pushes biochemistry late in the undergraduate career after students have already had many biology courses and they may miss the connections.

  • Transfer students may be disadvantaged. At University of Wisconsin-Madison, 50 percent of chemistry majors are transfers from two-year schools, and they are the source of most of the demographic diversity in the department.

  • This proposal would require the development of a new analytical/ physical chemistry course. The University of Michigan tried and failed to do something similar. One challenge is to convince analytical and physical chemists that life science students are a good target audience for their teaching.

Connections Between Chemistry and Biology

In the United States, most students enrolled in the first two years of chemistry courses have at least an interest in biology, and many hope to follow careers in biology or medicine. This is quite different from the situation in Europe and Asia, in which chemistry courses are taught exclusively to chemistry majors. U.S. classes in the first two years of chemistry contain biology majors, premedical students, engineering students, environmental science students, and non-science students simply meeting a science requirement, in addition to prospective chemists. The need to educate future chemists does not mean that chemistry teachers should pay no attention to the needs and interests of biology students. The panel felt it was important for chemistry teachers to take into account the interests of all their students, and not pretend that they are all chemistry majors. In particular, when possible, the teachers should include biological examples to make it clear that the fundamental science being taught has clear implications for current biology. If possible, they should also indicate what is still left to be discovered in biology for which chemistry can supply answers. Of course, teachers should also refer to environmental examples, such as the relevance of free radical chain reactions to the ozone hole. Real-life examples are of interest to all students, so even the engineering students will find biological and environmental chemistry a stimulating part of a course. For that matter, biology students can find the contrast between laboratory chemistry and manufacturing processes interesting if the examples are well chosen. It does not seem practical to break chemistry courses up into different sections, addressed to different student interests. Furthermore, interests change—a biology student might well go into envi-



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