Lance Rodewald of the National Immunization Program at CDC reported on CDC’s responses to the IOM recommendations. He noted that the report’s articulation of the six broad roles of the national immunization system offered a valuable conceptual framework that CDC now uses to guide the development and assessment of immunization program activities. CDC has, for example, revised the Section 317 program grant guidance and program operations manual to give states greater flexibility to tailor programs to local needs within the immunization system framework outlined by the IOM study. CDC is also placing greater emphasis on opportunities to use Section 317 program funds to purchase vaccines for high-risk adolescents and adults. Through the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, CDC has begun a dialogue with the states to develop a formula for the distribution of Section 317 program grant funds. Efforts are also being made to improve the harmonization of the immunization measures in the Health Plan Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) and the National Immunization Survey (NIS) and to expand the use of tools to assess coverage rates in individual clinics and physician practices.