking, 112, 113-114 laboratory studies, 230, 279 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, 356 Site response characterization, 73, 74, 113, 151, 319-321 Slippage, faults, 15, 64, 128, 225, 258, 259, 260, 262, 264, 267-268, 351, 365 see also Frictional processes; Shear stress; Stick-slip faults afterslip, 341(n.144) damage mechanics, 276 dip-slip faults, 141, 309 geodetic measures, 201, 209-211, 212, 214, 216, 351 hazards analysis, 107-108, 123, 140, 315-316 historical perspectives, 19, 23-26, 28, 36, 42, 43, 46, 55 rupture dynamics, 283, 284-298 (passim), 301

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seismic networks, 185, 189 seismic tomography, 185 slip rates, 48, 49, 55, 144, 189, 201, 202, 209-210, 211, 225, 230, 231, 262, 266, 277, 278, 290, 294, 302, 351, 356, 360, 385, 387, 389 Slumps, 87(n.27), 108, 114 Social factors see also Public education and outreach historical perspectives, 19-21 political factors, 6, 380 Soil conditions and types, 320, 324, 375 see also Sediments and sedimentary basins building codes, 105(n.162), 113, 155, 307-308 liquefaction, 2, 44, 108, 114-116, 117-118, 136, 227, 229, 370 strain, 113, 310-311 wave propagation, 113, 304, 307-308, 313, 321 Solid Earth and Natural Hazards Program, 398 Sonar, 217 South Africa, 186, 283 Southern California Earthquake Center, 128, 190, 318, 356, 376 Southern California Seismic Network, 180 South Carolina, 135, 229 Soviet Union, 62 Spirit leveling, 202 Stafford Act, 118, 153 Standards see also Building codes earthquake magnitude, 33, 49 ground acceleration and, 68 public education, 13-14, 382 Stick-slip faults, general, 48, 49, 108 laboratory experiments, 58, 230, 282 rupture dynamics, 282, 297 Strain, 19, 42, 48, 269, 275, 365 crustal, 11, 18(n.17), 51, 53, 55, 64, 134, 201, 205, 211 geodetic measures, 202, 211-213, 214-216, 356, 357; see also Strainmeters ground failure, 108 soils, 113, 310-311 Strainmeters, 17-18 (n.15), 42, 64, 93(n.62/ n.63), 176, 201, 209, 212, 215, 216, 231, 283, 353, 354, 368 Stress, 18(n.17), 26-27, 43-54 (passim), 60, 61, 66, 108, 113, 147, 211, 212, 230-233 (passim), 237, 256, 263, 269-274, 297, 301, 368 see also Shear stress compressive, 26, 279 models, 61, 239-240, 317, 364 volcanoes, 137, 201 Strike-slip faults, general, 26, 43, 45, 46, 49, 53, 236 hazard analysis, 108, 123, 144-145, 360 wave propagation, 309 Strong-motion seismology, 190-191, 304, 318-324, 367-368, 370-376, 377, 386, 388, 390-391 acceleration, 190, 318-322 attenuation, 190, 318-319, 373 computer simulations, 370-371 engineering, 190, 318-319, 371 seismic information systems, 8-11, 373, 375, 378-379 time history, 308, 321-322, 377 urban areas, general, 191, 352, 370-371 Structural Engineers Association of Northern California, 71, 153 Subduction, 40-43, 45, 48, 387 hazard analysis, 129-130, 137, 140-142 seismic tomography, 182 strong-motion seismology, 191, 318-319 tsunamis, 120 uplift and subsidence, 114 volcanoes, 137, 200 Subsidence, 16(n.2), 38, 108, 114, 229 Sumba earthquake, 50 Suruga Trough, 59 Sykes, Lynn, 39-40, 43, 56 System Probatoire pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT), 216 T Taiwan, 50, 109, 161, 191, 221 Tectonics, 11, 55-56, 182, 309, 314 see also EarthScope; Faulting and fault systems; Geodesy; Rupture dynamics; seafloor spreading; Shear stress; Slippage, faults; Subduction deformation, 23, 45-47, 56, 108, 135, 176-177, 201, 274

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geodetic measures, 201-211 (passim), 212, 214, 216, 354 hazard analysis, 108, 137-147, 182 historical perspectives, 23-24, 26, 30-31, 36-47, 53, 55-56, 256 neotectonics, 11, 128, 137, 216, 217, 224-226, 356-357 orogenesis, 46 volcanoes, 199-201 Telemetry, 182, 185, 188, 193 USArray, 354 TERRAscope Network, 185 Temperature factors see also Volcanism fault and rock mechanics, 47, 230, 233, 237, 238, 239, 277-280, 389 heat flow, 35, 53 mantle convection, 265 melting, 45, 171(n.57), 198, 238, 278, 280, 281, 290, 300, 365, 367, 389 rupture dynamics, 282-283, 300 Thrust faults, general, 26, 38, 42, 59, 195, 208, 226, 228, 238, 314, 357 blind thrust faults, 84-85(n.9), 128, 129, 208, 225, 226, 228, 356 hazard analysis, 128, 135-136 Time factors see also Emergency response; Prediction; Warning systems aftershocks, 50-51, 61, 269-272 clustering, 56, 61, 189, 229, 268-274, 315, 316-317, 358, 361-362, 388-389 faulting, 12, 30, 58, 177, 193, 264-265, 266-268, 269-275, 322, 376 ground motion, 71, 110-111, 321-322, 391 strong-motion seismology, 308, 321-322, 377 rupture dynamics, 293-294, 301-302 seismic-gap method, 55, 316 seismicity catalogs, 196 slip rates, 48, 49, 55, 144, 189, 201, 202, 209-210, 211, 225, 230, 231, 262, 266, 277, 278, 290, 294, 302, 351, 356, 360, 385, 387, 389 tsunamis, 165(n.1) Tiltmeters, 64, 200, 209, 216 du Toit, A.L., 38 Tokai seismic gap, 58-59 Tomography, see Seismic tomography Topography, 131, 216-217, 356 Tree-ring dating, see Dendrochronology Triangulation, 201-202, 203, 208-209 Trilateration, 202, 203 Tsunamis, 10, 44-45, 119-121, 131, 227, 292-293 damage costs, 119, 292-293 prediction, 119-121, 386 Tunnels, 12, 108 see also Boreholes; Mines Turkey, 16(n.2), 19, 50, 117, 171(n.64), 191, 224, 359, 360 Izmit earthquake, 16, 211, 213 North Anatolian fault, 144, 224, 228, 250(n.89), 267, 268, 273, 360 Turner, H.H., 32 U UBC, see Uniform Building Code Uncertainty earthquake scaling, 268 hazard estimates, 6, 71, 157, 319 prediction, general, 63, 64, 149, 264 seismometers, 32 Uniform Building Code (UBC), 66, 71, 73, 79, 113, 322 United Nations, 137 Uplift, 23, 42, 46, 60, 108, 114, 130, 131, 227 see also Orogenesis Urban areas, general, 2, 7, 11, 73, 82-83, 156, 350, 371, 388, 389 see also Buildings; Emergency response; specific cities, states and countries Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), 10, 191, 352, 371, 373, 379, 391, 396-397 cost of safety measures, 6 economic losses, 3, 4, 5-6, 14, 384 historic perspectives, 11 seismic hazard maps, 126-127, 152, 153, 318, 371 strong-motion seismology, 191, 352, 370-371 USArray, 17-18(n.15), 354, 364, 373, 374 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 79, 91(n.53) U.S. Geological Survey, 10, 189, 280, 356, 366, 392-393 see also EarthScope Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), 10, 190, 191, 351-352, 353, 362, 371, 373, 379, 382, 391, 396-397

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Global Seismic Network (GSN), 176, 178-182, 190, 359, 388, 390 hazard analysis, general, 73, 79, 122, 164-165, 317-318, 380 National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP), 2, 64, 73, 80, 113, 122, 156, 163, 164, 165, 350, 380, 382, 384, 395-396 National Seismic Network, 189-190, 352 portable arrays, 191 prediction, 60, 64 public education, 381 seismicity catalogs, 196 strong-motion seismology, 190 warning systems, 161, 162 Utah, 131, 268 V Vela Uniform, 395 Velocity, 232, 257, 297 compressional wave, 62 ground, 8, 73, 177, 308, 322, 323 peak ground velocity (PGV), 74, 110, 322 rupture dynamics, 291, 292, 309 seismic, 32, 43, 112, 177, 189, 302, 303, 314, 318, 321-322, 364, 371, 377 shear wave, 49, 62, 113, 319, 371 slip, 230, 231, 262, 277-278, 281, 290, 294, 302 Very long baseline interferometry, 202-203 Vibration, 70, 71, 95(n.81), 156, 178, 322 see also Ground shaking Vibroseis studies, 189, 193, 196, 373 Viscoelastic behavior, 155, 156, 211, 213, 275, 319, 335(n.95), 362 Viscosity, 264, 265 Volcanism, 11, 198-201 continental lithosphere, 43 damage costs, 200 geodetic measures, 209, 353 hazards, 137, 386 historical perspectives, 23 ocean lithosphere, 43 stress, 137, 201 subduction, 137, 200 tsunamis and, 119 W Warning systems, 10, 64, 119, 159-163 computer applications, 161-163 historical perspectives, 159, 161 Wasatch Front, 54-55 Washington State, 129, 130-131, 164, 212, 229 dendrochronology, 222 Nisqually earthquake, 13, 17(n.12), 18(n.16), 131, 164 strong-motion seismology, 191 subsidence, 114 Wave propagation and scattering, 10-11, 177-178, 193, 302-314 see also Attenuation; Seismometry, seismograms, and seismographs aftershocks, 270, 272 basin effects, 193, 194, 302, 311, 375; see also “sedimentary basins” infra compressional waves, 34, 36 elastic waves, 11, 36, 198, 303, 304, 308, 375 equations, 303, 304, 309 ground shaking, 110-114, 177, 369-370, 371, 373, 375 hazard analysis, 376, 377 historical perspectives, 19, 28, 32, 33-34, 36, 42 modeling, 302-314, 369 rupture dynamics, 292, 293-294, 368-369, 375 sedimentary basins, 302, 304, 307-308, 310, 311, 314, 369-370 soil conditions, 113, 304, 307-308, 313, 321 strike-slip faults, 309 Waves, tsunamis, see Tsunamis Wegener, Alfred, 36, 38 World Wide Standardized Seismographic Network, 40, 41, 179, 395 World Wide Web, see Internet Wyoming, 131