Concepts of Chemistry


  • Periodic table, trends (size, electronic properties, isoelectronic systems)

  • Orbitals and electronic configuration

  • Nuclear chemistry


  • Lewis structures

  • Molecular properties (shape, dipole moments, bond energies)

  • Bonding models (valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory)

  • Molecular interactions (ion pair, hydrogen bond, van der Waals)

  • Metal ions and metal complexes

  • Resonance and electron delocalization

  • Computational methods and modeling

Water and Aqueous Solutions

  • Structure and polarity of liquid water

  • Ionic compounds in aqueous solutions

  • Acid-base equilibria, pH, pK, indicators

  • Hydrophobic effect

Chemical Reactions

  • Stoichiometry

  • Hydrocarbons, heterocycles, and functional groups

  • Reaction types (acid-base, redox, addition, elimination, substitution)

  • Reactive intermediates: carbocations, carbanions, enols, enolates, free radicals

  • Mechanisms of selected classes of chemical reactions

Energetics and Equilibria

  • Enthalpy, entropy, and free energy

  • Equilibrium constant

  • Temperature dependence of equilibria

  • Electrochemistry, electrochemical cells, Nernst equation

  • Boltzmann distribution

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement