1. What happens when a protein is denatured?

  2. What are the structures of micelles? Of biological membranes?

  3. How can one measure the size of a protein?

  4. What is an ultracentrifuge?

  5. What makes a metal a good electrical conductor? What is a semiconductor?

Reactions

Concepts

  1. What are the principal reaction types in organic chemistry?

  2. What are biochemical examples of these reaction types?

  3. What are the reactive intermediates in some of these types, such as carbocations and carbanions, free radicals, enols and enolates?

  4. What are the detailed mechanisms by which such typical reactions occur?

  5. What is a transition state for a reaction, sometimes called the activated complex?

  6. What determines the value of the equilibrium constant in a chemical reaction? What is the role of enthalpy, entropy, and free energy? What is entropy?

  7. What is pH? What is a pK? What is a buffer?

  8. What determines the rate of a chemical reaction? How does it depend on the concentrations of the reactants? What is the meaning of kinetic order? What is the effect of temperature?

  9. What is a catalyst for a reaction? How do enzymes catalyze biochemical reactions?

  10. What is the Principle of Microscopic Reversibility? How is the acceleration of a reaction achieved by a catalyst related to the acceleration of the reverse reaction? How are the catalytic mechanisms of the forward and reverse reactions related?

  11. What is the Steady State Approximation?

  12. What is the Michaelis-Menten equation for enzyme-catalyzed reactions?

  13. What does it mean if a reaction rate is said to be diffusion limited?

  14. What is the relationship between the concentration of a substance and its activity? What is an activity coefficient?

  15. How is it possible for the rate of bromination of acetone to have no dependence on the concentration of bromine, provided that concentration is above a certain level?



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