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Seventh Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering SEVENTH ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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Seventh Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: This publication has been reviewed according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. Publication of signed work signifies that it is judged a competent and useful contribution worthy of public consideration, but it does not imply endorsement of conclusions or recommendations by the NAE. The interpretations and conclusions in such publications are those of the authors and do not purport to represent the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering. Funding for the activity that led to this publication was provided by Cummins, Inc., Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Defense (DDR&E-Research), Microsoft Corporation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and United Technologies Corporation. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08498-9 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America Copyright © 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
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Seventh Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Seventh Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering ORGANIZING COMMITTEE MICHAEL L. CORRADINI (Chair), Chair, Engineering Physics Department; Professor of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison DAVID J. BEEBE, Associate Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison SUE McNEIL, Director, Urban Transportation Center, University of Illinois at Chicago PRISCILLA P. NELSON, Director, Division of Civil and Mechanical Systems, Directorate of Engineering, National Science Foundation DONALD R. NILSON, Director, Engineering Technology & Strategic Planning, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company JOHN D. NORTON, Staff Scientist, Medtronic, Inc. SHARON L. NUNES, Director, Life Sciences Solution Development, Corporate Technology Group, IBM Corporation ALBERT P. PISANO, FANUC Chair of Mechanical Systems, Electronics Research Lab, University of California, Berkeley VENUGOPAL V. VEERAVALLI, Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign MINERVA M. YEUNG, Principal Engineer and Manager of Media Technology Research, Microprocessor Research Labs, Intel Corporation Staff JANET R. HUNZIKER, Program Officer MARY W. L. KUTRUFF, Administrative Assistant LANCE R. TELANDER, Senior Project Assistant
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Seventh Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering Preface This is the seventh volume highlighting the presentations at the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) annual Frontiers of Engineering Symposium program, which brings together 100 outstanding young leaders in engineering to share their cutting-edge research and technical work. The 2001 symposium was originally scheduled for September 13–15, but was cancelled and rescheduled for March 1–3, 2002, because of the events of September 11. Approximately 85 participants attended the rescheduled symposium at the Beckman Center in Irvine, California. The papers included in this volume are extended summaries of the presentations prepared by the speakers. The intent of this volume, and of the preceding volumes in the series, is to describe the philosophy behind this unique meeting and to highlight some of the exciting developments in engineering today. GOALS OF FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING The practice of engineering is changing. Engineers must be able to adapt and thrive in an environment of rapid technological change and globalization. In addition, engineering is becoming more interdisciplinary. The frontiers of engineering often occur at the intersections between engineering disciplines or at the intersection between what has traditionally been labeled “science” and “engineering.” Thus, both researchers and practitioners must be aware of developments and challenges in areas other than their own. At the three-day Frontiers of Engineering Symposium, 100 of this country’s best and brightest engineers, ages 30 to 45, can learn from their peers about developments at the leading edge of engineering. This broad overview of current
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Seventh Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering developments in many fields of engineering often leads to insights of cross-disciplinary applications. In addition, the symposium brings together engineers in academia, industry, and government, enabling them to establish contacts with and learn from people they would probably not meet in the usual round of professional meetings. We hope this networking will lead to collaborative work that facilitates the transfer of new techniques and approaches from one field of engineering to another. The number of participants at each meeting is kept at 100 to maximize the opportunities for interactions and exchanges among the attendees, who are invited to attend after a competitive nomination and selection process. The topics and speakers for each meeting are chosen by an organizing committee of engineers in the same age group as the participants. Different topics are covered each year, and, with a few exceptions, different individuals are invited to participate. Each speaker at the Frontiers of Engineering Symposium faces a unique challenge—to convey the excitement of his or her field to a technically sophisticated but nonspecialist audience. To meet this challenge, speakers are asked to provide brief overviews of their fields that include a definition of the frontiers of the field; a brief description of current experiments, prototypes, and design studies; a description of new tools and methodologies; identification of limitations on advances and controversies; a brief description of the most exciting results and most difficult challenges of the past couple of years; and a summary statement of the theoretical, commercial, societal, and long-term significance of the work. CONTENT OF THE MARCH 2002 SYMPOSIUM The presentations of the symposium covered four broad areas: leading edge aerodynamics technologies, civil systems, wireless communications, and technology and the human body. In the session called “Flight at the Leading Edge,” speakers discussed next-generation jet propulsion, miniature unmanned air vehicles (mini-UAVs), and artificial flying insects. Developments ranged from enabling technologies for familiar aircraft to leading-edge concepts involving autonomous aircraft and micromechanical flyers that are changing the way we travel, provide national defense, and collect and share electronic information. The second session, “Civil Systems,” focused on the systems that provide communications and information, the delivery of water and power, the removal of waste products, and travel from home to work and other activities. A common theme in these talks was the inherently interdisciplinary process required to operate, maintain, and replace civil systems. The speakers addressed the role of engineers in the development and deployment of decision support systems, computer-based supervisory controls, robotics, and new sensors and materials to relieve pressure on existing civil systems and meet the demand for new ones. In the third session, “Wireless Communications,” speakers described the critical
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Seventh Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering issues and state-of-the-art technologies for cost-effective, ubiquitous, and integrated personal communications networks that provide multimedia services; another topic was the interaction of wireless communications with the physical world. Each of the speakers in this session covered one aspect of the subject: a fundamental theoretical framework for wireless communications to guide the development of new technologies; a robust telecommunications infrastructure that will make ubiquitous mobile wireless access possible; service architectures that will enable emerging wireless applications; and wireless sensor systems that will link the physical world to communication networks. The concluding session, “Technology and the Human Body,” addressed the importance of science and technology to our health and well-being. This session began with an overview of modeling and simulation of the human body and how they can be used to improve our understanding of chronic diseases. The second talk presented research on electronic devices that enable mobility in patients who are paralyzed. The final talk was on recent advances in tissue engineering, including microfabrication techniques and cellular interactions. (See Appendixes for complete program.) It is traditional to invite a distinguished engineer to address the participants at dinner on the first evening of the symposium. This year, Nicholas Donofrio, senior vice president and group executive for technology and manufacturing, IBM Corporation, spoke about technology innovation. He described the challenges posed by information overload and limits to Moore’s Law, addressed privacy concerns, and pointed out the necessity for computer modeling and simulation to become standard tools for all engineers. Mr. Donofrio emphasized the importance of mentoring and maintaining diversity in a strong engineering workforce. The full text of Mr. Donofrio’s remarks are included in this volume. NAE is deeply grateful to the following organizations for their support of the Seventh Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; Department of Defense–DDR&E-Research; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Microsoft Corporation; United Technologies Corporation; and Cummins, Inc. NAE would also like to thank the members of the Symposium Organizing Committee (see p. iv), chaired by Michael Corradini, for planning and organizing the event.
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Seventh Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering Contents FLIGHT AT THE LEADING EDGE: EXTREME AERODYNAMICS FROM THE MEGA TO THE MICRO Active Flow Control: Enabling Next-Generation Jet Propulsion Aerodynamics Jeffrey W. Hamstra and Daniel N. Miller 3 Miniature Spy Planes: The Next Generation of Flying Robots Stephen J. Morris 10 Toward Micromechanical Flyers Ronald S. Fearing 21 CIVIL SYSTEMS Dynamic Planning and Control of Civil Infrastructure Systems Feniosky Peña-Mora 33 Improbable Is Not Impossible: Decision Making Under Uncertainty Linda K. Nozick 40 Interdependencies in Civil Infrastructure Systems Miriam Heller 47
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Seventh Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS Design Challenges for Future Wireless Systems Andrea Goldsmith 59 Next-Generation Mobile Wireless Internet Technology Rajiv Laroia 64 Service Architectures for Emerging Wireless Networks S. Muthukrishnan 68 Wireless Integrated Network Sensors (WINS): The Web Gets Physical Gregory J. Pottie 78 TECHNOLOGY AND THE HUMAN BODY Applying Simulation Technology to the Life Sciences Thomas Paterson 87 Reengineering the Paralyzed Nervous System P. Hunter Peckham 91 Merging Living Cells and Microsystems Engineering Mehmet Toner 99 DINNER SPEECH Technology Innovation in the New Era Nicholas M. Donofrio 107 APPENDIXES Contributors 113 Program 119 Participants 121