the 1997 and 2000 NEHRP Provisions and the 2000 International Building Code. These seismic hazard maps are also used in seismic provisions for highway bridge design, the International Residential Code, and many other applications.

Challenges Ahead

Establishing building codes, developing attenuation relationships and performing seismic hazard analysis are all examples of earthquake engineering activities that have helped quantify and reduce the threat posed by earthquakes; however, recent large earthquakes make it clear that significant challenges remain. For example, the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake (Box 2.5, Figures 2.22 and 2.23) devastated the city of Kobe, in Japan—one of the most earthquake-prepared countries in the world. That this earthquake caused such tremendous damage and loss of life indicates

FIGURE 2.22 Kobe-Osaka region, annotated with major faults and geographic reference points, including inferred rupture during the 1995 earthquake and damage belt. SOURCE: H. Kawase, The cause of the damage belt in Kobe: “The basin-edge effect,” constructive interference of the direct s-wave with the basin-induced diffracted/Rayleigh waves, Seis. Res. Lett., 67, 25-34, 1996. Copyright Seismological Society of America.

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