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BBE~EHHE tee H3~aHHe <> (HMeHyeMoe Payee Py~cooodcmeo) peso rIo'~TBep;K'D;aeT rJIy6oK~o y6e;K'D;eHHocTB B TOM, IITO BCe JInLla, ocy~ecTBJIHIo~He yxo~ 3a *HBOTHuMn H~n ncrIo~B3yIo~He ux B HaylIHuX 3KcrIepuMeHTax, y~e6HoM rite ~n ncrI~TaH~x, HeCyT oTBeTcTBeHHocTB 3a ux ~3HB 3~opoBBe. Ilo~o~eHH~ py~coffo~cmffa BcTyrIaIoT B ~enCTBue TO~BKO Brioche right pemeHH~ o6 ~CHO~B30BaHHU *HBOTHuX B Hay~HuX 3KCHepuMeHTaX, y~e6HoM rite ~n ncrI~TaH~x. pemeH~' CBH3aHHMe C Heo6xo~HMocTBIo ncrIo~B3oBaHH~ *HBOTHEIX, He BXO~HT B Kpyr BorIpocoB, paCCMaTpuBaeMBIX ~aHHEIM Py/COffO0CmffOM; O~HaKO C MOMeHTa rIp~H~TH~ TaKOrO pemeHH~ oTBeTcTBeHHocTB 3a *~3HB ~ 3~oposBe *HBOTHEIX so3~araeTcH Ha nccJIe~oBaTeJIH. ,~orIoJIHuTeJIBHEIe o6~3aHHocTH nccJIe~oBaTeJI~ ~ ~pyroro rIepcoHaJIa 6oJIee rIo~po6Ho paccMaTpuBaloTcH B rJI. 1. LteJIB ~aHHoro py~coffo~cmffacrIoco6cTBoBaTE pacrIpocTpaHeHHIo ryMaHHoro OTHOmeHH~ K *HBOTHEIM, ncrIo~B3yeMBIM B 6HoMe~nHcKHx ~ rIoBe~eHHecKHx nCC~e~OBaH~X, y~e6HoM rIpo~ecce ~ ncrIBITaH~x; OCHOBHaH ero 3a~aHa rIpe~ocTaBuTB nH~opMa~HIo, KOTOpaH crIoco6cTBoBa~a 6BI y~ylIIIIeHnIo yC~OBHn co~ep~aHH~ *HBOTHEIX, rIoBBIIIIeHnIo KalIeCTBa 6HoMe~nHcKHx ncc~e'~oBaHHn ~ pacmnpeHHIo o6~eMa 3HaHHn O 6Ho~ornn KaK He~oBeKa7 TaK ~ *HBOTHEIX. B XX BeKe ncrIo~B3oBaHHe *HBOTHEIX B KaHeCTBe o6~eKTa nCC~e~OBaHHn BO MHOrOM crIoco6cTBoBa~o KpyrIHenmuM ~OCT~eH~M B HayKe ~ Me~nHe ~ Leader, Stark, 1 987] . XOTH Y~eHEIMU TaK*e pa3pa60TaHEI MO~e~H HpOBe~eHH~ Hay~HEIX ~CC~e~OBaHHU, oGy~eHn~ ~n ncrIBITaHHn 6e3 ncrIo~B3oBaHH~ *HBOTHEIX [NRC 1 977; CM. rIpH~. A: >], OHn 3alIacTyIo He MOryT rIoJIHocTBIo HMuTHpoBaTB C~O*HEIn opraHH3M lIe~oseKa ~n ~BOTHOrO; rIo3ToMy ~a~BHenIIInn rIporpecc 1 1

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2 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL B. tee obecr~e~eH~ a,~OpOBEH ~ 6~arococTo5lH~ He~oBeKa ~ ~BOTH~X Tpe6yeT ~KCHepUMeHTa~BHOH pa60TM C ~B~MU 06~eKTaMH. TeM He MeHee, HeO6XO~HMO TIpO,~O~*aTB ye, Har~pas~eHHme Ha paspaboTKy ~ r~puMeHeHne Hay~HO 060CHOBaHH~X a~BTepHaTHBH~X Modeled, ~OHO~HUTe~BH~X HO~XO~OB, a TaK*e Ha yCOBepIIIeHCTBOBaHlIe lICC3Ie~OBaHHU Ha ~BOTH~X. B HacTo~meM Py~cooodcmee rot, ~a60paTOpH~MU ~BOTH~MU HOHUMalOTCH ~o6me HO3BOHO~HMe (HaUpUMep, ~BOTHMe, Tpa~HOHHO ~CHO~B3yeMMe B a6opaTopHux ~KCHepUMeHTaX, Ce~BCKOX03HHCTBeHHMe, ~nKne ~ BOTHER *HBOTHMe), KOTOpMe HpUMeHSIlOTCH ~~H HEX ~CC~e~OBaHHU, oGy~e ~n ncr~uTaHnn. B comae Heo6Xo~HMocTH, B TeKCTe HpUBO~HTCH ~C~IOHeH~ MIMI CTIe~Ha~BHMe OrOBOpK~, KaCalO~HeCH Ce~BCKOXO3~HCTBeHH~X *HBOTH~X. B py~coffo~cmffe HeT crIe~Ha~EHux pas,~e~oB, rue 6M paccMaTpHsa~ncE Ce3IBCKOXO3~HCTBeHHMe ~BOTHMe, ~CHO~B3yeMMe B Ce~BCKOXO3~HCTBeHH~X ~KCHepUMeHTaX ~H 06y~eHHU, ~HKHe ~H BO~HMe ~BOTHMe, ~CC~e~yeMMe B uX eCTeCTBeHHOn Impede o6nTaHH~, paBHO KaK ~ 6ecrIosBoHo~HMe *HBOTHMe, ~CHO~B3yeMMe B Hay~H~X ~CC~e~OBaHH~X; O~HaKO, 06~He Hp~H~HM, OHUC~BaeMMe B Py~cooodcmee, BO MHOrOM Hp~O~MM K BTHM B~aM ~BOTH~X lI yC3IOBlISIM lIX co,~ep~aH~. IIOCTAHOBJIEHlIlI, IIPABlIJIA 11 IlPlIHL\lIIlbI HaCTOSI~HM Py~cooodcmeo~ HO~TBep*~aIOTCH 06~3aHHOCTH lICCJIe~OBaTe~eH, C~OpMy~HpOBaHHMe B ~p~H~HaX HpaBUTe~BCTBa C~ B OTHOIIIeHlIlI lIplIMeHeHlISI lI CO~ep~aHH~ H03BOHO~HEIX *HBOTHEIX, ~CHO~B3yeMBIX B ~CHEITaHH~X, Hay~HEIX ~CC~e~OBaHH~X ~ 06y~eHHU [I~C 1985; CM. Hp~. ti. TO~KOBaHHe ~ HpUMeHeHHe BTUX Hp~H~HOB, a TaK*e HacTo~mero Py~cooodcmea Tpe6yIoT rIpo~eccuoHa~BHon rIo'~roTosKn. B ~e~oM yrIOM~HyTEIe rIp~HLlurIBI rIo,~ep*HBaIoT: pa3pa6oTKy ~ peaJIn3aLlHIo rIpoLle'~yp C y`IeToM ux 3HalIeHH~ WI~ 3,~0pOBEH He~oBeKa ~ *HBOTHEIX, pa3BuTH~ HayKH ~n 6~arococTo~H~ o6~ecTBa. tIcrIo~B3oBaHHe rIo'~xo'~nx B~,~OB *HBOTHEIX cooTBeTcTByIo~ero KaHeCTBa ~ B HeO6XO,~HMBIX KO~eCTBaX. ycTpaHeHHe ~n cBe'~eHHe ,~o M~HuMyMa,~nCKOM~OpTa, '~ncTpecca ~ 60~n IplI yC3IOBlIlI lIO3IylIeHlISI ~OCTOBepHEIX Hay~HEIX pe3y~BTaTOB. IlpUMeHeHHe COOTBeTCTByIO~UX Ce~aTHBHEIX upenapaTos, aHa~BreT~KOB lIJIlI aHeCTeTlIKOB. OrIpe,~eJIeHne KOHelIHEIX TOHeK 3KCHepUMeHTa. 0 6 e crI eH e H ~ e ,~ O~*H OrO yxo,~a 3 a *HB OTHEIMn, KO HTp O~Hpye M OrO OCyILleCTB3ISIeMOrO KBa3IlI~HpOBaHHEIM HepCOHa~OM. Ilpose,~eHne 3KcrIepuMeHTa~BH~Ix rIpoue,~yp Ha *HBBIX 06~eKTaX lICK3IIOHUTe~BHO KBa~HpOBaHHEIM ~ OHEITHEIM HepCOHa~OM H0 Ha6~o,~eHneM cr~euna~ncTos. B o6~eM7 MO*HO CKa3aTB, HTO 3TH Hp~H~BI 06yC~OB~HBaIOT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTB ~CC~e~OBaTe~eH. ~e~Te~BHOCTB KOTODBIX B OTHO~eHHU . . . . . . lICTIO3IB30BaHH~ *HBOTHEIX HO~e*HT KOHTpO~IO CO CTOpOHEI KOMUCCHU H0 CO~ep~aHUIO ~ ~CHO~B30BaHUIO *HBOTHEIX, C03~aHHOH HpH y~pe~eHHU (IACUC). BUBapHU ~ HpOrpaMMBI ~CHO~B30BaHH~ *HBOTHEIX ~O~*HEI pa60TaTB B

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BBE~EH~E 3 COOTBeTCTBHU C HaCTOSI~HM Py~cooodcmeo~, IIOCTaHOB~eHHeM O samuTe ~BOTH~X (Animal Welfare Regulation - AWR) [SFR, 1985i, Ilpas~aMn rho ryMaHHOMy CO~ep~aHHIO ~ ~CHO~B3OBaHHIO ~a60paTOpH~X *HBOTH~X c~y*6m a'~pasooxpaHeHn~ (Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals - PHS Policy) [PHS, 1996] ~ ,~pyrnMn r~puMeH~eMuMn pa~BH~MU (CM. opt. B ~ F), Hp~H~T~MU ATOM ~ MeCTH~MU SaKOHaM~ IpaBlIJIaMlI lI lIHCTpyK~MH. ,~orIoJIHuTeJI~Hy~o nH~opMaL~o rIo pa3se,~eHn~o, yxo,~y ~ co,~ep~aHn~o, a TaK*e ~CHO~B3OBaHHIO HeKOTOp~X BLAB ~a60paTOpH~X *HBOTH~X MO*HO HaUTH B pax Hy6~HKa~X, HO~rOTOB~eHH~X ~HCTHTyTOM peCypCOB ~a60paTOpH~X *HBOTH~X (ILAR) ~ ,~pyrnMn opraHn3aun~Mn (CM. opt. A). ~0rpa~HeCKHU yKa3aTe~E K ~aHHOMy Py~OffO0Cmffy Hpe~OCTaB~HeT IlITaTe3IIO ~OCTyD K ~OHO~HUTe~BHOH UH~OpMa~H, HO~TBep*~aIO~eH rIo~o~eH~ py~coffo~cmffa ~n 3HaKoMR~en era C UH~MU B3r~q~aMH. KPlITEPlIll OL\EHKlI tee py~coffo~cmffo so3~araeT Ha demo, ncrI0~3yI0~ee 3KCTIeplIMeHTa3IBHEIX *HBOTHEIX, BCIO OTBeTCTBeHHOCTB 3a ~OCTH*eHHe C~OpMyJInpOBaHHEIX 3a'~alI' HO lIpe~OCTaB~HeT eMy HpaBO BBI60pa Cpe~CTB ~~H UX ~OCTH*eHHH. TaKOn > HO~XO~ Hpe~CTaB~HeTCH ~e~eCO06pa3HEIM, HOCKO~BKy MHOrHe HOKa3aTe~H (HaUpUMep, B~ *HBOTHEIX, lIX lIpe~eCTByIO~H aHaMHe3, XapaKTepUCT~KH BUBapH~, OHEIT 06C~y~Balo~ero HepCOHa~a ~ 3a~aHU KOHKpeTHOrO ~CC~e~OBaH~) ~e~alOT ~OpMa~BHEIU (>) HO~XO~ HeUpaKTHUHEIM ~ He~e~aTe~BHEIM. > CTaH~apTEI nHor~a OKa3BIBaIOTCH HO~e3HEIMU ~H HO~y~eH~ lICXO~HEIX ~aHHEIX; O~HaKO B OT~He OT > CTaH~apTOB OHU He orIpe,~e~IoT L~e~B ~n pe3y~BTaT (TaKne KaK 3a~nTa ~BOTHEIX, CaHlITapHEIe Tpe60BaHUSI ~H 6e30HaCHoCTB HepCOHa~a) B B~e 06~eKTHBHEIX KpUTepHeB. ~OpMa~BHEIU HO~XO~ ~CK~IOHaeT B03MO*HOCTB UHTepUpeTa~HH H~H MO~HKa~H B TOM c~ae, ec~n HO~B~IOTCH HpHeM~eMBIe a~BTepHaTHBHEIe MeTO~BI ~n B03H~KaIOT HeO*~aHHEIe CHTya~. ~paKT~eCKHe CTaH~apTEI lIO,~pO6HO OlIpe,~e~HIOT pe3y~BTaT ~ obecrIe~nsaIoT KpUTepHU ~H O~eHKH TaKOrO pe3y3IBTaTa, HO HpH 3TOM He OrpaHHHUBaIOT MeTO~BI, C HOMO~BIO KOTOpLIX MO*eT 6BITB ~OCTHrHyT O~aeMBIU pe3y~BTaT. ~paKT~eCKHU HO~XO~ orInpaeTc~ Ha MHeHlIe lI cy*,~eHne rIpO~eCCHOHaJIa,~JI~ ~OCTH*eHH r~pe,~r~o~araeMoro pe3y~TaTa. B or~TuMa~Hon cuTyaunn ~opMa~H~In lIpaKTWIeCKlIlI lIO~XO~BI ~O~HEI B3aHMHO ~OHO~H~TB ~pyr ~pyra, obecne~nsa~, C O~HOH CTOpOHEI, C06~IO~eHHe OUpe~e~eHHEIX CTaH~apTOB, a c ~pyron, ~ODyCKaH rH6KOCTB B Hp~H~THU pe~eHHU, HpO~HKTOBaHHEIX KOHKpeTHOH C~TyaL~e~. YIIeH~Ie, BeTep~Hap~I, 300TeXH~Ku ~ ,~pyrne CrIeL~naJInCT~I 06JIa~aIOT 06~HpHEIM OHEITOM ~ UH~OpMa~HeH, OXBaTEIBaIO~eH MHOrHe TeMBI, paCCMaTplIBaeMBIe B ~aHHOM Py~OffO0Cmffe. ~CC~e~OBaHH~ H0 ~CHO~B30BaHUIO 0paTOpHEIX *HBOTHEIX HpO~O~*aIOT ~aBaTB Hay~HyIO UH~OpMa~HIO, KOTOpaSI ~O~*Ha yHUTEIBaTBCH HpH O~eHKe HpaKTHHeCKHX ~ ~OpMa~BHEIX C~e~yeT HMeTb B B~y, HTO ~aHHOe ~KOffOdCmffO COCTaB~eHO ~ MHOrOHUC~eHHOH rpyr m HaLlnOHa]IbHuX lI Me*,~yHapO,~HuX nHcTuTyTos ~ opraHn3aLInn, Ha MHOrHe H3 KOTOp~X He paCHpOCTpaHHIOTCH AWRs n~n PHS Policy; ~Ua ~ opraHn3aunn, no~b3y~0~nec~ AWRs n~n PHS Policy, ~O~*HM ~eUCTBOBaTb COr]IaCHO lI3JIO*eHHLIM B HlIX IIpaB~IaM.

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4 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ CTaH~apTOB. u0 HeKOTOp~M BOUpOCaM HMeIO~a~CH UH~OpMa~H He~OCTaTO~Ha, HTO ~e~aeT HeO6XO~HMMM HpO~O~*eHHe ye HO RIO MeTO~OB CO~ep~aH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaH~ ~BOTHEIX. ~aHHOe ~KOffO0CmffO He RHO HaHUCaHO B o6~nx s~Ipa~eH~x, ~To6m co,~ep~amnec~ B HeM peKOMeH~a~H Moran HaUTH HpUMeHeHHe B CaM~X pa3HEIX UHCTHTyTaX ~ yC~OB~X, B KOTOpLIX OCy~eCTB~HeTCH pa3Be~eHHe ~H CHO~B30BaHHe *HBOTHEIX ~~H Hay~HEIX ~CC~e~OBaHHU, o6yUeHH~ H~H ~CHEITaHHH; B no~o6Horo polka ~oKyMeHTax one alpaca ~ peKoMeH~a~n SIB~SlIOTCH HaCTO~Te~BHOH HeO6XO~HMOCTBIO. TaKOH HO~XO~ Hpe~HO~araeT, HTO HO~B30BaTe~H, KOMUCCHU HO CO~ep~aHUIO ~ ~CHO~B30BaHUIO ~a60paTOpHEIX *HBOTHEIX, C03~aHHEIe HpH y~pe*~eHH~x (IACUCs), seTep~Hap~I ~ HpOH3BO~HTe~H 6y~yT HpH6eraTB K MHeHUIO HpO~eCCHOHa~OB HpH BBIpa60TKe KOHKpeTHEIX pe~eHHU B OTHO~eHHU CO~ep~aH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaH~ ~BOTHEIX. IIOCKO~BKY Py~OffO0CmffO HaHUCaHO B o6meM lathe, IACUCs OTBO~HTCH K]IIOHeBaH pond B UHTepUpeTa~H, KOHTpO~e ~ O~eHKe UHCTHTyTCKHX HpOrpaMM CO~ep~aH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaH~ ~BOTHEIX. ~aCTO B03H~KaeT BOUpOC O TOM, KaK B py~coffo~cmffe ynoTpe6~HIoTcH C~OBa > ~ > ~ KaK IACUCs ~O~*HEI UX TO~KOBaTB B H~aHe HpHOpUTeTOB. B ~e~oM7 r~aro~ > yrIoTpe6~eTc~ rIpu orIncaHnn o6~nx HpOrpaMMHEIX ~H OCHOBHEIX aCHeKTOB, KoTopLIe7 rIo MHeHnIo KoMuTeTa rIo rIepecMoTpy Py~cooodcmea, ~B~HIOTCH o6~3aTeJIBHEIMH. tJIaroJI > yrIoTpe6JI~eTcH KaK HacTo~TeJIBHaH peKOMeH,~a~H ,~H ,~OCTH*eHH~ orIpe'~e~eHHon ~e~. o'~HaKo KOMuTeT HpH3HaeT, HTO KOHKpeTHEIe 06CTO~Te~BCTBa MOryT OUpaB~aTB a~BTepHaTHBHEIU lIO~XO~ K HpUMeHeHUIO ~aHHEIX TepM~HOB. CEJlbCKOX031111CTBEHHbIE ~KlIBOTHbIE t,ICHO~B30BaHHe Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHHEIX *HBOTHEIX B Hay~HEIX ~CC~e~OBaHH~X, oGy~eHnn ~ nCHEITaHH~X HaCTO HO~pa3~e~HIOT Ha ux ncrIo~B3osaHHe ,~H 6HoMe'~nHcKHx ~n ,~H ce~BcKoxo3~ncTBeHHEIx 3a,~aH, ncxo'~H H3 HpaBUTe~BCTBeHHEIX ~HpeKTHB (AWRS), Be~OMCTBeHHEIX lIHCTpyK~H, a~M~HUCTpaTHBHOH CTpyKTypLI, ~CTO~H~KOB ( 3HHaHCHpOBaH~ ~n KoHKpeTHEIx 3a,~aH rIo~B30saTe~q. TaKoe pa3,~e~eHne rIpuse~o K HOSIB~eHUIO ~BO~HOH CHCTeMBI C pa3~HHEIMU KpUTepH~MU ~H O~eHKH HpOTOKO~OB CTaH~apTOB pa3Me~eHH~ ~ CO~ep~aHH~ *HBOTHEIX O~HOrO BH~a, OplIeHTlIpOBaHHOlI Ha peIIIeHHe OHOMe~HHCKHX ~n Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHHEIX ncc~e'~oBaTe~BcKHx 3a,~aH [Stricklin, Mench, 1994~. B oTHomeHnn HeKoTop~Ix ncc~e'~oBaHHU TaKoe pa3~e~eHHe HOH~THO. HaUpUMep, ncHo~B3oBaHHe ~BOTHEIX KaK MO,~eJIen ,~ H3y~eH~ 3a6oJIeBaHHn IIeJIOBeKa, TpaHC~aHTaLlHn OpraHOB ~ 06~HpHEIX x~pyprnHecKHx orIepa~n OTHOCHTCH K KaTeropHn 6~0Me~HHEI, Tor~a KaK ~CC~e~OBaH~ H0 HO~y~eHUIO HpO~OBO~BCTBeHHEIX ~ KOpMOBBIX Ky~BTyp, B HaCTHOCTH ncrIBITaHH~ pe~MOB KOpM~eH~, 06~mHo paCCMaTplIBaIOTCH KaK Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHHaH KaTeropu~. O~HaKO TaKOe pa3rpaHlIIIeHlIe IIaCTO OKa3BIBaeTCH paC~BIBHaTEIM, KaK 3TO HMeeT MeCTO B cJIylIae nCCJIe,~OBaHH~ HeKOTOpLIX 3a6oJIeBaHHn ~ ,~HeT. A~M~HucTpaTopLI7 KOHTpO~epLI ~ IACUCs Hepe,~KO oKa3BIBaIoTcH rIepe~ ~eMMOn rIpH pemeHHH KaK BecTH rIo,~o6HEIe ncc~e'~oBaH~ [Stricklin et al., 1990~. tICTIO~B30BaHHe Ce~BCKOX03SInCTBeHHEIX *HBOTHEIX B HaylIHEIX lICC3Ie~OBaHH~X C~e~yeT paCCMaTpUBaTE C H03~H TeX ~e aTu~ecKnx KaTeropun, KoTop~Ie rIpuMeH~IoTc~ rIpu ncrIo~B30saHnn ,~pyrux *lIBOTHEIX,

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BBE~EH~E s He3aBUCHMO OT HEX 3a,~aH, KOTOpMe CTaBUT Leper cotton ncc~e~osaTe~B, n ncTo~H~Ka ~nHaHcuposaHn~ [Stricklin et al., 1990~. o'~HaKo pats B L~e~x ncc~e,~osaHn~ lIpUBO,~HT K lIplIH~Ha~BHEIM pa3~HM Merry 6~0Me~HHCK~MU ~ Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHH~MU ~CC~e~OBaHH~MH. ~~H ,~OCT~eH~ rIOCTaBJIeHHuX 3a'~alI ceJIBcKoxo3~ncTBeHHMe nCCJIe,~OBaH~ IIaCTO Hp~XO~HTCH BeCTH TaK, HTo6M yC~OBH~ CO~ep~aHH~ *HBOTH~X CO OTBeTCTBOBa3IlI COBpeMeHHEIM MeTO~aM Hp OH3BO~CTBa ceJIBcKoxo3~ncTseHHon rIpo,~yKL~n [Stricklin, Mench, 1994~. HarIpuMep, ,~JI~ Ce3IBCKOX03~HCTBeHHOrO ~KCHepUMeHTa MO*eT OKa3aTBCH ~e~aTe~BH~M lICTIO3IB30BaHHe eCTeCTBeHHOlI Cpe~BI O )HTaHH~, Toyota KaK ~~H 6~0Me~HHCKOrO ~KCHepUMeHTa MO*eT OKa3aTBCH ~e~eC006pa3HEIM rIo,~ep~aHne OrIpe,~eJIeHHEIX rIapaMeTpOB oKpy~a~omen cpe,~I, HaTIpaBJIeHHOe Ha cse,~eHne,~o M~HuMyMa ee n3MeHeHnn [Tilman, 1994~. CHCTeMBI co~ep~aH~ Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHHEIX*HBOTHEIX, ~CHO~B3yeMBIX B 6~0Me~HHCKHX ~CC~e~OBaH~X, MOryT OT~aTBCH, a MoryT ~ He oT~aTBc~ OT TaKOBBIX, HpUMeHHeMBIX B Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHHEIX ~CC~e~OBaHH~X. BOTHEIe, ~CHO~B3yeMBIe B 6~0Me~HHCKHX ~H Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHHEIX 3KCTIeplIMeHTaX, MOryT pa3MeILlaTBCH B K~eTKaX, CTO~aX, 3arOHaX H~H Ha rIacT6~max [Tilman, 1994~. HeKoTop~Ie ce~BcKoxo3~ncTseHH~Ie aKcrIepuMeHT~I TpeCyIOT CTaH~apTHEIX yC~OBHU, CBO~UX ~0 M~HUMyMa H3MeHHUBOCTB Cpe~BI 06lITaH~, TOr~a KaK HeKOTOpLIe 6~0Me~HHCKHe 3KCHepUMeHTEI HpOBO~HTCH B yC~OBUSIX ~epMBI. TaK~M 06pa30M, HpOTOKO~ 3KCHepUMeHTa, a He ero ~opMa~Ha~ KaTeropu~ ,~o~*eH orIpe,~e~T~, r,~e c~e,~yeT rIpOBO,~HTE ~aHHEIU 3KCHepUMeHT (Ha ~epMe H~H B ~a60paTopHH). Pe~eHH~ H0 OUpe~e~eHHIO KaTeropun 3KCTIeplIMeHTa3IBHOrO ~CHO~B30BaHH~ Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHHEIX ~IBOTHEIX ~ OUpe~e~eHH~ CTaH~apTOB UX CO~ep~aH~ ~O~*HEI OCHOBBIBaTBCH Ha 3a,~a~ax 3KcrIepuMeHTos, ux rIpoToKo~ax ~ Heo6xo,~uMocTn 3aboTuTBc~ o 3~0pOBBe *HBOTHEIX ~ Hp~HUMaTBCH IACUC. H e3aBUCHMO OT KaTerOpHU 3KCHepUMeHTa, UHCTHTyTEI ~O~*HEI o6ecHeHuBaTB Ha6~Io~eHHe 3a sceMn 3KcTIeplIMeHTaJIBHEIMU ~BOTHEIMn, cTpeM~cB K MaKcHMa~BHoMy yMeHBIIIeHUIo 60~n ~ ~ncTpecca. ,~aHHOe Py~cooodcmeo paCTIpOCTpaHHeTCH Ha Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHHEIX *HBOTHEIX, ncrIo~B3yeMBIx B 6HoMe~nHcKHx nCC~e~OBaHH~X, BK~IoHaH ~BOTHEIX, co~ep~a~nxcH Ha CTaH~apTHEIX ~epMax. IlpuMeHuTeJIBHo K TaK~M ~BOTHEIM rIo~e3HEIM nCTO~H~KOM nH~OpMa~n ~B~HeTCH <> ~ Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching, 1988] ~n ero 60~ee rIo3~HHe H3~aH~. '~orIo~HuTe~BHyIo nH~opMa~HIo B OTHOmeHHn 6a3BI HyCJIOBHn co~ep~aH~ ceJIBcKoxo3~ncTBeHHEIx~BoTHEIxMo*Ho rIolIeprIHyTB lI3 > [Midwest Plan Service, 1987i, a TaK*e rIo~yHuTE y crIe~Ha~ncToB rIo arpoTexH~Ke ~ pa3se~eHHIo ce~BcKoxo3~ncTBeHHEIx *HBOTHEIX B MeCTHEIX OT~e~eHH~X M~HucTepcTBa ce~cKoro X03SIlICTBa, Ko~e,~*ax ~ yHlIBepCIITeTaX. HETPA,~lIL\lIOHHbIE BIl,1;bI *lIBOTHbIX B HeKOTOpLIX c~y~a~x B~ ~BOTHEIX, KOTOpLIn HeHacTo ncHo~B3yeTcH B 6HoMe~HLl~HcKHx nCCJIe~OBaH~X, oKa3BIBaeTcH rIpe~rIolITHTeJIBHEIM H3-3a ero yH~Ka~BHEIx XapaKTepuCT~K. HarIpuMep' MeXaHH3MBI rn6epHa~n MO*HO

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6 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ lI3ylIaTB TO~BKO Ha BH~aX *HBOTHEIX, BHa~aIO~UX B 3HMHIOIO CHH~Ky. ~~H *lIBOTHEIX HeTpa~HOHHEIX BLOB Hy*HO C03~aBaTB COOTBeTCTByIO~yIO oKpy~aIo~yIo cpe,~y, rIpHlIeM ,~JI~ HeKoTopLIx Ha HlIX OHa ,~OJI*Ha 6BITB MaKCHMa~BHO HpH6~eHa K eCTeCTBeHHOH impede o6nTaH~. Ape BBe~eHHn TaKHX ~BOTHEIX B ~KCHepUMeHT HeO6XO~HMO 06paTHTBCH 3a KOHCy~BTa~HeH K CTIe~Ha~HCTaM HO eCTeCTBeHHOH ~CTOpHU ~ HOBe~eHUIO HeTpa~HOHHEIX BLOB *HBOTHEIX. B cony 6o~B~oro KO~nHeCTBa HeTpa,~HOHHEIX BLOB *HBOTHEIX ~ oHeHB pa3HEIX Tpe6oBaHHn K ux co'~ep~aHnIo' HacToH~ee py~coffo~cmffo He MO*eT bath no~po6HEIe yKa3aH~ B OTHOmeHHn BCeX TaKHX BLOB. o'~HaKo HecKo~BKo Hay~HEIX opraHH3a~n pa3pa6oTa~n pyKOBO,~CTBa rIo KOHKpeTHEIM HeTpa,~HOHHEIM B~,~aM *HBOTHEIX [HarIpuMep' ILAR Hay~HEIn ~eHTp 3a~nTEI *HBOTHEIX (Scientists Center for Animal Welfare SCAW)~. HerIo~HEIn rIepeHeHB HMeIo~nxcH nCTO~H~KOB rIpuBe'~eH B rIp~. A. IOJIEBbIE lICCJIE,1;OBAHlIlI HOMe~HHCKHe ~ nose~eH~ecKne nCc~e~oBaH~ nHor~a upe~no~ara~oT Ha6~Io'~eHHe 3a rIo3BoHo~HEIMn *HBOTHEIMn ~ ux ncrIo~B3oBaHHe B rIo~eBBIx YC~OBH~X. XOTH HeKOTOpLIe H3 HpuBe~eHHEIx B ~aHHoM py~offo~cmffe ~ peKOMeH~a~H He MOryT )BITB HpUMeHeHEI B HO~eBBIX yC~OBH~X, OCHOBHEIe Hp~H~BI ryMaHHOrO 06pa~eHH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaHH~ paCHpOCTpaHRIOTCH Ha ~BOTHEIX, 06HTaIO~UX B eCTeCTBeHHEIX yC~OBH~X. 3KCHepUMeHTaTOpLI, HpOBO~He HO~eBBIe ~CC~e~OBaHH~ Ha *HBOTHEIX, ~O~*HEI 3aBepUTB CBOIO IACUC B TOM, HTO HO~y~eHHe 6~0MaTepHa~a H~H BBITIOJIHeHHe UHBa3HBHEIX rIpOL~e'~yp 6y,~eT lIpOBO,~HTBCH C C06JIIO~eHHeM lIplIHSITEIX ~TaTOM ~ ~e~epa~BHEIX UHCTpyK~H, a TaK*e HPaB~, H3~0*eHHEIX B HaCTOSI~eM Py/COffO0Cmffe. BOUPOCEI 300H030B, rUrHeHEI Tpy~a ~ 6e30HaCHoCTH HepCOHa~a ~O~*HEI paCCMaTpUBaTBCH IACUC, KOTOPaH, B CBOIO OHePe~B, ,~O~*Ha rapaHTHpOBaTB, HTO HO~eBBIe nCC~e,~OBaHH~ He OKa~yT He6~arorIp~THoro Bo3~encTB~ Ha 3~opoBBe ~ 6e3orIacHocTB ,~pyrux ~BOTHEIX ~n rIepcoHaJIa7 pa6oTalo~ero B rIOJIeBBIX yC~OB~X. OUpe~e~eHHylO H0~3y MOryT rIp~HeCTH nHCTpyKLlHn rIO ncrIo~B3oBaHnIo *HBOTHEIX B rIO~eBBIX nCC~e,~OBaH~X, rIo'~roToB~eHHEIe rIpo~eccHoHa~BHEIMn o6~ecTBaMn, ec~n OHn cooTBeTcTByIoT ryMaHHEIM rIp~H~HrIaM' H3~o~eHHEIM B Ilp~H~HrIax HpaBUTe~BCTBa C~A B oTHomeHHn HpuMeHeH~ ~ co~ep~aHH~ H03BOHOqHEIX ~BOTHEIX, ncrIo~B3yeMBIx B ncrIBITaH~x, HayqHEIX nCC~e,~OBaH~X ~ o6yqeHHn (CM. Hp~. t) ~ B HaCTOH~eM Py~OffO0Cmffe (CM. Hp~. A: <<3K30THqHEIe, ~HKHe rIapKoBBIe *HBOTHEIe>>, >). 3AKIIOIIEH1IE ~T06BI 06~eRq~TB HO~B30BaHHe Py~OffO0CmffOM ~ HOUCK OTBeTOB Ha KOHKpeTHEIe BOUpOCEI, OpraHH3a~H MaTepHa~a B HaCTOH~eM H3~aHHU H0 CpaBHeHlIIO C Hpe~BI~y~HM HeCKO~BKO H3MeHeHa. MaTepHa~, KOTOpLIU co'~ep~aJIcH B pa3~eJIe > r~aBBI 5 Hpe~BI~y~ero H3~aHHH7 BO~e~ B r~aBBI 1 - 4 HacToH~ero H3~aH~. BorIpocEI reHeT~KH ~ HOMeHK~aTypLI TeHepE paCCMaTpUBalOTCH B r~aBe 2; yc~oBH~ co~ep~aHH~ ~ Hpo~e~ypLI lIpOBe~eH~ ~CC~e~OBaHHU Ha ~BOTHEIX C ~CHO~B30BaHHeM OHaCHEIX areHTOB, BOUpOCEI rUrHeHEI Tpy~a ~ 6e30HaCHoCTH HepCOHa~a 06Cy~aloTCH B r~aBe 1. PeKOMeH~a~H, KaCaIO~HeCH Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHHEIX *HBOTHEIX,

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BBE~EH~E 7 paCCMaTplIBaIOTCH B TeKCTe scab, HMeIO~UX OTHO~eHHe K 3TOMy BOUpOCy. HacTo~mee n3,~aHne Py~cooodcmea BK~IOHaeT Retape roast ~ Retape rIp~o~eH~. B r~aBe 1 paCCMaTpUBaIOTCH HO~HT~Ka ~ 06~3aHHoCTH HEX ylIpe)K,D;eHlIlI, B TOM miscue KOHTpO3IB 3a co~ep~aHHeM ~ ncHo~B3oBaHHeM *lIBOTHEIX, HO~XO~BI K O~eHKe CHe~Ha~BHEIX MeTO~OB ~CC~e~OBaHH~, BeTeplIHapHaSI rIOMOILlE, KBa~HKa~H ~ HO~rOTOBKa HepCOHa~a, rUrHeHa Tpy~a ~ 6e30HaCHoCTB HepCOHa~a; B noc~e~HeM payee ~aIoTcH BBIBO~BI Ha oTHeTa'~pyroro KOMuTeTa Ha~HoHa~EHoro Hay~Ho-ncc~e'~oBaTe~EcKoro coBeTa [NRC, B rIeHaTHi, a TaK*e nH~OpMa~H rIo yC~OBH~M co'~ep~aHH~ ~ IpO~e~ypaM HpOBe~eHH~ ~CC~e~OBaHHU Ha *HBOTHEIX C ~CHO~B30BaHHeM or~acH~Ix MaTepua~os. B regale 2 co,~ep~aTc~ MaTepua~I, Kaca~omnec~ camera *lIBOTHEIX, ~ peKOMeH~a~H B OTHO~eHHU yC~OBHU SIX CO~ep~aHH~, lIOBe~eHH~, pa3Be~eHH~' Ho~ep~aHH~ HoDy~H, BK~IOHaH BOUpOCEI ~eHTu~nKaunn, see ~KypHa~os yenta, reHeT~Ku ~ HoMeHK~aTyp~I. B relate 3 06Cy)K,D;aIOTCH pa3~HEIe aCHeKTEI BeTep~HapHOH Me~HHCKOH HOMO~H, 06SI3aHHoCTH BeTep~HapOB, peKOMeH~a~H Ho 3aKynKe ~ TpaHCHOpTHpOBKe *lIBOTHEIX, HpO~aKTHHeCKHe MepOUpH~TH~, HpOBe~eHHe X~pyprHHeCKHX orIepaunn, rIpo6~eMBI 60~n, aHa~Ere3Hn ~ anTaHa3~. B r~ase 4 paCCMaTplIBaIOTCH ~3~ecKne XapaKTepUCT~KH BUBapHeB, peKOMeH~a~H H0 lIX ~yHK~HOHa~BHEIM ~ CTpOUTe~BHEIM HapaMeTpaM, B TOM Huc~e no CHCTeMaM OTOrI~eHH~, BeHTH~HLlHn ~ KOH,~HLlHOHupOBaHH~ so3,~yxa, a TaK*e rIoMe~eH~M ,~H rIpoBe'~eH~ acerITHlIecKHx x~pypr~ecKHx orIepaLlHH. Ilp~O*eHUSI K HaCTOSI~eMy H3~aHUIO OCTaIOTCH, B OCHOBHOM, TaK~MU ~e, KaK~MU OHU 6BI~n B rIpe'~BI'~y~eM H3~aHHH. IlpH~o~eHHe A co'~ep*nT yTO~HeHHEIU 6~6~norpa~ecKnn yKa3aTe~B, OpraHH30BaHHEIU H0 TeMaTHHeCK~M py6p~KaM; B HpH~O*eHHU ~ ~aeTCH CHUCOK HeKOTOpLIX OpraHlI3a~HH, HMeIO~UX OTHO~eHHe K Hay~HEIM ~CC~e~OBaHH~M Ha JIa60paTOpHEIX ~BOTHEIX; B Hp~o~eHHn B C06paHEI ~e~epa~BHEIe 3aKOHEI, KaCalO~HeCH CO~ep~aH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaH~ ~BOTHEIX, a B Hp~O*eHHU HpUBO~HTCH TeKCT ~p~H~HOB HpaBUTe~BCTBa C~A B OTHO~eHHU lIplIMeHeHlISI lI CO~ep~aHH~ H03BOHO~HEIX *HBOTHEIX, ~CHO~B3yeMBIX B ncrI~ITaH~x, Hay~H~Ix~ccJIe,~osaH~xnoGy~eHnn [IRAC, 1985i, o,~o6peHH~Ix c~y*60n 3,~pasooxpaHeH~. JIlITEPATYPA CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 1985. Title 9 (Animals and Animal Products), Sub- chapter A (Animal Welfare). Washington, D. C.: Office of the Federal Register. Consortium for Developing a Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agri- cultural Research and Teaching. 1988. Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. Champaign, Ill.: Consortium for De- veloping a Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Re- search and Teaching. IRAC (Interagency Research Animal Committee). 1985. U. S. Government Principles for Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training. Federal Register, May 20, 1985. Washington, D. C.: Office of Science and Technol- ogy Policy. Leader, R. W., and D. Stark. 1987. The importance of animals in biomedical research. Perspect. Biol. Med. 30~4~: 470-485. Midwest Plan Service. 1987. Structures and Environment Handbook. 11th ed. rev. Ames: Midwest Plan Service, Iowa State University. NRC (National Research Council). 1977. The Future of Animals. Cells, Models, and Sys-

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8 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL tems in Research, Development, Education, and Testing. Proceedings of a Sympo- sium of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. Washington, D. C.: National Academy of Sciences. 341 pp. NRC (National Research Council). In press. Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals. A report of the Institute of Laboratory Animal Re- sources Committee on Occupational Safety and Health in Research Animal Facili- ties. Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press. PHS (Public Health Service). 1996. Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, D. C.: U.S. Department of Health and Hu- man Services, 28 pp. [PL 99-158, Health Research Extension Act, 1985] Stricklin, W. R., and J. A. Mench. 1994. Oversight of the use of agricultural animals in university teaching and research. ILAR News 36~1~: 9-14. Stricklin, W. R., D. Purcell, and J. A. Mench. 1990. Farm animals in agricultural and bio- medical research in the well-being of agricultural animals in biomedical and agricul- tural research. Pp. 1-4 inAgriculturalAnimals in Research, Proceedings from a SCAW- sponsored conference, September 6-7, 1990. Washington, D. C.: Scientist's Center for Animal Welfare. Tillman, P. 1994. Integrating agricultural and biomedical research policies: Conflicts and opportunities. ILAR News 36~2~: 29-35.