sessment and evaluation, sustainable change, and faculty development all entail costs. In most cases, only a limited amount of those resources will come from the individual college or university. The two principal organizations that have funded undergraduate biology education are NSF and HHMI.

NSF supports a diverse array of projects in undergraduate science education. These projects fund activities such as research by undergraduates. One example is the REU programs in which each student is assigned to a specific research project and works together with faculty, postdocs, and graduate students for one summer. Other programs include faculty research at primarily undergraduate institutions (RUI), curricular reform, design of materials for assessment, and dissemination of information across the country. NSF has begun awarding the title of Distinguished Teaching Scholar to a small number of faculty members who have contributed greatly to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. One of the goals of the program is to increase the recruitment of other faculty to work on science education. The program aims to reward individuals who have contributed to the scholarship of STEM education, and also hold an exemplary record of instructing undergraduates. In the first two rounds of awards, announced in November 2001 and May 2002, no biologists were named as Distinguished Teaching Scholars.

The Centers of Learning and Teaching (CLT) are multiyear grants to consortia of individuals and organizations that develop and implement research-based programs to address the issues and needs of the STEM instructional workforce. They design and implement new approaches to assessment, research on learning, curriculum and materials development, and research-based instruction. Originally the centers focused only on K-12 education, but NSF now plans to fund two centers that focus on postsecondary education. NSF also supports the Chautauqua series of summer faculty development courses.

Another area of effort for NSF is programs designed to increase understanding of how students learn. Research on Learning and Education (ROLE) supports research into the brain and behavioral, cognitive, affective, and social aspects of human learning, as well as research on STEM learning in formal and informal settings. The Assessment of Student Achievement in Undergraduate Education (ASA) program supports the development and distribution of materials on the effectiveness of courses, curricula, programs of study, and academic institutions that promote STEM learning. ASA supports the development of new assessment tools, the ad-



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