TABLE 1 Change in Annual Morbidity from Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Prevaccine Baseline and 2000

Disease or Organism

Prevaccine Baseline Date

Average No. of Annual Baseline Cases

No. of Cases in 2000

% Decrease

Diphtheria

1920–1922

175,885

1

100.00

Haemophilus influenzae, type b and unknown (< 5 years)

1985

20,000

167

99.20

Measles

1958–1962

503,282

86

99.98

Mumps

1968

152,209

338

99.80

Pertussis

1922–1925

147,271

7,867

95.00

Poliomyelitis

1951–1954

16,316

0

100.00

Rubella

1966–1968

47,745

176

99.60

 

SOURCE: Adapted from CDC (2002).

program activities. The Section 317 program awards are the major source of federal support for essential activities of the immunization system such as surveillance for rates of vaccine coverage and efforts to improve coverage. For the 2001 grant year, CDC awarded $176.1 million for immunization program operations and $175.6 million for vaccine purchase. VFC, a federal entitlement program, funds the purchase of vaccines for use by participating health care providers to serve eligible children. CDC estimates that more than 40,000 private providers are participating in VFC. These providers vaccinate about 90 percent of all preschool-age children, using vaccines purchased with funds from a combination of sources from the private and public sectors. Most states use Section 317 program funds to obtain additional doses of vaccines that are recommended for preschool-age children but that are not covered by VFC. The Section 317 program also allows for the purchase of some vaccines for adolescents and adults, but use of Section 317 program funds for this purpose is limited.

Federal contracts with vaccine manufacturers make it possible for states to obtain discounted prices for vaccines under the Section 317 program and VFC. Some states also use state funds to purchase additional vaccines at these contract prices. More than half of all vaccines are purchased under these federal contracts: 36 percent through VFC and 15 percent through the Section 317 program. Under the federal contract, the current cost of the vaccines recommended for complete immunization of preschool-age children is nearly $400 per child, almost half of which is accounted for by the recent addition of four doses of the pneumococcal



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