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rJIABA 2 YC~OBHR CO~EP*AHHR *HBOTHbIX IlpaBH~EHaH opraHn3aun~ ~ co,~ep~aHne BUBapHeB HMelOT rIp~H~HrIna~EHo Ba*Hoe 3HaHeHHe ~~R o6ecrIeHeH~ 6~arorIony~ ~BOTHuX, B~COKOrO KaHeCTBa HEX pe3y~BTaTOB, HpOrpaMM oGy~eHn~ H~n ncrI~TaH~7 B KOTOp~X ~CHO~B3yI0TCH *HBOTHMe, a TaK*e ~~H o6ecHeHeH~ 3~0pOBEH ~ 6e3orIacHocTH rIepcoHa~a. Ilpo~yMaHHaH rIporpaMMa co~ep~a ~BOTHuX rIo3Bo~HeT o6ecrIeHuBaTB TaKne yC~OB~ co~ep~aH~' pa3Me~eH~ ~ yxo~a 3a HuMn, B KOTOpLIX *lIBOTHLIe 6y~yT paCTH, ~OCTHraTB nO~OBOn 3pe~ocTH' ~aBaTB rIoToMcTBo ~ ocTaBaTBcH ~3~ecKH 3~0pOBuMn, a TaK*e lI03BO3ISIeT CBeCTlI ~0 M~HUMyMa H3MeHeH~, KOTOpLIe MOryT OTpa3HTBCH Ha pe3y~BTaTaX Hay~H~X ~CC~e~OBaHHH. KOHKpeTHMe MeTO~M CO~ep~aHH~ BlIBaplIeB 3aBlICSIT OT MHOrlIX ~aKTOpOB, XapaKTepH~X~H OT~e~BH~X Hay~H~X y~pe*~eHHU ~ CHTya~. Xopo~o HO~rOTOB~eHHMe ~ Hpe~aHHMe ~e~y COTpy~H~KH 3aHaCTylO MOryT 06eCHeHUTB KaHeCTBeHHMU yXo~ 3a ~BOTH~MU ~a~e B TeX y~pe~eHH~X, r~e ~3~HeCKHe XapaKTepUCT~KH BUBapH~ H~H 060py~0BaH~ He ~B~IOTCH OUTHMa~BH~MH. IIPTI lIJIaHlIpOBaHlIlI COOTBeTCTBylO~UX ~ KaHeCTBeHH~X yC~OBHU CO~ep~aH~ ~BOTH~X, HMeH B B~y HapaMeTpM ~3~eCKOH ~ CO~Ha~BHOH cpe~M, pa3Me~eHHe' o6~eMM ~ opraHH3aLlHIo pa6oT' Heo6xo~HMo y`InTuBaTE BIU pH~ ( JaKTOpOB, B TOM Huc~e: B~, ~HHUIO ~ HOpO~y ~BOTHEIX ~ UX UH~HB~ya~BHEIe XapaKTepUCT~K~, TaKlIe KaK lIO3I, B03paCT, pa3Mep, lIOBe~eHHe, OHEIT ~CHO~B30BaHH~ B 3KCTIeplIMeHTaX lI COCTOS[HlIe 3~0pOBBH. CTIOC06HOCTB *HBOTHEIX ~OpM~pOBaTB CO~Ha~BHEIe rpyHHEI C *lIBOTHEIM~, Hp~Ha~e~a~HMU K TOMy ~e BH~y, C HOMO~BIO 3peHH~, OCSI3aH~ lI, B03MO*HO, lIpSIMOrO KOHTaKTa, lIplI lIH~HBH~ya~BHOM ~H rpylITIOBOM CO~ep~aHHU ~BOTHEIX. ,~3anH ~ KOHCTpyKLlHIo K~eToK ~ ~pyrux MeCT ~ pa3Me~eH~ ~BOTHEIX. 23

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24 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ . ~OCTy0HOCTB ~ ~e~ecoo6pasHocTB ~CHO~B3OBaH~ Cpe~CTB oborameH~ cpe,~m o6nTaH~. LteJIn lIpOeKTa ~ lIpOTOKOJI 3KCTIeplIMeHTa (HaUpUMep, HpOH3BO~CTBO, passe,~eHne, ncc~e,~osaHne, ncr~uTaHne ~ oGy~eHne). t,IHTeHCHBHOCTB BMHO~HeHH~ MaHHUy~H C *HBOTH~MU ~ CTeHeHB lIHBa3lIBHOCTlI lIpOBO~HMBIX upoue~yp. Ha~ne or~acHux ~n sususa~om~x sabo~esaH~ MaTepua~os. nTeJIBHocTB rIenno~a co~en~aHn~ *HBOTHEIX. . . IlpH pa3Me~eHHU *HBOTH~X HeO6XO~HMO CTpeMUTBCH K TOMy, HTo6M C03,~aTB MaKCHMa~BHO 6~aronpu~THme yC~OBH~ ~H BH~OCHeUH~HHOrO lIOBe~eH~ ~ CBeCTH ~0 M~HUMyMa CTpeCCOBOe B03~eUCTBUe. ~H CO~Ha~BH~X BH~OB *HBOTH~X TaKOe Tpe60BaHHe 06~HHo Hpe~HO~araeT UX pa3Me~eHHe COBMeCTHMMMn rIapaMn ~n rpyrIrIaMH. IlepcoHa~' ocy~ecTB~HIo~n yxo,~ 3a *HBOTH~M~, ~O~*eH B~pa60TaTE CTpaTerHIO HaH60~ee ~e~eCoo6pa3Horo pa3MeILleH~ ~IBOTHEIX, KOTOpaH HO~e~T paCCMOTpeHUIO ~ yTBep~eHUIO IACUC. PemeH~ IACUC, rIp~H~Tme rIoc~e KoHcy~BTaunn c ncc~e,~osaTe~eM BeTep~HapOM, ~O~*HM 6MTB HaUpaB~eHM Ha ~OCTH*eHHe B~COKHX Ipo~eccHoHa~BHEIx HOpM ~ CTaH~apTOB Co~ep~aH~ ~ pa3Be~eH~ *HBOTHEIX, o6ecrIeHuBalo~nx ux 3~opoBBe ~ 6~arorIo~yHHe, a TaK*e cooTBeTcTBylo~nx 3a~aHaM aKcrIepuMeHTa. Iloc~e rIp~H~TH~ pemeHH~ Heo6xo~HMo rIpoBecTH 06~eKTlIBHyIO O~eHKy, HO~TBep~aIO~yIO COOTBeTCTBUe yC~OBHU oKpy~aIomen Cpe~BI co~ep~aH~ ~ pa3Be~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX. YC~OBH~ co~ep~aHH~ *HBOTHEIX ~O~*HEI cooTBeTcTBoBaTB BH~y ~BOTHEIX, ux lIpOUCXO)KD;eHUIO ~ ~CTOpHU *~3Hn, a TaK*e rIpe~rIo~araeMoMy Ha3HaHeHnIo. ,~R o6ecrIeHeH~ pa3MHO*eH~ ~ co~ep~aH~ HeKOTOpLIX B~OB ~BOTHEIX ~e~ecoo6pa3Ho rIpH6~3nTB ux cpe~y 06HTaHUSI K eCTeCTBeHHOH. ,~H OlIpe~e~eHHSI OC06BIX Tpe6oBaHHn, CBH3aHHEIX C aKCTIepUMeHTOM ~n ~BOTHEIM~, pa3yMH0 06paTHTBCH 3a COBeTOM K CHe~Ha~HCTaM (HaUpUMep, HpH lICTIO3IB30BaHHU OHaCHEIX MaTepHa~OB, n3y~eHnn HOBe~eHHeCKHX XapaKTepUCT~K, ~CHO~B30BaHHU *HBOTHEIX C OC~a6~eHHEIM HMMyHUTeTOM, CeJIBCKOX03~HCTBeHHEIX ~BOTHEIX ~H HeTpa~HOHHEIX B~OB ~a60paTOpHEIX ~IBOTHEIX). H~e lIplIBO~HTCH pa3~e~BI, B KOTOpLIX paCCMaTpUBaIOTCH XapaKTepUCT~KH ~3~eCKOH Cpe~BI CO~ep~aH~ HeKOTOpLIX 06~Ho ~CHO~B3yeMBIX B Hay~HEIX lICCJIe~OBaHH~X ~BOTHEIX. G>ll311lIECKAlI CPE,~;A M~KPO- ~ MaKPOCPe,~a Mu~cpocpeda *lIBOTHOrO rIpe~CTaB~HeT co60H ~3~ecKy~o cpe~y, HelIOCpe~CTBeHHO OKpy~aIO~yIO *HBOTHOe, T.e. HepBHUHOe orpa~eHne c orIpe~e~eHHon TeMlIepaTypOH, B3Ia*HOCTBIO, ra30BBIM COCTaBOM lI KOH~eHTpa~HeH TBep~BIX HaCTH~ B ero aTMoc~epe. ~3~HecKaH cpe~a BTOp~IHOrO Orpa)K,D;eH~, HaTIplIMep KOMHaTEI, CTO~a ~n so~Bepa, COCTaB~eT ~a~cpocpedy. XOTH M~Kpocpe~a ~ MaKpocpe~a coe~nHeHEI 6~aro~apH Bo3~yXoo6MeHy Me*~y HepBHUHEIM ~ BTOpHUHEIM orpa*~eHHeM7 cpe~a 06HTaHUSI B HepBHUHOM Orpa)KD;eHHU MO*eT Cy~eCTBeHHO OT~HaTBCH OT TaKOBOH BO BTOpHUHOM ~ H3MeHSITBCH H0~ B~HHHeM KOHCTpyK~H o60nx

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YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL orpa;K,D;eHnn. 25 B He6o~Bm~x rIepB~Hux orpa;K'D;eH~x nHor'~a Tpy,~HO TOGO OUpe~e~HTB XapaKTepUCT~KH M~KpOCpe~. ODy6~HKOBaHHMe ~aHHMe CB~eTe~BCTBylOT O TOM, IITO TeMlIepaTypa, BJIa*HOCTB, KOH~eHTpa~H ra30B ~ TBep~BIX HaCTH~ B M~KpOCpe~e HaCTO OKa3MBalOTCH Bite, HeM B MaKpocpe~e [Besch,1980; Flynn, 1959; Gamble, Clough, 1976; Murakami, 1971; Serrano, 1971~. IlapaMeTpu M~KpOCpe~M MOryT BM3MBaTB H3MeHeH~ MeTabo~ecKnx ~ ~no~or~ecKnx HpO~eCCOB ~H 06yC~oB~HBaTB H3MeHeH~ BOCHpHUMHUBOCTH K Sa60~eBaH~M [Broderson et al., 1976; Schoeb et al., 1982; Vesell et al., 1976~. IloMemeH~e llepeu~ub~e oapa~cdenu~ IlepB~HOe orpa - ;eHHe (06~Ho ~eTKa' SaroH ~H CTO~O) orpaH~HBaeT HerIocpe~cTseHHylo cpe~y o6nTaHnH *nsoTHoro. IlpneM~eMme rIepsuHHme orpa;K,D;eH~: y~OB~eTBOpHIOT HOpMa~BHEIM ~3~0~0rn~ecK~M ~ HOBe~eHHeCK~M HOTpe6HOCTSIM *HBOTHOrO, BK~IOHaH MOHeUCHyCKaHHe ~ ~e~eKaunIo, rIo,~,~ep~aHne TeMlIepaTypM TeJIa, HOpMaJILHOrO xapaKTepa ~BH*eHHU ~ rI03, a TaK*e' rIo rIoKa3aHH~M, pa3MHo~eHHe; . - ~ onecrIe~nsaIoT KOHCHe~HHMe CO~Ha~BHMe B3aHMOOTHO~eHH yCTaHOBKy nepapx~ecKnx OTHOIIIeHlIlI BHyTplI ~IlI Me;y Orpa)K,D;eH~MH; ~aIOT B03MO*HOCTB *HBOTHEIM OCTaBaTBCH HUCTEIMU ~ CyX~MU (B COOTBeTCTBHU C HOTpe6HOCTSIMU ~aHHOrO BH~a); obecrIe~nsaIoT a~eKBaTHyIO BeHT~HIO; 06eCHeHUBaIOT ~BOTHEIM ~OCTyD K HH~e ~ Bo~e7 a TaK*e H03BO~HIOT ~erKO 3aTIOJIHSITB, MeH~TB, 06C~y~BaTB ~ HUCTHTB HOCy~y, r~e CO~ep~TCH KOpM Bo'~a; o6ecrIeHuBaIoT 6e3orIacHocTB ~BOTHOrO, T.e. ncK~IoHaIoT B03MO*HOCTB ero 6ercTBa. c~v~anHoro rIorIanaH~ (HenHKoM ~n KoHe~HocTHMH) B menn 7 ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~n 3acTpeBaH~ Me;K,D;y rIpoTHBorIo~o*HEIMn rIOBepXHOCTHMH; He lIMeIOT OCTpLIX KpaeB ~H BBICTyHOB, KOTOpLIe MOryT TpaBM~pOBaTB ~BoTHoe; '~aIoT B03MO*HOCTB Ha6~Io'~aTB 3a ~BOTHEIMn, rIpaKT~ecKH He BBI3BIBaH - ~ lIX JeCHOKOUCTBa. IlepBulIHEIe orpa*~eHH~ ,~OJI*HEI H3roTaBJInBaTBcH H3 MaTepHaJIOB, KOTOpLIe 6BI O~HHaKOBO y~OB~eTBOp~H KaK HOTpe6HOCTHM ~BOTHEIX, TaK Tpe6oBaHH~M rurneHEI ~ CaHuTapHH. OHU ,~O~*HEI HMeTB r~a'~Kne' HelIpOHlI~aeMBIe HOBepXHOCTH C M~HUMa~BHEIM KO~HHeCTBOM BBICTyHOB, H3rH60B, yr~OB ~ COUp~KaCaIO~UXCH HOBepXHOCTeH, HTO H03BO~eT yMeHB~HTB HaKOIIJIeHlIe rpSI3lI, MyCOpa lI BJIarlI lI 06eCTIelIlITB B03MO*HOCTB UX OHUCTKH 3HH~eK~. OHU ~O~*HEI 6BITB H3rOTOB~eHEI H3 HpO~HEIX MaTepHa~OB, He rIo~ aIo~nxcH KOppO3lIlI lI BBI~ep*HBaIO~UX rpy6BIe B03~eUCTBH~, He TpecKa5IcE' He ~oMa~cE ~ He p~aBeH. MeHee HpO~HEIU MaTepHa~' HaUpUMep ,~epeBO, MO*eT oKa3aTBcH 60~ee HO~XO~HM B HeKOTOpLIX CHTya~X (HpH CTpOlITe3IBCTBe s~Iry~a, CTO~a ~n Hapy*HOrO 3aroHa) ~ MO*eT HpUMeH~TBCH

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26 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL rIpu cTponTeJIBcTse HacecTos, coopy~eHnn ,~JI~ JIasaHn~, oT,~uxa, a TaK*e Sa60poB. ~epeB~HHMe Orpa~eH~ Hy~alOTCH B HepHO~eCKOH SaMeHe B Cry pa3pyIIIeHH~ lIJIlI 3aTpy~HeHH~ AX CaHUTapHOH 06pa60TKH. Bce reps He Orpa*~eHH~ ~O~*HM HO~ep*HBaTECH B XOpO~eM COCTOS[HHU, HTo6M Hpe~OTBpa~aTB 6erCTBO ~H TpaBM~pOBaHHe ~BOTH~X, CHOC06CTBOBaTB OX ~~HeCKOMy KOM~OpTy ~ operant fix CaHUTapHylO 06pa60TKy ~ odc~y*nsaHne. P*ase~omee H~n OK~C~eHHOe o60py,~osaHne, KOTOpOe yRpO*aeT 3~0pOBBlO H~H 6e30HaCHoCTH *HBOTH~X, PONCHO peMOHTlIpOBaTBCH ~H 3aMeH~TBCH HOB~M. HeKOTOpMe CHCTeMM CO~ep~aH~ ~BOTH~X HMeIOT CHe~Ha~BHMe ~eTKH ~ BeHTH~SI~HOHHOe 060py~0BaHHe, B TOM Cache K~eTKu c scTpoeHHuMn ~~BTpaM~, BeHTH~HpyeMMe K~eTK~, H30~HTOpM ~ He60~B~He 60KCM. B Venom, Ha3HaHeHHe TaKHX CHCTeM COCTOUT B CBe~eHHU ~0 M~HUMyMa paCHpOCTpaHeHUSI so36y,~nTe~en UH~eK~HOHH~X 3abo~esaHnn B03~y~H~M HyTeM Me)K,D;y K~eTKaMU ~H rpyHDaMU KOOK. OHM HaCTO Tpe6yIOT papyri MeTO~OB co~ep~aH~, HaUpUMep H3MeHeH~ HaCTOTEI CMeHEI HO~CT~O~HOrO MaTepHa~a, HpUMeHeH~ aCeUT~eCKHX MeTO~OB 06pa~eH~ C ~BOTHEIM~, a TaK*e CHeHUa~EHEIX De~MOB V60DKH. Be3HH~eKHHU ~H CTeD~3aHHU B~H lIpe~y~pe*~eHH~ HepeHoca HaToreHHoH M~KpO~OpLI ~pyrUMU (He B03~y~HEIM) HyTHMH. tpLI3yHOB HaCTO pa3Me~aIOT Ha Ho~y H3 HpOBO~O~HOH CeTK~, KOTOpaH 06~erHaeT C06~IO~eHHe CaHUTapHEIX HOpM, H03BO~ C06HpaTB MO~y ~ ~eKa~H B paCHO~O*eHHEIe H0~ HeH HO~OHEI. O~HaKO, H0 HeKOTOpLIM ~aHHEIM, ~H rpLI3yHOB Hpe~HOUTHTe~BHee OKa3BIBaIOTCH K~eTKH C TBep~BIM ~HOM ~ HO~CT~OM [Fullerton, Gilliatt, 1967; Grover-Johnson, Spencer, 1981; Ortman et al., 19831. B c~y 3Toro, ~JI~ rp~I3yHos peKoMeH~yIoTc~ K~eTKu c Tsep~IM ~HH~eM ~ HO~CT~OM. ~H co~ep~aH~ ~pyrux B~OB *HBOTHEIX, HaUpUMep C06aK lI lIplIMaTOB, IIaCTO lICTIOJIB3yIOTCH HO~BI C B~H~OBBIM HOKpLITHeM. 3ToT aCHeKT HpOrpaMMBI CO~ep~aHH~ ~BOTHEIX ~O~*eH paCCMaTpUBaTBCH IACUC C TOlI TOIIKlI 3peHlISI, IITO lIpaBlIJIBHO H0~0 JpaHHEIe K~eTKH ~O~*HEI crIocodcTsosaTB 6~arorIo~y~nIo ~BOTHEIX, C06~IO~eHUIO CaHUTapHEIX HOpM ~ yCTIeIIIHOMy BBIHO~HeHUIO 3KCHepUMeHTOB. Kpb~mb~e u~u uapy~cub~e cpedcmea d~ pas~eu~enu~ ~cueom~b~x KPLITEIe ~H Hapy*HEIe Cpe~CTBa ~H pa3Me~eH~ ~BOTHEIX, TaKHe KaK capan, 3arOHEI, HaCT6~a ~ H30~HpOBaHHEIe yHaCTK~, ~B~HIOTCH paCTIpOCTpaHeHHEIM THHOM HepBHUHOrO Orpa~eHH~ ~H HeKOTOpLIX BH~OB *lIBOTHEIX ~ OKa3BIBaIOTCH HpHeM~eMBIMU BO MHOrUX CHTya~X. B 60~HHCTBe c~y~aes TaKne Cpe~cTBa upe~no~ara~oT rpynnosoe co~ep~aHne ~IBOTHEIX. IIPTI CO~ep~aHHU *HBOTHEIX B 3aroHax' CTOn~aX ~ ~pyrux 60~Bm~X Orpa*~eHH~X Ha OTKpLITOM B03~yXe HeO6XO~HMO Hp~H~TB MepLI Ipe~OCTOpO*HOCTH ~ ~X 3a~HTEI OT pe3KHx Hepena~oB TeMnepaTypLI ~ ~pyrux CypOBBIX rIoro'~HEIx yC~OBHn, a TaK*e '~H OXpaHEI ~ rIpe'~yrIpe~eH~ 6ercTsa CMlIpHEIX *HBOTHEIX. 3TH 3a~aHn MO*HO pe~HTB HyTeM CTpOUTe~BCTBa 3aILllITHEIX HaBeCOB, yKpLITHU, 3aTeHeHHEIX y~aCTKOB, yHaCTKOB C HpUTO~HOH BeHTlIJISI~HeH, CHCTeM H0 OTBO~y Te~a ~H y6e*~ C KOHTpO~HpyeMBIMU IapaMeTpaMlI Cpe~BI, HaUpUMep, BHyTpeHHUX CeK~H 3arOHOB. YKPLITH ~O~*HEI 6BITB ~OCTy0HEIMU ~H BCeX *HBOTHEIX, HMeTB ~OCTaTO~HyIO BeHTlIJISI~HIO ~ HOCTpOeHEI TaK~M 06pa30M, HT06BI He ~ODyCKaTB HaKO~eH~

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YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 27 60~B~UX KO~eCTB OTXO~OB ~ H36MTo~HoH Board. ~OM~K~, BO~Bep~, 60KCM, cheats, HacecTu ~,~pyrne lIpUCTIOC06~eHH~,~O~*HM CTpOUTBCH TaK~M 06pa30M ~ Ha TaKHX MaTepHa~OB, KOTOpMe 6M H03BO~q~H SIX 06pa60TKy ~H 3aMeHy B COOTBeTCTBHU C 06~eUp~HSIT~MU HOpMaM~, Korea OHM OKa3MBaIOTCH C3IlIIIIKOM 3arpSI3HeHHEIMU ~H H3HO~eHHEIMH. IIO~BI H~H H~O~a~KH COOpy~eHHU Ha OTKpLITOM B03~yXe MOryT 6BITB HOKpLITEI 3eM~eH, a6COp6HpyIO~HM HO~CT~O~HEIM MaTepHa~OM, HeCKOM, rpaBlIeM, TpaBOlI lIJIlI lI0~06HEIM MaTepHa~OM, KOTOpLIU MO*HO y6HpaTB ~H 3aMeHSITB Ho Mepe HeO6XO~HMOCTH ~~H C06~IO~eHH~ COOTBeTCTByIO~UX CaHUTapHEIX HOpM. H eO6XO~HM0 H36eraTB Hpe3MepHOrO CKO~eH~ HpO~yKTOB *lI3He~e~Te~BHOCTH *HBOTHEIX ~H CTOHHeH BONSAI HyTeM ~CHO~B30BaHH~, HarIpuMep, KOHTypHEIX tin ,~peHupOBaHHEIX rIOBepXHOCTen. ,~pyrne HOBepXHOCTH ~O~*HEI 06~a~aTB CHOC06HOCTBIO BBI~ep*HBaTB B03~eUCTBUe IplIpO~HEIX yC~OBHU ~ 6BITB y~O6HEIMU HpH y60pKe. t,ICHO~B30BaHHe COOpy~eHHU Ha OTKpLITOM B03~yXe HAM 06pa30M OCHOBBIBaeTCH Ha co6~Io'~eHHn c~e'~yIo~nx rIpas~: . ,~OCTaTOIIHEIn rIepHo'~ aKK~HMaTH3aLlHn Rio ce3oHHEIx H3MeHeHHn, Korea ~IBOTHEIe BUepBBIe OKa3BIBaIOTCH B Orpa~eH~X Ha OTKpLITOM B03~yXe. IlpUBBIKaHHe *HBOTHEIX K BeTep~Hapy ~ aKCHepUMeHTaTOpy (H UX COTpy~H~KaM) ~ rIpHy~eHHe K rIOKaTEIM HaCT~aM, ~nKCHpyIo~HM ~n TpaHCTIOpTHEIM ~eTKaM. co~Ha~BHaH cpe~a, cooTBeTcTByIo~aH ~aHHOMy BH~y *HBOTHEIX. rpyrIrIoBoe co ~ep~aHHe COBMeCTHMBIX ~BOTHEIX. . - cooTBeTcTByIo~aH oxpaHa rIyTeM COOpy~eHH~ H3ropo~n ~n ~pyrnMn Cpe~CTBaMH. Yc~offu~ codep~canu~ ~cueom~b~x, 6~us~cue ~c ecmecmeeunbm TaKne 30HEI, KaK rIacT6~a ~ H3o~HpoBaHHEIe y~aCTKH ~aIoT B03MO*HOCTB o6ecrIelInTB rIo'~xo'~He yCJIOB~ ~R co~ep~aH~ ~n pa3Be~eH~ ~BOTHEIX, a TaK*e'~H HeKOTOpLIX B~OB nCC~e~OBaHHH. IIx ncrIo~B3oBaHHe rIpuBo'~nT K yTpaTe ~o HeKOTOpOn CTerIeHn B03MO*HOCTH KoHTpo~HpoBaTB rInTaHHe' COCTOS[HHe 3~0pOBBSI lI IIlICTOTy lIOpO~BI HpH pa3Be~eHHn *HBOTHEIX ~ Ha6JIIO~aTB 3a HUMH. 3TH He~OCTaTKH ypaBHOBe~HBaIOTCH HpeHMy~eCTBaMU CO~ep~aHH~ *HBOTHEIX B yC~OBH~X, 6~3KHX K eCTeCTBeHHEIM. B TaKHX yC3IOB~X ~IBOTHEIX C~e~yeT BBO~HTB, y~a~HTB ~ B03Bpa~aTB B CO~Ha~BHEIe rpylITIBI, y~HTEIBaH B03MO*HOe B~HHHe BTUX MaHHUy~H KaK Ha OT~e~BHEIX ~BOTHEIX, TaK ~ Ha rpynny B ~e~OM. ~pH 3TOM HeO6XO~HM0 06eCHeHUBaTB ~IBOTHEIX~OCTaTO~HEIM KO~eCTBOM KOpMOB, CBe~eH BO~BI ~ eCTeCTBeHHEIMU n CTIeLlHa~BHO lIOCTpOeHHEIMU yKpLIT~MH. PeKOMeH~yeMbIe pa3MepbI COOpy~eHMM IIOTpe6HOCTlI *lIBOTHEIX B 3aHUMaeMOM HpOCTpaHCTBe OUpe~e~HIOTCH pa3HEIMU ~aKTOpaMH; HpH 3TOM y~eT TO~BKO MaCCEI ~H ~O~a~H HOBepXHOCTH Te~a *HBOTHOrO SIB~SIeTCSI He~OCTaTO~HEIM. ~O8TOMy HpUBO~HMBIe HH*e peKOMeH~a~H OCHOBBIBaIOTCH Ha HpO~eCCHOHa~BHOM MHeHHU ~ OHEITe ~ ~O~*HEI paCCMaTpUBaTBCH KaK peKOMeH~a~H H0 OUTHMa~BHEIM pa3MepaM K~eTOK ~H *HBOTHEIX B yC~OBH~X, 06BI~HO C03~aBaeMBIX B BUBapH~X. OHeBH~HO, HTO BBICOTa HOMe~eH~, CTpyKTypHaH OpraHH3a~H HpOCTpaHCTBa lI CTIOC06BI 060ra~eH~ Cpe~BI 06HTaH~ MOryT OKa3aTB B~HHe Ha TO, KaK~M

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28 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ 06pa30M BOTHER ~CHO~B3yIOT OTBe~eHHOe HM HpOCTpaHCTBO. ~ HeKOTOp~X BLOB *HBOTH~X Knee 6~aronpu~THuM ~s~eTc~ Hare neperopo~oK (HaTIplIMep, rpLI3yHLI, ~~H KOTOp~X XapaKTepeH THrMOTaKCHC), yKp~THU (HaTIplIMep, HeKOTOpLIe lIplIMaTLI HOBOrO CBeTa) lIJIlI CJIO*HOlI CTpyKTypLI K]IeTOK (HaTIplIMep, KOIIIKlI ~ IIIUMrIaH3e), a He rIpocToe yse~eHne Domain [Anzaldo et al., 1994; Stricklin, 1995~. TaK~M o6pa3oM, peKoMeH~aunn rho pa3MepaM K~eToK, ocHosaHH~Ie ~nIIIB Ha Domain, SIB~RIOTCH He~OCTaTO~HEIMH. B ATOM OTHO~eHHU ~aHHOe ~KOffO0CmffO MO*eT OT~HaTBCH OT AWRs (CM. IplIM. 1, CTp. 2~. BBI~e~HeMOe ~H *HBOTHEIX HpOCTpaHCTBO HO~e*HT HpOBepK MO~HKa~H H0 Mepe HeO6XO~HMOCTH C y~eTOM KOHKpeTHEIX CHTya~H lIOTpe6HOCTelI *lIBOTHEIX (HaUpUMep, B c~y~ae upe- ~ nocTHaTa~BHoro yxo~a, O*lIpeHlISI *lIBOTHEIX ~ rpyHHOBOrO H~H UH~HBH~ya~BHOrO CO~ep~aHHH). . . aKlIe lIOKa3aTe3IlI COCTOS[H~ ~IBOTHEIX, KaK 3~0pOBBe, pa3MHO*eHHe, pOCT, lIoBe~eHHe' aKTHBHOCTE ~ ~cH0~30BaHHe 3aHUMaeMoro HMU HpOCTpaHCTBa MOryT ~CHO~B30BaTBCH ~H O~eHKH COOTBeTCTBH~ UX pa3MemeHn~. KaK M~HUMyM, ~BOTHOe ~O~*HO HMeTB ~OCTaTO~HO MeCTa, HT06BI HOBOpaHUBaTBCH ~ Hp~HUMaTB HOpMa~BHEIe H03BI, HMeTB CB060~HEIU ~OCTyD K KOpMy~KaM ~ rIo~KaM, a TaK*e ~OCTaTO~HOe CB060~HOe ~H HOKpLITOe HUCTEIM HO~CT~OM rIpocTpaHcTso' r~e OHO MO*eT y~o6Ho paCHO~O*HTBCH ~ OT~BIXaTB. B ~eTKe H KO~eK HeO6XO~HMO yCTaHOBUTB HpHHO~H~TyIO Ha~ HO~OM ~aT~OpMy ~H OT~BIXa. TaKne ~aT~OpMBI ~n BBICTyHEI HaCTO ~e~aTe~BHO yCTpaUBaTB ~H C06aK ~ HpUMaTOB. Il~aT~OpMy ~H OT~BIXa, HpHHO~H~TyIO Ha~ HO~OM HaCTO~BKO, HTO *HBOTHOe He MO*eT 3aH~TB H0~ HeH y~O6HyI0 H03y, C~e~yeT cHuTaTB HacTBIo rIoBepxHocTH rIo~a. IlpocTpaHcTBo, 3aHuMaeMoe KOpMy~KaMn, ~ - lIOlIJIKaMlI, yCTpOlICTBaMlI ~H Tya~eTa H~n ~pyrUMU upucuoco )~eHH~M~, KOTOpLIe He Hpe~Ha3HaHeHEI ~H Hepe~BH*eHH~ H~H OT~BIXa, He ~O~*HO BXO~HTB B ~o~a~B no~a. IIOTpe6HOCTB B pa3MepaX HepBHUHEIX Orpa*~eHHU ~ THU HOUpaBOK, peKOMeH~OBaHHEIX B HpUBO~HMBIX H~e Ta6~aX, ~O~*HEI yTBep~aTBCH Ha yposHe IACUC yqpe*~eHn~ ~ ocHos~IsaTBc~ Ha rIoKa3aTe~x ~3He~e~Te~BHOCTH *HBOTHEIX, OHUCaHHEIX B Hpe~y~eM a63aue c yqeToM AWRs ~ PHS Policy (CM. HpUM. 1~. IlpH 3TOM MO*eT HOTpe60BaTBCH KOHCy]IBTa~ CHeUHa~HCTOB, n3yqeHne ~HTepaTypHEIX ~aHHEIX ~ COBpeMeHHOH rIpaKT~K~, a TaK*e yqeT ~3nqecKnx' rIose~eHqecKnx ~ COL~naJI~H~IX Hy;KD; *HBOTHEIX B COqeTaHHU C XapaKTepOM ~ Tpe60BaHH~MU HpOTOKO~a 3KcrIepuMeHTa [Crockett et al., 1993, 1995~. O~eHKa HOTpe6HOCTeH *HBOTHEIX B 3aHUMaeMOM HpOCTpaHCTBe ~O~*Ha OCy~eCTB~TBCH HOCTO~HHO. C TeqeHHeM BpeMeHlI lIJIlI B xo~e ~nTe~BH~Ix 3KcrIepuMeHTos c~e~yeT rIo~yMaTB 0 Lle~ecoo Jpa3HocTn n3MeHeHnn ~oma~n ~n BBICOTEI HoMe~eHH~ ~, B c~yqAe Heo6Xo~HMocTH' OCy~eCTBUTB ux. 3a~aqu ~ o6~eM HacToH~ero py~coffo~cmffa He rIo3Bo~IoT o6cy;KD;aTE rIoTpe6HocTH BCeX ncrIo~B3yeMBIx B nCC~e~OBaHH~X BH~OB *HBOTHEIX. '~H BH~OB, He yrIOM~HyTEIX 3~ecB' B KaqeCTBe OTrIpaBHOn TOqKH MO*HO ncrIoJIB3oBaTB peKOMeH~aLlHn rIO ~o~a~n ~ BBICOTe ~JI~ ~BOTHOrO CXO~HOrO pa3Mepa c aHa3IOrlIqHEIM XapaKTepOM aKTHBHOCTH ~ HOBe~eHH~ ~ yTOqHUTB UX C yqeTOM OT~Hq~Te~BHEIX ocobeHHocTen, upucy~nx ~aHHOMy B~y ~n ~aHHOH oco6~. TaM' r~e 3TO B03MO*HO, co~Ha~BHEIx *HBOTHEIX c~e~yeT pa3Me~aTB rIapaMn H~n rpyrIrIaMH' a He nH~HBH~ya~BHo, rIpH yC~OBHn, qTO TaKOe

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YC~OB~ CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 29 pa3MemeHne He lIpOTlIBOpelIlIT lIpOTOKO3Iy ~aHHOrO ~CC~e~OBaHH~ ~ He SIB3ISIeTCSI lIplIIIlIHOlI HeOlIpaB~aHHOrO pUCKa ~~H 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIX *HBOTH~X [Brain, Bention 1979~. B SaBUCHMOCTH OT CaM~X pa3H~X 6no~orn~ecKnx ~ HOBe~eHHeCKHX ~aKTOpOB HpH rpyHHOBOM pasMemeHnn ~BOTH~X,D~SI WHOM oco6n Monet noTpebosaTBc~ 60~Bme ~n MeHBme MecTa, HeM HpH UH~HBH~ya~BHOM CO~ep~aHHU *HBOTH~X. ~pUBO~HMMe HH*e peKOMeH~a~H OCHOBBIBalOTCH Ha TOM ~ODy~eHHU, HTO HapHOe ~H rpyHHOBOe co,~ep~aHne 06~Ho r~pe,~r~o~TuTe~Hee nH,~nsn,~ya~Horo, ,~a~e ec~n Ha Ka;KD;oro ~eHa rIapu ~n rpyr~rIm 6y~eT rIp~XO,~HTECH HeMHOrO MeHE~e MeCTa H0 CpaBHeHUIO C UH~HB~ya~BH~M co~ep~aHneM. HanpuMep, ~BOTHMe MOryT ~e~HTB OTBe~eHHOe HM HpOCTpaHCTBO C ~pyrUMU oCo6HMH. ~o~ee Toro7 HeKOTOpLIe rpLI3yHEI ~H CB~HB~, co~ep~a~HecH B COBMeCTHMBIX rpynnax, pa3BIcK~BaIoT ~pyr ~pyra ~ ~e~RT rIpOCTpaHCTBO BHyTpH K~eTK~, rIp~HMa~cB ~pyr K ~pyLy B~O~B CTeHOK, y~a~BIBa~CB ~pyr Ha ~pyra B HepHO~BI OT~BIXa ~H co6Hpa~cB BMeCTe B ye~HHeHHOM MeCTe [White, 1990; White et al., 1989~. . ~.r ~ ~ . ~pylIHEIU pOraTEIU CKOT, OB~BI ~ K03BI HpO~B~HIOT CTa~HOe HOBe~eHHe, CTpeMSICB K o6pa3oBaHnIo rpynnOBBIX acco~Ha~n ~ TeCHOMy ~3~HeCKOMy KOHTaKTy. I,I Hao6opoT' HeKOTOpLIe ~BOTHEIe, HaUpUMep pa3~HEIe BH~BI lIplIMaTOB, Hy0;aIOTCH B ~OHO~HUTe~BHOM UH~HB~ya~BHOM HpOCTpaHCTBe HpH rpylITIOBOM pa3MemeHnn ~H yMeHB~eHH~ arpeCCHBHOCTH. BBICOTa OrPa)K,D;eHHU MO*eT HMeTB Ba*HOe 3HaHeHHe ,~H HOPMa~BHOrO HOBe~eH~ ~ HOCTypa~BHOrO HpUCHOC06~eHH~ HeKOTOpLIX B~OB *HBOTHEIX. IlpH paCHeTe BBICOTEI ~eTOK Hy*HO Hp~HUMaTB BO BHUMaHHe THH~HEIe H03BI *HBOTHOrO ~ ~OCTaTO~HOe MeCTO ~H 06~3aTe~BHEIX 8~eMeHTOB K~eTK~, HaTIplIMep KOpMyIIIeK, lIOlIJIOK, BaHH C BO~OH. ~pUMaTEI HeKOTOpLIX BH~OB lICTIOJIB3yIOT BepT~Ka~BHEIe HpOCTpaHCTBa ~eTKH B 6o~Bmen CTeneHn, HeM ee lIoJI. ~1IH ux xopoIIIero CaMOIIyBCTBlISI Ba*HO lIpe~OCTaB~HTB HM B03MO*HOCTB BBICOKO B36HpaTBCH Ha BeTKy ~ ~CHO~B30BaTB BepT~Ka~BHOe HpOCTpaHCTBO ~OCTaTO~HOe ~H pa3Me~eH~ BCerO Te~a Ha~ HO~OM ~eTKH. OUpe~e~eHHe pa3MepOB K~eTOK ~H pa3Me~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX ~O~*HO OCHOBBIBaTBCH Ha HpUBO~HMBIX B 3TOM pa3~e~e Ta6~aX; O~HaKO, C 0~06peH~ IACUC, UX MO*HO H3MeHSITB B CTOpOHy yBe~eH~ ~H yMeHB~eH~ C y~eTOM IplIBe~eHHEIX BBI~e KpUTepHeB. B Ta6~. 2.1 lIpUBO,~HTCH peKOMeH~yeMBIe pa3MepLI ~eTOK ~H rpyHHOBOrO CO~ep~aHH~ 06BI~HO ~CHO~B3yeMBIX B ~a60paTOpHEIX ~KCHepUMeHTaX rpLI3yHOB. upH UH~HBH~ya~BHOM co~ep~aHnn H~n HpH ~CHO~B30BaHHU *lIBOTHEIX C MaCCOH Te~a, HpeBBI~aIO~eH yKa3aHHyIO B Ta6~., MO*eT HoTpe6oBaTBcH 6o~Bmee HpOCTpaHCTBO. B Ta6~. 2.2 rIpuBo'~HTcH peKOMeH~yeMBIe pa3MepLI K~eToK'~pyrux 06BI~HO ncrIo~B3yeMBIx B ~a6opaTopHEIx aKcrIepuMeHTax *HBOTHEIX. 3TH ~aHHEIe, B o6~eM, OCHOBaHEI Ha rIoTpe6HocT~x *HBOTHEIX rIpH nH~HB~ya~BHoM co~ep~aHHH. pa3MepLI K~eTOK MOryT 6BITB rIepecMoTpeHEI rIpH Heo6xo~HMocTH o6ora~eH~ Cpe~BI o6nTaH~ ~n co~ep~aH~ ~BOTHEIX C MaCCOn, rIpeBBIIIIaIo~en yKa3aHHyIo B Ta6JI. IlpH rpyrIrIOBOM co~ep~aHHn ~BOTHEIX ~o~a~B o6~ero rIpocTpaHcTBa He ~B~HeTCH o6~3aTe~BHo CyMMOn Be~nH, peKOMeH~yeMBIX ~R nH~HB~ya~BHoro co~ep~aH~ ~BOTHEIX. IlpH rpyrIrIOBOM co~ep~aHHn *HBOTHEIX paCIIeTEI ~O~*HEI ocHoBBIBaTBcH Ha lIOTpe6HOCTSIX ~ lIOBe~eHIIeCKHX XapaKTepUCT~KaX ~BOTHEIX ~aHHOrO BH~a, cosMecTuMocTn ocoben, KO~HeCTBe *HBOTHEIX, a TaK*e 3a~aHax, KoTopLIe CTaBSITCSI lIplI lIX pa3MemeHnn.

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30 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP2KAHlIlO BBC77O!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHIlX^BOTHIlX Ta6JInua 2. 1 PeKoMeH,~yeMme pasMepu K]IeTOK ~~H rpynnosoro co~ep~aH~ to ~CIlO~B3yeM~x ~abopaTopHux rpM3yHOB BOTHER Macca, r IlRo~a,~b no~aHao,~Ho ~BOTHOe, GROOM 2 a BucoTa 6' , Moron < 10 6 Mold 8 to 25 12 >258 > 15 Kpucm < 100 17 to 200 23 to 300 29 to 400 40 to 500 60 >5008 >70 XOM~KH < 60 10 ~o80 13 to 100 16 >lOOz >19 MopcKne CB~HKH < 350 60 > 3508 > 101 ,]~H IIepeBO,~a KBa,~paTHuX ,~IOnMOB B KBa,~paTHMe CaHTHMeTpM yMHO*nTb opuse~eHHoe aHa~eHne Ha 6,45. OT no~a,~o nOTO~Ka K~eTKn. ']~H HepeBo,~a ,~IOnMOB B CaHTHMeTpM yMHO~Tb HpUBe,0;eHHOe SHaHeHHe Ha 2,54. B c~yHae tree Kpy~HuX oco6en MO*eT noHa,~o6nTbcH 6o~bmee HpOCTpaHCTBO ,=H y,~OB~eTBOpeH~q OIInCaHHbIM B TeKCTe KpuTep~qM. PeKOMeH,D;yeMMe pa3MepLI K~eTOK,D;~SI KpO~HKOB' KO~eK Co6aK~ lIplIMaTOB lI WITTILY Ta6JInua 2.2 ~K~soTHme Macca,r Il~orua~bno~a BucoTa I, Ha O,0;HO ~IBOTHOe, (AT 2 6 ,0;IOlIM Z KPO~HKH < 2 1,5 14 to 4 3,0 14 to 5,4 4,0 14 >5,40 >5,0 14 Kor~Ku < 4 3,0 24 >40 >4,0 24 CobaKne < 15 8,0 - ~o 30 12,0 - > 30 ~ > 24,0 -

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YC:11OBE! CO~EP2KAH~IBOTHLIX Ta6~na 2.2 (rIpo,~o~*eHHe) 31 IBOTHbIe Macca, r IlRoma,~b nova BucoTa ~' Ha WHO ~K~BOTHOe, YET 26 ~IOHM Z 06e3b~HM (BK3IlOHaH HaBHaHOB)~, 3: 1 OC06b to 1 1,6 20 2 oco6n to 3 3,0 30 3 oco6n to 10 4,3 30 4 oco6n to 15 6,0 32 5 oco6en to 25 8,0 36 6 oco6en to 30 10,0 46 7 oco6en > 30 ~ 15,0 46 Ie~oseKoo6pa~Hme 06e3b~HM (Pongidae)3: 1 OC06b to 20 10,0 55 2 oco6n to 35 15,0 60 3 oco6n > 35 U 25,0 84 to~y6n ~ - 0,8 - ilepene~a~ - 0,25 - KYPM ~ <0,25 0,25 - ~O 0,5 0,50 - ~O 1,5 1,00 - ~O 3,0 2,00 - >3,00 >3,00 - ]~H HePeBO~a K~OrPaMMOB B ~YHTM YMHO~K~Tb HPUBe~eHHOe SHaHeHHe Ha 2,2. ]~H HePeBO~a KBa~PaTHbIX ~YTOB B KBa~PaTHbIe MeTPbI YMHO~KUTb HPUBe~eHHOe ate Ha 0,09. OT no~a,~o nOTO~Ka K~eTKn. ~ ]~H HePeBO~a ~IOHMOB B CaHTHMeTPbI YMHO~K~Tb HPUBe~eHHOe SHaHeHHe Ha 2,54. B c~yHae thee Kpy~HbIX oco6en MO*eT noHa,~o6nTbcH 6o~bmee HpOCTpaHCTBO ,=H Y,~OB~eTBOPeH~H OHUCaHHbIM B TeKCTe KPUTeP~HM. ]~H BbIHO~HeHHR ~aHHbIX peKOMeH~a~H MOryT HOHa~06HTbCH HeKOTOpbIe MO,~nKa~n, COOTBeTCTBylO~He ~OpMe Te~a OT,~e~bHbIX oco6en ~ nopo,~. ~]~H HeKOTOpbIX co6aK' oco6eHHo ,~H oco6en, IIpH6~3KalO~nXCH K BepXHen rpaHuLle ~ ~ - HOpMbI B Ka~OlI BeCOBOlI KaTerOplIlI, MO)KeT HOHa~O HTbCH JO~b~e MeCTa, B cooTBeTcTBHn C 3aKoHoM O 6~arococToRHHn ~K~BOTHbIX (Animal Wefare Act). 3ToT SaKOH [CFR, 1985] Tpe6yeT' HT06bI BbICOTa K~eTOK HO3BO1~a ~K~BOTHOMy CTORTb B >' a M~HuMa~bHaH II~O~a,~b IIOBepXHOCTH IIo~a B ~yTax paBHR~aCb <. Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Cercopithesidae ~ Papio. BbICOTa K~eTOK ~SI HaBHaHOB MO)KeT 6bITb 6o~bIIIe' HeM,~,~pyrux o6eab~H. ']~H HeKoTopbIx pO,~OB (HaIIpuMep' Brachyteles, Hylobates, Symphalangus, Pongo ~ Pan) BbICOTa K]IeTOK ,~O]I)KHa nOBBO~HTb 06eSb~He' BbITHHyBmUCb BO BeCb pOCT, paCKalIlIBaTbC,[, y~eHUB~HCb 3a HOTO~OK, He KaCaRCb 3a~HUMU KOHe~HOCTHMU Ho~a; IIplI 3TOM KOHCTpyK~ HOTO~Ka ~O~KHa Hpe~OCTaB~HTb ~K~BOTHbIM B03MO)KHOCTb IIepe,~BUraTbCH KaK IIO BeTKaM. BbIC~UX 06e3b~H MaCCOH 60~ee 50 Kr ~yHme CO~ep)KaTb B HOMe~eH~X H3 KUpH~a, 6eTOHa lI IIpOBO]IOIIHbIX Orpa~eHlI,[X, a He B 06bIIIHbIX K]IeTKaX. BbICOTa K~eTKH ~O~KHa 6bITb ~OCTaTO~HOH ~ TOrO, HT06bI ~BOTHOe MOr~O 3aH~Tb BepTlIKa]IbHylO H03y, CTOH Ha Ho~y.

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32 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ B Tabs. 2.3 HpUBO~HTCH peKOMeH~yeMMe pa3MepM HOMe~eHHU ~~H Ce~BCKOXO3~HCTBeHH~X ~BOTH~X, 06~HHo ~CHO~B3yeM~X B ~a60paTOpH~X aKcr~epuMeHTax. Echo Macca *HBOTH~X HpH UH~HBH~ya~BHOM ~H rpyHHOBOM CO~ep~aHHU HpeBM~aeT yKaSaHHylO B Tabs., TO ~~H HEX MO*eT HOTpe60BaTBCH 6o~Bmee r~pocTpaHcTso. Ilpu rpyr~r~osoM co,~ep~aHnn Heo6xo,~uMo obecr~e~nTB y~o6HMU dactyl K KOpMy~KaM ~ HO~KaM [Larson, Hegg 1976; Midwest Plan Service, 1987~. TeMuepaTypa ~ B~aiKHOCTb Ilo~ ep~aHHe TeMUepaTypM Te~a B upe~e~ax HOpMM ~B~HeTcH o6~3aTe~BHuM yc~oBueM '~H Te~oKpoBHux *HBOTHuX. B o6meM, MO*HO yTBep - ;aTB, HTO CO~ep~aHHe Hea~aUTHpOBaHHEIX *HBOTHEIX HpH TeMnepaType cs~Ime 85 F (29,4 C) ~n Hn~e 40 F (4,4 C) B oTcyTcTBue yKpLIT~ ~n ,~pyrux 3a~HTHEIX HpUCHOCO6~eHHU MO*eT HpUBeCTH K K~HHHHeCK~M rIoc~e~cTsu~M [Gordon, 1990] c yrpo30n '~H *~3HH. *HBOTHEIe MOryT a~aUTHpOBaTBCH K 3KCTpeMa~BHEIM TeMUepaTypaM HOCpe~CTBOM lIOBe~eHHeCKHX, ~3~0~0r~ecKnx ~ MOp~O~Or~eCKHX MeXaHH3MOB, O~HaKO TaKaH a,~arITaun~ TpebyeT BpeMeHU ~ MO*eT H3MeHUTB pe3y~BTaTEI aKCr~epuMeHTa ~n KaK~M-TO ~pyrnM o6pa3oM OTpa3nT~C~ Ha HeM [Garrard et al., 1974; Gordon, 1993; Pennycuik, 19671. , ~ ~ . . eMrIepaTypa ~ OTHOCIITe3IBHaH B~a*HOCTB OKpy~aIO~eH Cpe~BI MOryT 3aBlICeTB OT KOHCTpyK~HH HOMe~eHH~ ~ yC~OBHU pa3Me~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX; IplIIIeM OHlI MOryT CyILleCTBeHHO OT3IlIIIaTBCH B HepBHUHOM ~ BTOpHUHOM orpa*~eHH~x. K ~aKTOpaM, KOTOpLIe MOryT CHOC06CTBOBaTB KO~e6aHH~M TeMlIepaTypLI ~ B~a*HOCTH, OTHOCHTCH KOHCTpyK~ ~ MaTepHa~BI, H3 KOTOpLIX lI3rOTOB3IeHEI orpa~eH~, ncuo~B30saHne ~BTpa c Ha~CTaBKOH, KO~eCTBO *lIBOTHEIX B K~eTKe, HpUTO~HaH BeHT~H Orpa~eHH~, HaCTOTa CMeHEI rIo~cT~olIHoro MaTepua~a ~ ero cocTas. B HeKoTop~Ix cuTyaun~x, HarIpuMep rIpu rIoc~eorIepaunoHHoM BOCCTaHOB3IeHlIlI *lIBOTHOrO, CO~ep~aHHU ~BI~HT B TeHeHHe HepBBIX ~HeH rIoc~e BBIXO~a H3 ~ua, co~ep~aHnn HeKoTop~Ix rp~I3yHos, ~meHH~Ix so~oc~Horo rIoKposa, ~ Hosopo;Kn;eHH~Ix ocoben OT~e~BHO OT MaTepH, MO*eT rIoTpe6osaTBcH rIo~ep~aHne 6oJIee BBICOKOH TeMUepaTypLI. ~HaHa30H IOBBI~eHH~ TeMUepaTypLI 3aBUCHT OT yC~OBHU CO~ep~aHHH; UHOr~a OKa3BIBaeTCH ~OCTaTO~HEIM HOBBICHTB TeMUepaTypy TO~BKO B HepBHUHOM Orpa - ;eHlIlI (lI He lIOBBI~aTB TeMUepaTypy BO BTOpHUHOM Orpa~eHHH). 3a OTCyTCTBueM CTpOrO KOHTpO~HpyeMBIX nCC~e,~OBaHHn peKOMeH,~yeMBIe rIoKa3aH~ cyxoro TepMoMeTpa'~H HeKOTOpLIX Han6o~ee HaCTO ncrIo~B3yeMBIx BlI~OB *HBOTHEIX OCHOBaHEI Ha HpO+eCCHOHa~BHOM MHeHHU ~ OHEITe crIeuna~ncTos (Ta6~. 2.4~. Ilpu co~ep~aHnn *HBOTHEIX B 3aMKHyTOM HpOCTpaHCTBe ~HaHa30H CyTO~HEIX KO~e6aHHU TeMUepaTypLI ~O~*eH 6BITB CBe~eH ~0 M~HUMyMa C TeM, HT06BI H36e~aTB MHOrOKpaTHEIX B03~eUCTBHU Ha MeTa60JIlI3M lI lIOBe~eHHe *HBOTHEIX, H3MeH~IO~UXCH ~H KOMUeHCa~H C~BUrOB TeMUepaTypLI OKpy~aIO~eH Cpe~BI. YpOBeHB OTHOCHTe~BHOH B~a*HOCTH TaK*e ~O~eH KOHTpO~HpOBaTBCH, HO B 60~ee ~HpOKOM ~HaHa30He, IeM TeMrIepaTypa; lIplIeMJIeMBIU ~nana30H Ko~eGaHnn OTHOCHTe~BHOH s~a*HocTn cocTas~eT 30 - 70~. 3HaHeH~ TeMUepaTypLI, yKa3aHHEIe B Ta6~. 2.4, He Bcer'~a rIpHeM~eMBI ,~H co'~ep~aH~ B HeBO~e ~HKHX *HBOTHEIX, ~HKHX *HBOTHEIX, 06HTaIO~UX B eCTeCTBeHHOH cpe~e, n~n ~ *HBOTHEIX, HaXO~UXCH B Orpa*~eHH~X Ha OTKpLITOM Bo3~yxe7 r~e OHU HMeIOT

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YC:11OBE! CO~EP2KAH~IBOTHLIX 33 Ta6JInua 2.3 PeKoMeH,~yeMme pa3Mepu orpa;K,D;eHnn WIN 06MlIHO ~CrIOJIB3yeM~X Ce~BCKOXO3~HCTBeHHLIX ~~dBOTHLIX KO~-BO ~BOTHbIX B OrPa~eHHU Macca, Kr a IIJIOILIa,0;b IIOBepXHOCTlI Ha O~HO~BOTHOe, ~yT26 OBUM ~ KOOK: 2-5 >5 CB~HbH: 2-5 >5 KPYIIHMU POraTMU CKOT: 2-5 >5 <25 HO 50 > 50 <25 HO 50 > 50 <25 HO 50 > 50 < 15 HO 25 HO 50 HO 100 HO 200 > 200 <25 HO 50 HO 100 HO 200 > 200 <25 HO 50 HO 100 HO 200 > 200 <75 HO 200 HO 350 HO 500 HO 650 > 650 <75 HO 200 HO 350 HO 500 HO 650 > 650 <75 HO 200 HO 350 HO 500 HO 650 > 650 0,0 15,0 20,0 8,5 2,5 7,0 7,5 ,3 5,0 8,0 2,0 15,0 24,0 48,0 >60,0 6,0 10,0 20,0 40,0 >52,0 6,0 9,0 18,0 36,0 >48,0 24,0 48,0 72,0 96,0 24,0 44,0 20,0 40,0 60,0 80,0 05,0 20,0 18,0 36,0 54,0 72,0 93,0 _ 108,0

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50 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL B crIeuna~BHo oTBe~eHHux MecTax no BCeH TeppUTOpHU BUBap~ ~O~*HM 6MTB paCCTaB~eHM HpaBH~BHO MapKUpOBaHHMe KOHTe~HepM ~~H c60pa OTXO~OB. KOHTe~HepM ~O~*HM 6MTB repMeTHUH~MU ~ CHa6*eHM H~OTHO HO~OrHaHH~MU KpM~KaMH. PeKOMeH~yeTCH ~CHO~B3OBaTB O~HOpa3OBMe BCTaB3ISIeMBIe BHyTpB HaKeTEI ~ pery~HpHO MBITB eMKOCTH ~~H MyCOp ~OHO~HUTe~BHEIU UHBeHTapB. Ha TeppUTOpHU ~O~*Ha 6BITB CHe~Ha~BHO BEl,D;e3IeHHaH IIJIOILla~Ka ~H XpaHeH~ OTXO~OB, r~e c~e~yeT upuMeH~TB MepLI 60pB6BI C HaCeKOMBIMU ~ ~pyrUMU Bpe~HTe~MH. Ec~n ~o yH~TO*eH~ OTXO~BI ~O~*HEI XpaHUTBCH HpH HH3KHX TeMUepaTypaX, TO ~H 3TOrO Hy*HO BE~e~HTB CTIe~Ha~BHEIU XO~O~BH~K, MOpO3~BH~K H~H XO~O~HyIO KOMHaTy C COOTBeTCTByIO~eH MapKUpOBKOH. OHaCHEIe OTXO~BI ~O~*HEI 06~3aTe~BHo HO~BepraTBCH Hpe~BapUTe~BHOH 06pa60TKe HyTeM CTep~3a~H, y~a~KH UX B ~OHO~HUTe~BHyIO 3a~HTHyIO Tapy ~n rIpuMeHeHH~ ,~pyrux crIoco6oB 6e3orIacHoro BBIBo3a C TeppuTOpHn [US EPA, 1986~. Pa~HOaKTHBHEIe OTXO~BI ~O~*HEI XpaHUTBCH B cooTBeTcTByIo~HM o6pa3oM rIpOMapKupOBaHHEIX KOHTenHepaX. IlpoLle'~ypa ux yHlIIITO*eHlISI ~O~*Ha CTpOrO COr~aCOBBIBaTBCH CO cneuna~ncTaMn no pa~Ha~HOHHOH 6e30HaCHoCTH C C06~IO~eHHeM ~e~epa~BHEIX ~ Hp~H~TEIX IIITaTOM lIHCTpyK~. ~e~epa~BHoe HpaBUTe~BCTBO ~ 60~B~HHCTBo ~TaTOB ~ MyHuLlurIaJInTeTOB HMeIoT nHCTpyKLlHn, peryJInpyIo~He rIpOLle,~ypLI yHHUTO*eHUSI OHaCHEIX OTXO~OB. Y~pe*~eHH~ 06~3aHEI C06~IO~aTB UHCTpyK~H, KaCaIO~HeCH HpUMeHeH~ (CM. r~. l) ~ yHHUTo~eHH~ onacHEIx BeILleCTB. 3apa~eHHEIe TpyHEI *HBOTHEIX MO*HO C*HraTB Ha MeCTe ~H Hepe~aBaTB HMeIO~eH CTIeLlHaJIBHyIO JI~LleH3HIO ~HpMe. ~pO~e~ypLI yHaKOBK~, MapKlIpOBKlI, TpaHCTIOpTlIpOBKlI lI XpaHeHlISI TaKlIX OTXO~OB ~O~*HEI COOTBeTCTBOBaTB Tpe60BaH~M H0 oxpaHe Tpy~a ~ TeXH~Ke 6e30HaCHoCTH. OlIaCHEIe OTXO~BI, OTHOCH~HeCH K KaTerOpHU TOKCHHeCKHX, KaHLlepOreHHEIX, ropIolI~x' e,~KHX, BBICOKOpeaKLlHOHHEIX ~ rIpolI~x HeCTOnKHX ~ - COe~HHeHHU, ~O~*HEI XpaHUTBCH B COOTBeTCTByIO~HM O Jpa30M MapKUpOBaHHEIX KOHTe~HepaX ~ yH~TO*aTBCH C C06~IO~eHHeM peKOMeH~a~H crIeuna~ncTos rIo oxpaHe Tpy,~a ~ TexH~Ke 6e3orIacHocTu. B HeKoTop~Ix c~y~a~x pa3pe~aeTCSI yTpaM60BBIBaHHe ~H HepeMe~HBaHHe TaKHX OTXO~OB. liopbba c Bpe~HTe~RMM IlpH CO~ep~aHHU *HBOTHEIX Ba*Hoe 3HaHeHHe HpH~aeTcH pea~3aunn rIporpaMM, HarIpasJIeHH~Ix Ha rIpo~nJIaKT~Ky, 60pB6y ~JIn yHnIITo~eHne pa3JI~Horo po,~a spe'~nTeJIen. Ilpu BTOM CJIe'~yeT Hp~ep*HBaTECH HpaBlIJIEHO COCTaB3IeHHOrO lI 3a~0KyMeHTHpOBaHHOrO rpa~HKa KOHTpO~H ~ MOHUTOp~Hra. I,I~ea~EHaH HporpaMMa Hpe~Ho~araeT HeB03MO*HOCTE 3aHeceHH~ Hapa3HToB B BlIBaplIlI lI lIX BBIXO~ 3a ero Hpe~e~BI. ~pH co~ep~aHHn *HBOTHEIX B 3arOHaX Ha OTKpLITOM B03~yXe C~e~yeT yHUTEIBaTB HeO6XO~HMOCTB yCTpaHeHH~ ~H CBe~eH~ ~0 M~HUMyMa HOTeH~Ha~BHOrO pUCKa, CBH3aHHOrO C Bpe~HTe~HMU lI XlIIL\HlIKaMlI. IleCTlI~BI MOryT OKa3BIBaTB TOKCHHeCKOe ~eUCTBUe Ha 3KCTIeplIMeHTa3IBHEIX ~BOTHEIX ~ Me~aTB BBIHO~HeHUIO 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIX rIpoLle'~yp [Ohio Cooperative Extension Service, 1987a,b], rI03TOMy ux cJIe'~yeT lIplIMeHSITB Ha 3aHUMaeMOH *HBOTHEIMU TeppUTOpHU TO~BKO B c~yHae Heo6xo'~HMocTH. Ilepe,~ rIpuMeHeHHeM rIecTHun'~os c~e'~yeT lIpOKOHCyJIBTHpOBaTBCH CO CHe~Ha~HCTaM~, pa60TaIO~HMU C *HBOTHEIM~, KOTOpLIe MOryT 6BITB HO~BeprHyTEI UX B03~eUCTBUIO. C~y~an upuMeHeHn~

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YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 51 lIeCTlI~OB ~O~*HM perUCTpUpOBaTBCH ~ COr~aCOB~BaTBCH C a~M~HUCTpa~HeH BUBapHSI. MOTOR HpUMeHeHH~ COB ~O~*HM COOTBeTCTBOBaTB ~e~epa~BH~M, Hp~H~T~M ~TaTOM ~ MeCTH~M SaKOHaM. Bo Bcox BO3MO*H~X coax r~pe~r~o~TeHne c~e~yeT oT~asaTB HeToKc~ecK~M cpe~cTsaM 60pB6m c sped, HarIpuMep, peryJI~TopaMpocTaHaceKoM~x [Donahue etal., 1989; Garg, Donahue 1989; King, Bennett, 1989] ~ HeToKcu~ecK~M coed (TaK~M KaK aMOp~HMU c~nKare~B). upH ~CHO~B3OBaHHU ~OBy~eK c~e~yeT IplIMeHSITB ryMaHHMe MOTORS: ~OBy~KH ~~H OT~OBa *HB~X Bpe~HTe~eH O~*HM HpOBep~TBCH C ~OCTaTO~HOH HaCTOTOH, a nonMaHHux speed c~e,~yeT rIo,~sepraT~ 3nTaHa3~. yxo'~ 3a iK~BOTHbIMM B aBapH~HbIX CHTya~RX, B BbIXO~HbIe II IIpa3~H~HbIe OHM yxo'~ 3a *HBOTHEIMn ,~O~*eH ocy~ecTB~HTBcH KBa~HpOBaHHEIM rIepCOHa~OM e~e,~HeBHO, B TOM lInc~e rIo BBIXO,~HEIM ~ rIpa3~H~HEIM OHM, C Debbie COXpaHeHH~ 3,~0pOBB~ *HBOTHEIX ~ y,~OB~eTBOpeHH~ Tpe6oBaHH~M rIpoBe'~eH~ Hay~HEIX nCC~e,~OBaHHH. Troche OKOH~aH~ pa60Hero ,~HR, a TaK*e rIo BBIXO,~HEIM ~ rIpa3~H~HEIM'~H~M Heo6xo'~HMo rIpe'~ycMoTpeTB B03MO*HOCTB o6ecrIeHeH~ ~BOTHEIX CKOpOH BeTep~HapHOH rIoMo~BIo. IIPTI B03HlIKHOBeHlIlI aBaplIlIHEIX CHTya~H COTpy~H~KH C~y*6BI 6e3orIacHocTH y~pe*~eHHH' rIo~apHEIe H~n rIo~nH ,~O~*HEI HMeTB B03MO*HOCTB cBH3aTBcH C ~HLlaMn, OTBeTCTBeHHEIMn 3a co'~ep~aHHe ~BOTHEIX. 3Ty 3a,~a~y MO*HO o6~erHuTB' BBIBeCHB B BuBapHn peKOMeH,~a~n rIo rIoBe'~eHnIo B aBaplIlIHEIX CHTya~X, CHUCKH OTBeTCTBeHHEIX ~ ~ HeO6XO,~HMBIe HOMepa Te~e~OHOB H~n rIepe'~aB ux B OT,~e~ C~y*6BI 6e3orIacHocTH H~n Te~e~OHHEIn ~eHTp. Ha B~,~HOM MeCTe ,~O~*HEI 6BITB BBIBeIIIeHEI peKOMeH,~aLlHn rIO rIoBe'~eHnIo B aBapHuHEIX CHTyaLlH~X B crIeLlHaJILHEIx rIoMe~eH~x ~n rIpH ocy~ecTBJIeHHn OC06BIX orIepaLlHH. IlJIaH MeporIpH~THn Ha cJIylIan HaBo'~HeHHH7 rIo~apa, B3pLIBa ~ T.~., rIpe'~Ha3HalIeHHEIn ,~H crIaceHH~ KaK rIepcoHa~a' TaK ~ *HBOTHEIX, COCTaBJIHeTCH KaK HacTB o6~en rIporpaMMBI o6ecrIeHeHH~ 6e3orIacHocTH BuBapHH. A'~M~HucTpaTop BuBapH~ H~n BeTep~Hap, oTBeHaIo~n 3a co'~ep~aHHe ~BOTHEIX B HeM, ,~OJI*eH BXO,~nTB B COCTaB cooTBeTcTByIo~en KOMuCCHn rIo 6e3orIacHocTH' C03,~aHHOn rIpH y~pe;K,D;eHHH. OH (oHa) ,~O~*eH 6BITB > ~ y~acTBoBaTB B MeporIp~T~x, rIpoBo'~HMBIx B c~y~ae 6e,~CTBHn ~ aBapHuHEIX CHTya~n [Casper, 1991~. IIO,~;EP)KAHlIE IIOIIYJIlIL\lIlI *lIBOTHbIX |!l~eHTH{P~Ka~R ~ per~cTpau~ K Cpe~CTBaM ~eHTH~HKa~H ~BOTHEIX OTHOCHTCH Ta6~KH ~ KapToUKn7 rIp~Kpe~eHHEIe K'~Bep~M KOMHaT, rIO~KaM ~ K~eTKaM, B 3aroHax ~ CTO~aX, C 3aTInCaHHOn lIJIn HaHeCeHHOn IIITplIX-KO,~OM nH~OpMaLlHen; OIIIenH~K~, XOMyTEI, ~aCTHHKH ~ Hp~BIKH; ~BeTHEIe ~THa; HaCeUKH ~ Ha~eUKH Ha y~ax; TaTy~pOBKH; HO~KO*HEIe Hepe~aTH~KH ~ XO~O~HEIe K~eHMa. AM0yTa~H rIa~BLleB KaK MeTO~ ~eHTH~HKa~H Me~KHX rpLI3yHOB MO*eT HpUMeH~TBCH TOJIBKO TOr~a, KOr~a ~CHO~B30BaHHe ~I06BIX ~pyrux MeTo~os nH~ns~ya~BHon ~eHTu~nKaL~n oKa3~IsaeTc~ Heso3Mo*H~IM; rIp~eM ero MO*HO BBIHO~H~TB TO~BKO Ha He3pe~0pO~aIO~UXCH HOBOpO~eHHEIX. B KapTax Heo6xo~uMo

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52 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ yKa3BIBaTB ~CTO~H~K HO~y~eH~ *HBOTHOrO, ~HHUIO ~H CTOK, ~aM~H Me CTOHaXO)K,D;eHlIe lICTIO3IHlITe3IelI 3KCTIeplIMeHTa, CO OTB eTCTByIO~He PATTI ~ HOMep ~KCHepUMeHTa~BHOrO HpOTOKO~a, echo BTO B03MO*HO. PerUCTpa~H *lIBOTHEIX HO~e3Ha ~ MO*eT pa3~HaTBCH HO ~OpMe OT OrpaHHHeHHOH UH~OpMa~H Ha KapTOUKaX H~eHTH~HKa~H SO HO~pO6HEIX 3aHUceH HO Ka - ;OMy ~IBOTHOMy, BBe~eHHEIX B KOM0BIOTep. LteHHyIo HOMONYM MOryT TaK*e oKa3aTB K~HH~eCKHe 3aHUcH o6 oT'~e~BHEIx *HBOTHEIX, oco6eHHo rIpH rIpoBe'~eHHn nCC~e,~OBaHHn Ha co6aKax' KO~KaX, rIpuMaTax ~ ce~BcKoxo3~ncTBeHHEIx *HBOTHEIX. TaKne 3arIncH ,~O~*HEI BK]IIOHaTB COOTBeTCTByIO~He ~HH~eCKHe ~ ~narHocT~ecKne ~aHHEIe, PATTI nHOKyJI~LlHn, orIncaHHe x~pyprulIecKHx rIpoLle'~yp ~ see rIoc~eorIepa~HoHHoro rIepHo,~a, a TaK*e nH~opMa~Io o6 ncrIo~3osaHHn BOTHEIX B aKcrIepuMeHTe. ocHoBHEIe '~eMorpa~ecKne CBe,~eH~ ~ nCTOpHU 6o~e3Hn rIoBBImaIoT ~eHHocTB oT'~e~BHEIx *HBOTHEIX B CMBIC~e ux lICTIO3IB30BaH~ ~~H passe ~ ~CC~e~OBaHHH; TaKaH UH~OpMa~ gotcha 6BITB ~erKo '~ocTyrIHa nCC~e,~OBaTe~HM, BeTep~HapaM ~ rIepcoHa~y' yxa*HBaIo~eMy 3a *HBOTHEIMH. 3arIncH rIo ~CTOpHU BBIpa~HBaHH~ ~ crIapuBaH~' a TaK*e o6 oco6eHHocT~x rIoBe'~eH~ ~BOTHEIX rIo~e3HEI rIpH pa6oTe co MHornMn B~aMn ~BOTHEIX, OCO6eHHO HpUMaTaMU [NRC, 1979ai. ~ypHaJIBI, co,~ep~a~He OCHOBHEIe XapaKTepuCT~KH *HBOTHEIX, HMeIoT 6oJIBIIIoe 3HalIeHHe ,~JI~ co'~ep~aH~ KOJIOHHn KpyrIHEIX *HBOTHEIX C 60JIBIIIOn rIpo'~o~nTe~BHocTBIo *~3Hn ~ ,~O~*HEI BecTHcB oT'~e~BHo rIo Ka;K,D;OMy *HBOTHOMy [Dyke, 1993; NRC, 1979ai. TaKne ~ypHaJIBI IIaCTO BKJIIolIaIoT nH~opMaLlHIo O B~,~e *HBOTHOrO, ero ~,~eHTH~nKaTOp, ~,~eHTH~nKaTOp lIpOlI3BO~HTe~H, H~eHTH~HKaTOp MaTepH, H0~, ~aTy pO*~eHH~ H~n HpH06peTeHUSI, ~CTO~H~K, ~aTy CMepTH ~ yH~TO*eH~. TaKaH UH~OpMa~ ~ _ ~ ~ OIIeHB Ba*Ha,~H reHeTHIIeCKOH pa0OTEI ~ KOHe~HOH ~CTOpHHeCKOH O~eHKH KOJIOHlIlI ~IBOTHEIX. ~pH HepeBO~e *HBOTHEIX H3 O~HOrO UHCTHTyTa B ~pyron HeO6XO~HMO Hepe~aBaTB ~ COOTBeTCTByIO~yIO UH~OpMa~HIO O HUX. [eHeT~Ka ~ HOMeHK~aTypa FeHeT~ecKne XapaKTeplICTlIKlI lIMelOT sa*Hoe 3Ha~eHne ~H ce~eKunn ~ Be~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX HpH UX ~CHO~B30BaHHU B KO~OHH~X pa3BO~KH ~ 6~0Me~HHCKHX ~CC~e~OBaHH~X (CM. HpH~. A). ~aHHEIe O pO~OC~OBHOH lI03BOJISlIOT HpaB~BHo Ho'~6HpaTB HapLI ~BOTHEIX ~H HO~eHH~ HOTOMCTBa H~n oT6HpaTB 3KcrIepuMeHTa~BHEIx *HBOTHEIX, He ~B~HIO~nXCH pO,~CTBeHH~KaMn ~n C HeyCTaHOB~eHHEIM pO,~CTBOM. AyT6pe'~HEIe *HBOTHEIe mnpOKO ncrIo~B3yIoTcH B 6~0Me,~nHCKHX nCC~e,~OBaHH~X. tIcxo'~HEIe rIorIy~o~*HEI 6BITB'~ocTaTo~Ho 60~BmuMn, HTO 6BI O 6 e crIeHuBaTB '~nTe~BHyIo reTep OreHHO CTB ~CHO~B3yeMBIX ~H pa3Be'~eHH~ KO~OHHn *HBOTHEIX. '~H o6~erHeHH~ rIp~Moro CpaBHeHH~ aKcrIepuMeHTaJIBHEIx ,~aHHEIX, rIOJIy~eHHEIX Ha ayT6pe,~HEIX ~BOTHEIX, CJIe,~yeT lICTIO3IB30BaTB reHeT~ecKne MeTO~BI, n03so~Iomne COXpaH~TB reHeT~eCKyIO H3MeHlInBocTB ~ ypaBHoBeIIInBaTB rIpe'~cTaBuTeJIBcTBo nCXO,~HEIX oco6en KoJIoHHn [HarIpuMep' Lacy, 1989; Poiley, 1960; Williams-Blangero, 1993~. teHeTHHeCKyIO H3MeHHUBOCTB MO*HO KOHTpO~HpOBaTB, HpUMeHH~ KOMrI~OTepHOe Mo~eJInposaHne, 6~0X~MnIIeCKne MapKep~I, MapKep~I ,~HK, lIMMyHO3IOrlIIIeCKlIe MapKepLI ~n KO~HeCTBeHHEIU reHeTu~ecKnn aHa~3 rn~ecKnx r~epeMeHH~Ix [MacCluer et al., 1986; Williams-Blangero, 1993~.

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YC:11OBE! CO~EP~H~^BOTHL~ 53 tIH6pe~HMe ~nHHn *HBOTHuX pa3~HHux BLOB, r~aBHuM o6pa3oM rpM3yHoB, BuBe~eHM ~~R peIIIeH~ crIeLlH~ecKHx 3KcrIepuMeHTa~EHux safari ~ Festing, 1979; Gill, 1 980l . tOM03HrOTHOCTB 3TUX *HBOTHuX noBMmaeT B O CrIp 0~3B O LIMO CTB ~ COrIO CTaBuMO CTB HeKOTOpLIX 3KcrIepuMeHTa~BHEIx ~aHHEIX. oHeHB Ba*HO ocy~ecTB~HTB rIepHo~HecKnn KOHTpO~B roMo3HroTHocTH nH6pe~HEIX *HBOTHEIX [Festing, 1982; Hedrich, 1990~. pa3pa6oTaHEI HeKOTOpLIe MeTO~nKH KOHTpO~H, OCHOBaHHEIe Ha rIpuMeHeHHn HMMyHo~or~ecKHx7 6Hox~M~ecKHx ~ Mo~eKymqpHEIx MeTo'~oB ~ Cramer, 19 8 3; Groen, 1977; Hoffman et al., 1980; Russell et al., 1993~. C He~Io cBe~eHH~ ~o MlIHlIMyMa reHeTHIIeCKOH KOHTaMlIHa~HH, ODyC~OB~eHHOH MyTa~HHMU ~ 0~60HHEIM CHapUBaHHeM, HeO6XO~HMO pa3pa60TaTB Ha~e*HEIe CHCTeMBI pa3Be~eH~ *HBOTHEIX [Green, 1981; Kempthorne, 1957~. TpaHCreHHEIe *HBOTHEIe 06~a~aIOT M~HUMyM O~HUM TpaHCreHOM; CaUT lIHTerpa~H 3TOrO TpaHCreHa ~ KO~eCTBO UHTerpUpOBaHHEIX KOHHU He BCer~a HO,D;,D;aIOTCH KOHTpO~IO. ~HTerpUpOBaHHEIe reHEI MOryT B3aHMO~eUCTBOBaTB C ~OHOBBIMU reHaMU ~ ~aKTOpaMU OKpy~aIO~eH Cpe~BI B 3aBUCHMOCTH, IaCTlIIIHO, OT CaIITa lIHTerpa~H, H03TOMy Ka~Oe TpaHCreHHOe *HBOTHOe MO*HO paCCMaTplIBaTB KaK yH~Ka~BHEIU ~CTO~H~K reHeTHHeCKOH nH~opMaunn. Heo6xo~uMo rIpe~rIp~HuMaTB ycu~ c ~e~BIo coxpaHeHn~ TaKOrO lICTOIIHlIKa lIplI lIOMOILllI CTaH~apTHEIX reHeTHHeCKHX Hpoue~yp, BK~IOHalOILlUX Be,~eHHe HO~pO6HEIX 3anucen no pO~OCJIOBHOH, ~ reHeT~ecKoro MOHlITOplIHra, rIo3so~qIomero lIpOBepSITB Ha~ne ~ 3HrOTHOCTB TpaHCreHOB. KpHoKoHcepBa~HIo orI~o~oTBopeHHEIx 3M6pH0HoB, HH~eK~eTOK H~n CTIepMaT030~0B TaK*e c~e,~yeT paCCMaTplIBaTB KaK MeTO~ upe~y~pe~eH~ 3aBlICIIMBIX OT BpeMeHU H3MeHeHHU B TpaHcreHax H~n c~yHanHon nOTepH KOJIOHHH. Ba*Hoe 3Ha~eHne r~p~aeTc~ T~aTe~EHOH perucTpaunn c ~CH0~30BaHHeM CTaH~apTHOn HOMeHK~aTypLI, ecJIn OHa HMeeTCH, KaK JInHHn ~ Cy6JInHHn, TaK HeTHIIeCKHX XapaKTepuCT~K *HBOTHEIX, ncrIo~B3yeMBIx B ncc~e~osaTe~BcKon rIporpaMMe [NRC, 1979bj. B HeCKO~BKHX Hy6~HKa~X MO*HO HanTH rIpaBH~a' rIp~H~TEIe Me*~yHapO~HEIMn KOMuCCH~Mn rIo yHH~HpOBaHHOn HOMeHK~aType ayT6pe~HEIX rpLI3yHOB ~ KpO~nKOB ~ Festing et al., 1972i, nH6pe~HEIX KpLIC [Festing, Staats, 1973; Gill, 1984; NRC, 1992ai, nH6pe~H~Ix M~Imen [International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomen- clature for Mice, 1981a,b,c] lI IpaHCreHHEIX ~BOTHEIX [NRC, 1992bJ. JIlITEPATYPA Ames, B. N., M. K. Shigenaga, and T. M. Hagen. 1993. Review: Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:7915-7922. Anzaldo, A. J., P. C. Harrison, G. L. Riskowski, L. A. Sebek, R-G. Maghirang, and H. W. Gonyou.1994. Increasing welfare of laboratory rats with the help of spatially enhanced cages. AWIC Newsl. 5~3~: 1-2,5. Armario, A., J. M. Castellanos, and J. Balasch. 1985. Chronic noise stress and insulin se- cretion in male rats. Physiol. Behav. 34:359-361. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.~.1992. Chapter 25: Air Cleaners for Particulate Contaminants. In 1992 ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Systems and Equipment, I-P edition. Atlanta: ASHRAE. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.~. 1993. Chapter 9: Environmental Control for Animals and Plants. In 1993 ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals, l-P edition. Atlanta: ASHRAE. AWIC (Animal Welfare Information Center). 1992. Environmental enrichment informa-

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