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rJIABA 3 BETEPlIHAPHAl1 lIOMOIIlb BeTep~HapHaH rIoMo~B COCTaB~ReT Ba:KHyIo HacTB rIporpaMMM co~~ep~aH~ ~ ncrIo~B3oBaHH~ *HBOTHEIX. A,QeKBaTHaH BeTep~HapHaH rIoMo~B BK~IolIaeT 3~eKTHBHylo pea~3aLlHIo c~e,~ylo~nx rIporpaMM: lIpO~aKTHIIeCKaH Me,~HLl~Ha; Ha6~Io'~eHHe' ,~HarHOCT~Ka, ~eHeHHe ~ KOHTpO~B 3a6o~esaHHH' B TOM Locke 300H030B; se'~eHHe CBH3aHHEIX C 3KcrIepuMeHTa~BHEIM rIpoToKo~oM 3a6o~esaHHH' TpaBM ~,~pyrux OCJIO*HeHHH; aHecTe3~ ~ obe360~nsaHne; x~pypr~ ~ Be,~eHHe rIocJIeorIepaLlHoHHoro rIepHo'~a; OLleHKa 3,~0pOBB~ *HBOTHEIX; 3lITaHa3lISI. ocy~ecTBJIeHHe rIpOrpaMMBI BeTep~HapHOn rIoMo~n ~BJI~eTCH 06SI3aHHOCTBIO BeTep~HapHOrO spa~a, nMeIomero COOTBeTCTByIO~O ~eH3HIO (CM. rIp~. B: ACLAM) n~n rIpome ~mero Heo6xo'~HMyIo rIo'~roToBKy7 ~n HMeIO~erO OHEIT B o6~acTH HayKH O ~a6opaTopHEIx *HBOTHEIX, H~n OHEIT pa6oTEI C ~aHHEIM BH~OM *HBOTHEIX. HeKoTopLIe acrIeKTEI rIporpaMMBI BeTep~HapHOn rIoMo~n MOryT ocy~ecTB~RTBcH ~pyrnMn ~HLlaMH; B 3TOM c~y~ae Heo6xo~HMo BBIpa6oTaTB MexaHH3M rIp~Mon ~ peryJI~pHon CBH3n, KOTOpLIn 6BI rapaHTHpOBaJI rIepe'~alIy BeTep~Hapy CBOeBpeMeHHOn ~ TOIIHOn nH+OpMaLlHn, KacaIo~encH 3~0pOBB~, rIoBe~eH~ ~ COCTO~H~ ~BOTHEIX. BeTep~Hap ~O~eH HarIpaBJI~TE pa6oTy nccJIe~oBaTeJIen ~ ~pyroro rIepcoHaJIa' 3aHuMalo~erocH co~ep~aHHeM ~ ncTIo~B3oBaHHeM *HBOTHEIX C TeM, HT06BI o6ecTIeHUTB COOTBeTCTByIO~ee 06pa~eHHe C *HBOTHEIMU ~ ~O~*HOe BBIHO~HeHHe rIpo~e~yp' CBH3aHHEIX C ux HMMo6~3a~Hen' ncrIo~B3oBaHHeM Ce~aTHBHEIX rIperIapaTos, aHa3IBreT~KOB, aHeCTeT~KOB ~ HpOBe~eHHeM 3nTaHa3~. OTBeTCTBeHHEIU BeTep~Hap ~O~*eH 06eCHeHUTB KOHTpO~B ~H Ha6~IO~eHHe 3a BBIrIOJIHeHHeM x~pyprulIecKHx orIepaLlHn ~ rIOCJIeOrIepaLlHOHHEIM Be~eHHeM ~IBOTHEIX. 61

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62 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL 3AKYIIKA lI TPAHCIIOPTtIPOBKA *lIBOTHbIX Bce *HBOTHMe ,~O~*HM rIpHo6peTaTBcH saKOHHuM rlyTeM; rIpH ATOM ylIpe*~eHHe-rIoJIylIaTeJIB ,~OJI*HO rIpe'~rIp~H~TE pa3yMHMe ycHJInH7 rapaHTHpylo~He saKoHHocTB BCeX orIepaLlHn, CBHaaHHuX C rIpHo6peTeHHeM BOTHuX. Echo co6aKH ~ KO~KH HOCTyHalOT OT ~~epOB ~H CTaH~H OT~OBa ~BOTHuX K~acca B rIo K~aCCH~nKa~n M~HucTepcTBa ce~BcKoro XOsHuCTBa CIIIA (u. s. Department of Agriculture - USDA), TO TaKHX ~BOTHuX c~e,~yeT OCMOTpeTB Ha Hpe~MeT UX BO3MO*HOH H~eHTH~HKa~H HO TaTy~pOBKaM ~H HO~KO*H~M Hepe~aTH~KaM. ~0~06HaH HpOBepKa MO*eT BM~BUTB ~aKT, HTO ,~aHHoe ~soTHoe 6~o ~OMa~HUM; B TaKOM c~y~ae c~e~yeT ycTaHosuTB ero s~a,~e~B~a. Heo6xo,~uMo HpOBepSITB HODy~HOHHMU CTaTyC ~aHHOrO TaKCOHa: Y0paB~eHHe HO OXpaHe ~HKHX *HBOTH~X ~ pu6 (Fish and Wildlife Sewice) e~erO~HO Hy6~HKyeT yTO~HeHHMe CHUCKH nc~esaIom~x ~n saHeceHHux B KpaCHyIO KHUry BH~OB [DOI 50 CFR 17~. Mcuo~BsosaHne cneuna~BHo BBIBe~eHHEIX 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIX ~BOTHEIX B03MO*HO, ec~n OHO ~HKTyeTCH sa,~a~aMn ~CC~e~OBaHH~, oGy~eH~ ~n ~CHEITaHHH. IIOTeH~Ha~BHEIe HOCTaB~HKH *HBOTHEIX ~O~*HEI O~eHUBaTBCH HO KaHeCTBy HOCTaB~SIeMBIX HMU *HBOTHEIX. KaK HpaBH~O, HOCTaB~HKH CHe~Ha~BHO BBIBe~eHHEIX *HBOTHEIX (HanpuMep7 ~epLI K~acca A no K~accu~nKaunn USDA) pery~pHo s~I,~aIoT nH~opMaunIo c orIncaHneM reHeTWIeCKOrO lI lIaTOreHHOrO CTaTyCa KO3IOHlIlI ~IlI OT~e~BHEIX *HBOTHEIX, KOTOpLIX OHU CO~ep~aT. ~0~06HaH UH~OpMa~H HO~e3Ha HpH pe~eHHU, lIplIHSITB ~H OT~OHUTB ~aHHyIO HapTHIO ~BOTHEIX; aHa~Or~HEIe ~aHHEIe HeO6XO~HMO HO~yHaTB B OTHO~eHHU *HBOTHEIX, HOCTyHaIO~UX B paMKaX o6MeHa Me*~y y~pe*~eHH~MU H~n BHyTpH y~pe*~eHn~ (HaUpUMep, HpH IOJIy'IeHlIlI TpaHCreHHEIX MBIIIIeH). ~I06BIe HepeMe~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX, B TOM q~c~e BHyTpH yqpe*~eHH~, C~e~yeT ~O~*HEIM 06pa30M KOOp~HHUpOBaTB C TeM, qT06BI CBeCTH ~0 M~HUMyMa BpeMSI lIepeB03KlI lI plICK lIepe~aqU 300H030B, 3a~HTHTB *HBOTHEIX OT B03~eUCTBH~ ~KCTpeMa~BHEIX yC~OBHU OKpy~aIO~eH Cpe~BI, ~CK~IOq~TB C~KOM 60~B~yIO CKyqeHHOCTB ~BOTHEIX, 06eCHeq~TB HpH HeO6XO~HMOCTH UX ~OCTyD K KOpMy ~ BO~e ~ Hpe~OXpaHUTB OT ~3HqeCKHX TpaBM. HeKOTOpLIU CBSI3aHHEIU C TpaHCHOpTHpOBKOH CTpeCC ~B~HeTCH HeH36e*HEIM, O~HaKO OH MO*eT 6BITB CBe~eH ~0 M~HUMyMa HpH ~O~*HOM BHUMaHHU K HepOq~C~eHHEIM sLIme ~aKTopaM. Ka*~yIo rIapTnIo *HBOTHEIX HeO6XO~HMO HpOBep~TB Ha COOTBeTCTBUe Tpe60BaH~M rIo~yqaTe~q ~ Ha Ha~nque K~HH0qeCKHX HpH3HaKOB 3a60~eBaHHH; *HBOTHEIX C~e~yeT HOMe~aTB B KapaHTHH ~ CTa6~3HpoBaTB lIX COCTOS[HlIe C lIOMOILlBIO upoue~yp, cooTseTcTsyIom~x ~aHHoMy su~y yC~OBUSIM. Ba*Hy~o po~ urpaeT cor~acosaHne MepOUpHSITHU r~o 3aKa3y IOJIyqeHlIIO HOBOH HapTHU ~BOTHEIX C HepCOHa~OM BUBap~, KOTOpLIU ~O~eH 06eCHeq~TB HpaB~BHEIU HpHeM ~ pa3Me~eHHe *HBOTHEIX. IIO~pO6HOe OHUCaHHe CBH3aHHEIX C TpaHCHOpTHpOBKOH ~BOTHEIX HpaB~ CO~ep*HTCH B HeCKO~BKHX ~OKyMeHTaX, B TOM q~c~e AWRs ~ Upasu~ax lIepeB03KlI *lIBOTHEIX Me~yHapO~HOH acco~Ha~n Bo3~y~Horo TpaHCHOpTa [IATA, 1995~. KpoMe Toro, BB03 lIplIMaTOB peryJIlIpyeTCSI lIHCTpyK~HMU CJIy*6BI 3,~pasooxpaHeHnH [CFR, Title 42i, B KOTOpLIX CO~ep~aTCH crIe~Ha~BHEIe rIpasH~a rIo Ty6epKy~nHoBon rIpo6e [CDC, 1993~. Oco6~Ie

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BETEPB~P~BOMO~L 63 Tpe60BaHUSI Hpe~HB~IOTCH HpH BB03e ~ nepeso3KaM a~p~KaHCKHX 3e~eHux MapTM~eK, ~~HHHOXBOCT~X MaKaKOB ~ MaKaKOB pe3yc PER, 1990; CDC, 1991] . IlPOG>llJIAKTIllIECKAll ME,1;lIL\lIHA IlpO~aKT~Ka 3abo~esaHnn ~B~HeTCH Ba*HeH~HM 8~eMeHTOM BeTep~HapHOrO 06eCHeHeHUSI *HBOTH~X. 3~eKTHBHMe HpOrpaMMM IpO~aKTHHeCKHX MepOUpH~THU CHoC06CTBylOT HOBM~eHHIO Hay~HOH HHOCTH *HBOTHEIX, HOCKO~BKy OHU H03BO~IOT COXpaHUTB UX 3~0pOBB CBeCTH ~0 M~HUMyMa BepO~THOCTB H3MeHeH~ UX COCTO~HH~, 06yC~oB~eHHylo 3abo~esaH~Mn ~ UHaHDapaTHOH UH~eK~HeH. ~pOrpaMMM HpO~aKT~eCKHX ~ - MepOlIplISITlIlI BK3IIOHaIOT pa3~HHEIe KOM )HHa~H HpaBH~, Hpoue~yp ~ MeTO~OB, CBH3aHH~X C KapaHTHHOM ~ CTa6~3a~HeH 3~0pOBB~ *HBOTH~X, a TaK*e C pa3~e~BHEIM CO~ep~aHHeM *HBOTHEIX B 3aBUCHMOCTH OT BH~a, lICTOIIHlIKa lIOCTyIIJIeHlISI lI COCTOS[HlISI 3~0pOBBH. KapaHTHH, a,~anTau~ ~ pa3,~e~bHoe co,~ep~KaH~e KapaHTHH Hpe~HO~araeT CO~ep~aHHe BHOBB HOCTyHUB~UX *HBOTHEIX OT~e~BHO OT ~BOTHEIX, y~e Haxo~nxcH B BUBapHU, ~0 HO~HOrO OUpe~e~eH~ COCTOS[HlISI 3~0pOBB~ ~, B03MO*HO, M~KpO~OpLI BHOBB HOCTyHUB~UX ~IBOTHEIX. 3~eKTHBHEIe KapaHTHHHEIe MepOUpH~T~ H03BO~IOT CBeCTH ~0 MlIHlIMyMa BeposITHocTB 3aHeceHH~ HaTOreHHEIX M~KpoopraHH3MoB B cy~ecTByIo~yIo KO~OHnIO *HBOTHEIX. BeTep~HapHEIn Me,~nHCKnn rIepcoHa~ ,~O~*eH B~a'~eTB MeTO,~aMn O~eHKH COCTO~H~ 3,~0pOBB~ H, ec~n Heo6xo,~uMO7 rIaToreHHon M~KpO( ,~OpLI BHOBB rIOCTyrInBIII~X *HBOTHEIX; rIpHlIeM TaKne MeTO,~BI ,~O~*HEI cooTBeTcTBoBaTB rIp~H~TEIM B BeTep~HapHOn Me,~HLl~He HOpMaM, a TaK*e ~e'~epa~BHEIM ~ rIp~H~TEIM IIITaTOM nHCTpyKLlH~M rIo 300Ho3aM [Butler et a1., 1995~. 3~eKTusH~Ie KapaHT~HH~Ie MeporIpu~Tu~ ,~O~*HEI rIpuMeH~TBcH rIo oTHoIIIeHnIo K lIplIMaTaM C He~BIo orpaHn~nTB B03MO*HOCTB 3apa~eHH~ rIepcoHa~a 300H03HEIMn nH~eKLlH~MH. 06Hapy~eHHEIe y HpUMaTOB ~OB~pyCEI ~ M~K06aKTepHU 06yC~oBH~H HeO6XO~HMOCTB Hp~H~T~ CHe~Ha~BHEIX UHCTpyK~H H0 06pa~eHUIO C BTHMU *lIBOTHEIMU [CDC, 1991, 1993~. MH~opMaun~, upe~ocTas~eMa~ HOCTaB~HKaMU B OTHO~eHHU KaHeCTBa ~BOTHEIX, ~O~*Ha 6BITB ~OCTaTO~HOH H TOrO, HT06BI BeTep~Hap MOr OUpe~e~HTB ~HTe~BHOCTB KapaHTHHa, HOTeH~Ha~BHEIU pUCK ~H o6c~y~BaIo~ero HepcoHa~a ~ ~pyrux *HBOTHEIX B KO~OHHU, ~e~eCoo6pa3HocTB HpOBe~eHH~ TepaHHU ~0 HOMe~eHH~ BHOBB IOCTylIlIBIIIlIX ~IBOTHEIX B KO~OHUIO; HpUMeHUTe~BHO K rpLI3yHaM BeTep~Hap ~O~*eH OUpe~e~HTB HeO6XO~HMOCTB BBIHO~HeHH~ Kecapesa ce~eHn~ ~H peHM~aHTa~nH ~H HepeCa,~KH DM6pHoHoB H3 6aHKa DM6pHoHoB C He~BIO rIo~yUeHH~ *HBOTHEIX, CB060,~HEIX OT CHe~HeCKHX HaTOreHOB. ~H rpLI3yHoB rIpe6BIBaHHe B KapaHTHHe He ~BJI~eTCH o6~3aTeJIBHEIM, ecJIn'~aHHEIe7 lIpe~OCTaB~eHHEIe HOCTaB~HKOM, HO~eHEI He3a~0~ro ~o ux HOCTy~eHH B ,~OCTaTO~HO rIo~HoM o6~eMe' rIo3Bo~RIo~eM ycTaHoBuTB COCTO~HHe 3,~0pOBB~ *HBOTHEIX ~ cTerIeHB BepO~THOCTH 3apa~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX rIaTOreHHOn M~KpO~OpOn B rIpo~ecce TpaHCHOpTHpOBKH. B c~yHae Heo6xo'~HMocTH rIOMe~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX B KapaHTHH, *HBOTHEIX H3 O,~HOn rIapTHn c~e'~yeT OT~e~HTB OT ~BOTHEIX H3 ~pyrux HapTHn (npH aTOM Heo6~3aTe~BHo oT~e~HTB ux,~pyr oT'~pyra) C TeM, IIT06BI lICK]IIOHUTB B03MO*HOCTB paCHpOCTpaHeH~ lIH~eK~.

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64 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ He3aBUCHMO OT HpO~O~Te~BHOCTH Hpe6MBaH~ BHOBB HOCTyHUB~UX IBOTHEIX B KapaHTHHe, HM C~e~yeT Hpe~OCTaBUTB OUpe~e~eHHOe BpeMR ~~H ~~3no~orn~ecKon' r~c~xo~orn~ecKon ~ MeTabo~ecKon a,~ar~Taunn,~o lICTIO3IB30BaH~ AX B 3KCHepUMeHTe. ~HTe~BHOCTB Hepno~a a~anTaunn 3asucuT OT cr~ocoba ~ HpO~O~HTe~BHOCTH TpaHCHOpTHpOBKH *HBOTH~X, Baja *lIBOTHEIX ~ OT XapaKTepa OX Hpe~HO~araeMOrO ~CH0~30BaHHH. HeO6XO~HMOCTB B Reprove a~anTaunn upo~eMoHcTpuposaHa Ha Mumax, KpLICaX, MOpCKlIX CBlIHKaX lI K03aX; lIO BCelI BlI~HMOCTH, TaKOH HO~XO~ Coo6pa3eH H~pyrUXB~OB ~BOTHEIX [Drozdowicz et al., l990; Jelinek, 1971; Landi et al., 1982; Prasad et al., 1978; Sanhouri et al., 1989; Tuli et al., 1995; Wallace, 1976~. Pa3~e~EHOe CO~ep~aHHe *HBOTH~X pa3H~X BLOB HMeeT cBoen Hereto rIpe~yrIpe~nTB Me~su~osyIo rIepe~alIy lIH~eK~H ~ ~CK~IOHUTB HO~B~eHHe TpeBOrlI lI B03MO*HEIe ~3~0~0rn~ecKne ~ nose~eH~ecKne H3MeHeHH~, 06yC~oB~eHHMe Me*BH~OB~MU KOH~HKTaMH. ~~3~ecKoe pa3~e~eHne 06~Ho 06eCHeHUBaeTCH pa3Me~eHHeM *HBOTH~X pa3H~X BLOB B OT~e~BH~X lIOMeILleH~X; B03MO*HEIM a~BTepHaTHBHEIM MeTO~OM BUTCH ~CHO~B30BaHHe He60~B~UX KOMHaT, 60KCoB C ~aM~HapHEIM HOTOKOM B03~yXa, K~eTOK, 060py~0BaHHEIX CaMOCTO~Te~BHOH CHCTeMOH BeHT~HH ~n ~BTpa~HH B03~yXa, ~ H30~HTOpOB. B HeKoTop~Ix cuTyaun~x ~onycKaeTc~ co~ep~aHne ~IBOTHEIX pa3HEIX B~OB B O~HOM HOMe~eHHU, HaUpUMep B c~y~ae, ec~n ~sa B~a lIMeIOT aHa~OrHUHEIU CTaTyC H0 HaTOreHHOH M~KpOC Mope ~ cosMecTuM~I B HOBe~eHHeCKOM aCHeKTe. H eKOTOpLIe BH~BI *HBOTHEIX MOryT 6BITB HOCHTe~SIMU Cy6K~HHHHeCKHX H~n ~aTeHTHEIX UH~eK~H, KOTOpLIe HpH rIepe~alIe ~pyroMy BH~y *HBOTHEIX MOryT BBI3BaTB y HUX K~HHHHeCKOe HpOSIB~eHHe 3a60~esaH~. HeCKO~BKO HpUBe~eHHEIX HH*e HpUMepOB MOryT HOMOUB OUpe~e~eHUIO HeO6XO~HMOCTH pa3~e~BHOrO CO~ep~aH~ *HBOTHEIX pa3HEIX B~OB. Bordetella bronchiseptica 06BI~HO BBI3BIBaeT TO~BKO Cy6K~HHHHeCKyIO lIH~eK~HIO y KpO~HKOB, HO MO*eT CTaTB HpHHUHOH TH*e~OrO peCHUpaTOpHOrO 3a60~eBaH~ y MOpCKHX CB~HOK [Manning et al., 1984]. KaK lIpaB~O, HpUMaTEI Hosoro CBeTa (~*HaH AMep~Ka) ~ a~p~KaHCKHe HaTCKHe BH~BI 06e3B~H CTapOrO CBeTa ~O~*HEI CO~ep~aTBCH B pa3HEIX rIOMe~eHH~X, TaK KaK, HaTIpUMep, so36y~nTe~ reMopparn~ecKon JI~xopa~Ku obe3~H [Palmer et al.,1968] ~ supyc nMMyHo~e~uL~nTa obe3~H [Hirsch et al., 1991; Murphey-Corb et al., 1986] s~I3~IsaIoT ~mB Cy6K~HHHHeCKHe UH~eK~H y a~p~KaHCKHX BH~OB 06e3B~H, HO 06yC~OB~HBaIOT ~HHHHeCKHe HpO~B~eH~ 60~e3HU y a3HaTCKHX BH~OB. ~IBOTHEIX HeKOTOpLIe BH~OB C~e~yeT CO~ep~aTB B pa3HEIX HOMe~eH~X ~a~e ec~n OHlI rIpOlICXO~HT H3 O~HOH ~ TOH ~e reorpa~ecKon 30HEI. HarIpuMep' 6eJI~En o6e3EHHEI (Saimiri sciureus) MoryT 6BITE HOCHTeJISIMn JIaTeHTHon ~OpMBI B~pyca Herpesvirus tamarinus, KOTOpLIn rIpH rIepe'~alIe MO*eT BBI3BaTB 3rIn3ooTHn ~ rn6e~B Mnp~KuHn (Aotus trivirgatus3 [Hunt, Melendez, 1966i, MapM03eTOKUTaMap~HOB (Saguinusoedipus, S. nigricollis) [Holmes et al., 1964; Melnick et al., 1964~. . . K pa3~eJIBHoMy co~ep~aHnIo *HBOTHEIX O~HOrO ~ TOrO ~e B~a MO*HO rIpH6eraTB B TeX c~yHa~x, Kor~a ~BOTHEIe, rIocTyrInBmne H3 pa3HEIX ~eHTpOB ~n nCTOIIH~KOB (KOMMeplIeCKHX ~n nHCTHTyTCKHX), ~B~HIOTCH HOCHTe~HMn

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BETEPB~P~BOMO~L 65 pa3JIlIIIHEIX HaTOreHHEIX M~KpOOpraHH3MOB, HaUpUMep, B~pyCa CHa~O~aKpHOa~eHUTa KpLIC, B~pyca renaTHTa MBImen7 Pasteurella multocida y KpO~HKOB, Cercopithecine herpesvirus I(paHee HOCK Ha3BaHHe Herpesvirus simiae) y pa3~HHEIX BLOB MaKaKOB ~ Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae y CB~HeH. Ha6~10~eHMe, ~HarHOCT~Ka, ~e~eHMe ~ KOHTpO~b Sa60~eBaHMM Bce *HBOTHEIe ~O~*HEI HaXO~HTBCH HO~ HOCTO~HHEIM Ha6~IO~eHHeM COOTBeTCTByIO~HM o6pa3oM HO~rOTOB~eHHOrO cneuna~ncTa Ha Hpe~MeT BBI~B~eHH~ y HUX HpH3HaKOB 3a60~eBaHH~, TpaBMBI H~H OTK~OHeHHU OT HOpMa~BHOrO HOBe~eH~. KaK HpaB~O, TaKOH OCMOTp ~BOTHEIX BBIHO~HHeTCH e~e~HeBHO, O~HaKO B HeKOTOpLIX CHTya~X, HaUpUMep B nepno~ soccTaHos~eHn~ r~oc~e or~epaunn, 60~e3Hn ~n ~3~ecKnx HapymeHnn' peKOMeH~yeTCH ocMaTpUBaTB *HBOTHEIX Hame. II Hao6opoT, B HeKOTOpLIX c~yHa~x, HarIpuMep rIpH co~ep~aHHn *HBOTHEIX B 60~Bm~X 3aroHax Ha OTKpLITOM Bo3~yxe' e~e~HeBHEIn OCMOTp Ka;KD;OrO *HBOTHOrO rIpaKTHIIeCKH HeBBIrIo~HuM. IIO8TOMY crIe~Ha~ncTEI ~O~*HEI orIpe~e~nTB HaCTOTy ~ xapaKTep rIpOBe~eH~ OCMOTpa ~BOTHEIX, rapaHTHpyIo~nx ux ~O~*HOe COCTO~HHe. BBI~B~eHHe 3a6o~eBaHHn ~ ux'~HarHocT~Ka'~o~*HEI ocy~ecTB~HTBcH C HpUMeHeHHeM COOTBeTCTByIO~UX MeTO~OB. 06~3aTe~BHEIM Tpe60BaHHeM ~B~HeTCH He3aMe~nTe~BHEIn '~oK~a'~ O c~y~a~x BHe3arIHon rn6e~n *HBOTHEIX, rIo~B~eH~ y HuX rIpH3HaKoB 3a6o~eBaH~' ~ncTpecca ~ ~pyrux OTK~OHeHHn OT HOpMBI, IITO HeO6XO~HMO ~H OKa3aHH~ CBOeBpeMeHHOH BeTep~HapHOH Me~HHCKOH HOMO~. *HBOTHEIX, y KOTOpLIX HO~B~HIOTCH HpH3HaKH KOHTarH03HOrO 3a60~eBaHUSI, C~e~yeT H30~HpOBaTB OT 3~0pOBBIX ocoben B KO~OHHH. Ec~n yCTaHOB~eHO H~H Hpe~HO~araeTCH, HTO *HBOTHEIe B OlIpe~e~eHHOM HOMe~eHHU KOHTaKTHpOBa~H C UH~eK~HOHHEIM areHTOM (HarIpuMep7 Mycobacterium tubercolisis B c~y~ae HpUMaTOB), TO BCe ~BOTHEIe ~O~*HEI co~ep~aTEcH KaK e~nHaH rpynna B TeHeHHe Bcero Hpouccca HarHOCT~K~, ~eHeHH~ ~ KOHTpO~. MeTO~BI HpO~aKT~K~, ~HarHOCT~KH ~ ~eHeH~ 3a60~eBaHHU ~O~*HEI COOTBeTCTBOBaTB Hp~H~TEIM B HaCTOH~ee BpeMR B BeTep~HapHOH HpaKT~Ke. Yc~yrn, r~pe,~ocTas~eM~Ie ,~narHocTu~ecK~Mn ~abopaTopu~Mn o6~er~a~oT OKa3aHlIe BeTeplIHapHOlI lIOMOILllI lI MOryT BK]IIOHaTB MaKpO- lI MlIKpOCKOHUIO, KJIlIHlIIIe CKyIO HaTO~ OrHIO ~ re M aTo~ OrHIO ~ M~Kp O 6~0~0rHIO, K~HHHHe CKyIO 6~0X~M~IO ~ cepo~ornIo. BBI60P Me~HKaMeHT03HEIX ~ ~pyrux TepanesT~ecKnx cpe,~cTs ocymecTs~qeTc~ seTep~HapoM rIoc~e KoHcy~BTaL~n c ncc~e,~osaTe~eM. COr~aCOBaHHEIU ~aH ~eHeHH~ ~O~eH 6BITB 060CHOBaHHEIM C Me~HHCKOH TOIIKlI 3peH~ lI, ec~n 3TO B03MO*HO, He ~O~*eH OKa3BIBaTB He~e~aTe~BHOrO B3I~H~ Ha 3KCTIeplIMeHT. Cy6K~HH~eCKHe lIH~eK~H, BBI3BIBaeMBIe M~KpOOpraHH3MaM~, OC06eHHO B~pyCHEIe UH~eK~H, (CM. HpH~. A) HaCTO BCTpeHaIOTCH y rpLI3yHOB B KOHBeH~HOHa~BHEIX yC~OBH~X CO~ep~aHHH; O~HaKO OHU MOryT B03H~KaTB B BUBap~X, Hpe~Ha3HaHeHHEIX ~H HpOH3BO~CTBa ~ ~CHO~B30BaH~ CB060~HEIX OT lIaTOreHHOlI MlIKpO~JIOpLI rpLI3yHoB, B cJIylIae HapymeHnH M~Kpo6Horo 6apBepa. IlpuMepaMn nH~eK~HOHHEIX areHTOB, KOTOpLIe BBI3BIBaIoT cy6K~nH~ecKoe TeHeHHe 3a6o~esaH~' HO rIpH 3TOM nH~y~HpyIoT r~y6oKne HMMyHO~OrHHeCKHe H3MeHeHUSI H~n 06yC~OB~HBaIOT H3MeHeHH ~3~0JIOrUlIeCKHX, ~apMaKOJIOr~eCKHX ~n TOKCIIKOJIOrlIIIeCKlIX peaKL~n' MOryT C~y*nTB B~pyC ceH~an' KpLICHHEIn B~pyC K~x3Ma7 B~pyC MBIm~HOrO

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66 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL reHaTHTa, B~pyC ~HM~O~HTapHOrO XOpHOMeHUHrUTa ~ Mycoplasma pulmonis [NRC, l991a, bJ. Hay~Hme sa,~a~n KoHKpeTHoro 3KcrIepuMeHTa, rIoc~e,~cTs~ lIH~eK~HOHHOrO Sapa~eHH~ ~~H ~aHHOH ~HHHU rpM3yHOB, a TaK*e He6~arorIp~THoe B~HS[HHe, KOTOpOe rIaToreHHa~ M~KpO~Opa MO*eT OKaSaTB Ha,~pyrne 3KCTIeplIMeHTEI, BBIHO~HHeMBIe B BUBapHU, ~O~*HEI OUpe~e~HTB OC06eHHOCTH HpOrpaMMBI 06eCHeHeHH~ 3~OpOBB~ rpLI3yHOB ~ CTpaTerHIO CO~ep~aH~ rpLI3yHOB, CB060~HEIX OT CHe~eCKHX HaTOreHOB. OCHOBHEIM MeTO~OM 06Hapy~eHH~ B~pyCHEIX UH~eK~HH ~B~HeTCH cepo~orn~ecKnn aHa~3. ,~pyrne MeTO~BI BBI~B~eH~ M~KpO6HEIX UH~eK~H, HaUpUMep 6aKTepHa~BHEIe Ky~BTypLI, rucTonaTo~orn~ecKne TeCTEI, aHa~3 ,~HK c ncrIo~B30saHneM rIo~uMepa3Hon ~erIHon peaKunn, ,~O~*HEI HpUMeHSITBCH B COHeTaHH~X, HaH60~ee HO~HO OTBeHaIO~UX KOHKpeTHEIM Tpe60BaHUSIM K~HHHHeCKHX ~ ~CC~e~OBaTe~BCKHX HpOrpaMM. TpaHCH~aHTHpyeMBIe oDyxo~H, rH6pH~0MBI, K~eTO~HEIe ~HHHU ~ ~pyrne 6~0~0r~eCKHe MaTepHa~BI MOryT OKa3aTBCH ~CTO~H~KaMU MBI~HHEIX B~pyCOB, KoTop~Ie MoryT KoHTaM~HuposaTB rp~I3yHos [Nicklas at al., 1993~. Ilpu s~I6ope MeTO,~a C~e,~yeT y'IHTEIBaTB B03MO*HOCTB lICHO3IB30BaH~ TeCTOB Ha HpO,~KIlHIO MBI~HHEIX, KpLICHHEIX ~ XOM~UX aHTHTe~, KOTOpLIe ~B~HIOTCH 3~eKTHBHEIM cpe,~cTsoM o6Hapy~eH~3apa~eH~ 6no~or~ecKnxMaTepua~os supycaMn [de Souza, Smith, 1989; NRC, l991cJ. X0PYPEH IlpaBlIJIBHOe HpOBe~eHHe Hpe~OHepa~HOHHOH HO~rOTOBKH *HBOTHEIX, oGy~eHne r~epcoHa~a' ncr~0~30saHne COOTBeTCTBylO~UX acenTu~ecKnx ~ XlIpyprlIIIeCKlIX MeTO~OB, COCTO~HHe 3~0pOBB~ ~ ~3~0~0rHHeCKHU CTaTyC ~IBOTHEIX Ha BCeX 3TaHaX 3KCHepUMeHTa OKa3BIBaIOT B~HHHe Ha pe3y~BTaTEI X~pypr~eCKOrO BMe~aTe~BCTBa (CM. Hp~. A: >~. CTeHeHB B~HHH~ 3TUX ~aKTOpOB BapB~pyeT B 3aBUCHMOCTH OT C~O*HOCTH ncrIoJIB3yeMBIx rIpoue~yp ~ sn~a *HBOTHEIX. KOJIJIeKTHBHEIU HO~XO~ K pea~3a~n x~pyprnHecKoro 3TarIa pa6oT HacTo yse~nsaeT Bepo~THocTE ero ycrIemHoro ocy~ecTB~eHH~ 6~aro~apH yHacTHIo crIe~Ha~ncTos pa3Horo rIpo~ [Brown, Schofleld, 1994; Brown at al., 1993~. H eO6XO~HMO HpOBO~HTB HOCTO~HHyIO ~ T~aTe~BHyIO HpOBepKy pe3y~BTaToB x~pypr~ecKHx BMemaTe~BcTB, HTO6BI o6ecrIeHuTB co6~Io~eHHe cooTBeTcTByIo~nx rIpoLle'~yp ~ CBOeBpeMeHHOe BBIrIOJIHeHHe KoppHrupyIo~nx MaHurIyJI~LlHH. IlpH rIpOBe~eHHn orIepaLlHn MO*eT BO3H~KHyTB ~eJIaHHe ~n ~a~e Heo6xo~HMocTB MO~nKaLlHn CTaH~apTHEIX MeTO~nK (HarIpuMep, rIpH pa60Te C rpLI3yHaMU B HO~eBBIX yC~OBH~X); O~HaKO H3MeHeH~ MeTO~HK He ,~O~*HEI oTpa~aTBcH Ha COCTO~HHU *HBOTHEIX. IIPH ncHo~B3oBaHHU MO~HpOBaHHEIX MeTO~HK HpOBepKa pe3y~BTaTOB x~pyprn~ecKnx BMemaTe~BcTB ,~O~*Ha rIpoBo'~nTBcH C e~e 6o~Bmen T~aTe~BHocTBIo H, MO*eT 6BITB, C rIpuMeHeHHeM '~orIo~HuTe~BHEIx KpuTepHeB, He orpaH~nsaIo~nxcH 06~mHEIMn rIoKa3aTe~RMn 3a6o~eBaeMocTH ~ CMepTHOCTH. IlpH ~aHupOBaHHn orIepa~n Heo6xo'~HMo y~ecTB MHeHHe BCeX ~eHOB ~ - x~pypr~ecKon OpHra,~BI, B TOM lIncJIe Be,~y~ero x~pypra ~ ero accHcTeHToB, aHecTe3HoJIora' BeTep~Hapa' rIepcoHaJIa' yxa*HBalo~ero 3a *HBOTHEIMn, ~ ncc~e'~oBaTe~en. B ~aHe rIpoBe,~eH~ x~pypr~ecKon orIepa~n,~o~HEI 6BITE yKa3aHEI ~aMH~Hn ~CHO~HUTe~eH, ux 06~3aHHoCTH ~ HeO6XO~HMOCTB oGy~eHn~, o60py,~osaHne ~ pacxo,~yeM~Ie MaTepua~I' HeO6XO~HMBIe ~H

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BETEPB~P~BOMO~L 67 s~Ir~o~HeHn~ 3ar~aHuposaHH~Ix r~poue~yp [Cunliffe-Beamer, 1993]; MeCTOpaCTIO3IO*eHlIe lI Ha3HaqeHlIe lIOMeILleHlIlI, B KOTOpLIX HpOBO~HTCH BTH rIpoL~e~yp~I, a TaK*e rIpe~~orIepaLlHoHHaH OLleHKa COCTOS[HlISI *lIBOTHEIX se~eHne r~oc~eor~epaunoHHoro r~epno~a [Brown, Schofield, 1994~. B c~yqae XlIpyprlIqeCKOrO BCKpLIT~ HeCTep~BHOrO yqaCTKa Terra ~BOTHOrO, HaUpUMep ~e~y~OqHO-KnIIIeqHOrO TpaKTa, ~n s~IrIoJIHeHnn rIpoL~e~yp, KOTOp~Ie MOryT BBI3BaTB HMMyHOCyHUpeCCHIO, noKa3aHa upe~onepaunoHHa~ aHTu6noT~KoTepar~ [Klement at al., 1987~. Ilpu BTOM, O~HaKO, HpUMeHeHHe aHTH6~0T~KOB HU B KOeM c~yqAe He MO*eT paCCMaTpUBaTBCH KaK 3aMeHa acerITaqecKnx rIpoL~e~yp. Ba*Ho obecr~eq~T~ HeO6XO~HMylO HO~rOTOBKy nepcoHa~a onepaunoHHoro 6~0Ka, CHOCO6HOrO BBIHO~H~TB Ha ~O~*HOM ypOBHe X~pypr~qeCKHe MaHHUyMR~H, T.e. C06~IO~eHHe aCeUT~K~, aKKypaTHOe o6pameHne c TKaH~M~ MlIHlIMa3IBHOe pacceqeHne TKaHeH, HpaB~BHOe ncuo~B30saHne UHCTpyMeHTOB 3C ~C JeKTHBHEIU reMOCTa3 ~ HpaB~BHOe ~CHO~B30BaHHe ~OBHOrO MaTepH Ha~O*eHHe ~BOB [Chaffee, 1974; Wingfield, 1979~. Cr~euna~ncT~I, BBIHO~H~IO~He X~pypr~qeCKHe HpO~e~ypLI B yC~OBH~X HayqHO- ~CC~e,~OBaTe~BCKOH ~a60paTopun, ~ ux aCCHCTeHTEI qaCTO HMeIOT o6pa3osaHne B CaMBIX pa3HEIX 06~aCT~X, HO8TOMy MO*eT B03H~KHyTB HeO6XO~HMOCTB B UX cTIe~Ha~EHoH HO~rOTOBKe, Hpe~BapHIo~eH yqAcTHe B x~pypr~qecKHx orIepaun~x Ha ~BOTHEIX. HarIpuMep, ~Ua, HO~rOTOB~eHHEIe K HpOBe~eHUIO orIepaLlHn Ha ~IO'~X, MOryT Hy*~aTBCH B CHe~Ha~BHOH HO~rOTOBKe IplIMeHlITe3IBHO K OCO6eHHOCTHM aHaTOMHU ~ ~3~0~0rnn *HBOTHEIX, UCTBUIO Ha HUX aHeCTeT~KOB ~ aHa~BreT~KOB ~H Tpe60BaH~M K Be~eHUIO rIoc~eorIepa~HoHHoro rIepHo,~a. pa3pa6oTaHHEIe rIoco6~H rIo x~pypraqecK~M OHepa~HM B HayqHO-HCC~e~OBaTe~BCKHX ~a60paTopH~X, yq~TEIBaIO~He pa3H~In yposeHB rIo~roTosKu crIeuna~ncTos [ASR, 1989i, MoryT rIoMoqB UHCTHTyTaM B pa3pa60TKe CBO~X rIporpaMM oGyqeH~ rIepcoHa~a. Ilpas~a PHS ~ AWRs so3JIaraIoT Ha IACUC OTBeTCTBeHHOCTB 3a onpe~e~eHHe ypOBH~ KBa3IlI~HKa~H ~ HO~rOTOBKH CHe~Ha~HCTOB, BBIHO~HRIO~UX X~pypr~qeCKHe orIepaLlHH. B o6meM' x~pypr~qecKne orIepaLlHn pa3~eJIHIoT Ha'~Be KaTeropHn o6~HpHEIe ~ Me~Kne7 a B yC~OB~X HayqHO-HCC~e~OBaTe~BCKOH ~a60paTOpHU OHlI MoryT rIo'~pa3~e~HTEcH Ha orIepaLlHn, rIpuBo,~He ~n He rIpuBo'~He K rn6e~n *HBoTHoro. o6~HpHaH orIepa~H, He rIpuBo,~aH K rn6e~n *lIBOTHOrO, lIpe~HO~araeT BCKpLITHe ~ 3KCH03~HIO HO~OCTH Te~a H~H BBI3BIBaeT Cy~eCTBeHHOe HapymeHne ~3nqecKnx H~n ~3~0~0r~qecKnx ~yHK~H (HpUMepOM MO*eT C~y*HTB ~aHapOTOMH~, TOpaKOTOMH KpaHlIOTOMlISI, 3aMemeHne CyCTaBa ~ aMlIyTaLlH~ KOHeqHOCTlI). Me~Ka~ orIepa~H, He rIpuBo'~aH K rn6e~n ~BOTHOrO, He BK~IOqAeT ~KCH03~10 rIO3IOCTlI Te3Ia lI 06yC3IOB3IlIBaeT He3Haq1ITe3ILHOe (~H Hy~eBOe) Hapy~eHHe ~3HqeCKHX ~yHK~H (HpUMepOM MO*eT C~y~TB Ha~O*eHHe ~BOB, BBe~eHHe KaHIO~H B HepH~ep~qeCKHe COCy~BI; K H0~06HEIM OHepa~M TaK*e OTHOCHTCH TaKlIe pyTlIHHEIe HpO~e~ypLI, KOTOpLIM HO~BepraIOTCH Ce~BCKOX03~HCTBeHHEIe *lIBOTHEIe, KaK KaCTpa~H, CHH~HBaHHe pOrOB ~ B0paB~eHHe BBIHaB~UX opraHos; rIp~qeM 6oJIBIIInHcTso rIepoq~cJIeHH~Ix rIpoL~e~yp 06~IqHo BBIHO~HReTCH B aM6y~aTOpHEIX yC~OBH~X BeTep~HapHOH ~HH~KH) . Me~KHe HpO~e~ypLI qaCTO BBIHO~H~IOTCH B MeHee ~eCTKHX yC~OB~X, qeM 06~HpHEIe X~pypr~qeCKHe BMe~aTe~BCTBa; TeM He MeHee, OHU TaK*e ~O~*HEI IpOBO~HTBCH C C06~IO~eHHeM aCeUT~K~, ~CHO~B30BaHHeM CHe~Ha~BHEIX

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68 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL UHCTPYMeHTOB ~ COOTBeTCTBY]O~eH aHeCTe3~. XOTH ~aTIaPOCKOTIH~ 06~HO rIpoBo'~nTcH B aM6y~aTopHux yC~OBH~X, OHa ,~O~*Ha BurIo~H~TBcH C co6~Io'~eHHeM COOTBeTCTBylO~nX repast acerIT~Kn' rIocKo~BKy aTa Crepe rIpe,~rIo~araeT rIpOH~KHOBeHHe B rIO~ocTE Terra. IlpH BurIo~HeHHn x~pyprnHecKHx orIepa~n, rIpuBo'~nx K rn6e~n *HBoTHoro7 *HBoTHoe yMep~B~IoT'~o era B~XO,~a HS HaPKO3a. B c~yHae rIo'~o6Hux orIepa~n Heo6~saTe~EHo co6~Io,~aTE Bce BMmerIepeHuc~eHHMe Tpe6oBaHHH; HO, KaK M~HuMyM, orIepa~HoHHoe diode c~e'~yeT rIo6puTB ~ OHUCTHTB, x~pypr'~o~*eH pa6oTaTB B rIepHaTKax' a nHCTpyMeHTM ~ pa60HaH rIoBepxHocTB ,~O~*HM 6MTB HuCTuMn ~ Slattum et al., 1991 ] . B HeKOTOp~X c~yHa~x HeoT~o*HMe cHTya~n Tpe6yloT cpo~Horo X~PYPr~eCKOrO BMeIIIaTeJIECTBa B,~aJIeKO He~eaJILH~XYCJIOB~X. HarIPUMeP, BOTHOMy, co'~ep~a~eMycH Ha OTKpuTOM Bo3~yxe' Tpe6yeTcH x~pyprulIecKaH orIepa~; ero rIepeBoaKa B orIepa~HoHHMn 6~0K Mo~eT rIocTaBuTE rIo,~ yrposy *~sHB *HBOTHOrO H~n oKasaTBcH rIpaKTHHeCKH Hepea~ayeMon. TaKne cHTya~n HacTo Tpe6yloT 60~ee nHTeHcHBHoro Ha6~Io,~eHH~ rIoc~e orIepa~n COrIpOBO;K,D;alOTCH 60~BmuM puCKOM BOsH~KHOBeH~ rIoc~eorIepa~HoHHux OC~O*HeHHH. B rIo~o6Hux c~yHa~x pemeHHe ~o~*eH rIp~HuMaTs BeTeplIHapHLIlI BpalI. ACeUTHHeCKHe MeTO~M ~CHO~B3yI0TCH ~H MaKCHMa~BHO B03MO*HOrO cHn~eHn~ M~Kpo6Horo 3arp~3HeHn~ [Cunliffe-Beamer, 1993~. 3Ty 3a~a~y He~3~ pemuT~ r~yTeM r~puMeHeH~ KaKOrO-TO O~HOrO MeTO~a, r~pu60pa ~n 6aKTepuun~Horo r~per~apaTa [Schonholtz, 1976~. 06ecr~e~eHne acer~T~ecKnx yc~osun TpebyeT coTpy~Hn~ecTsa ~ co6~o~eHn~ r~pas~ sceMn ~uaMn s or~epaunoHHoM 6~oKe [Belkin, 1992; McWilliams, 1976~.3Ha~uMocTB Ka;Kn;oro MeTO,~a 3aBUCHT OT KOHKPeTHOrO X~PYPrUlIeCKOrO BMeIIIaTe~BCTBa. ACelITWIeCKlIe MeTO~M B~IOHalOT HO~rOTOBKy nauneHTa, HaUpUMep, y~a~eHne so~oc~Horo r~oKposan ~e3nH~eKun~o or~epaunoHHoro r~o~ [Hofmann, 1979~; r~o~roTosKy x~pypra, Har~puMep' obecr~e~eHne ero 06e33apa~eHHon crIeL~o~e;Kn;on, x~pypr~ecKy~o o6pa60TKy pyK ~ ncrIoJI~30saHne cTep~Hux x~pyprn~ecKnx r~ep~aToK [Chamberlain, Houang, 1984; Pereira et al., 1990; Schonholtz, 1976~; cTepu~3aun~0 nHcTpyMeHTos, pacxo~yeM~x nMr~aHTupyeM~x MaTepua~os [Kagan, 19926] ~ ncr~0~30saHne orIepaL~noHHux MeTo~os, rIo3so~0~nx yMeHBIIInTB sepo~THocTB nH~eKL~noHHoro 3apa~eHn~ [Ayliffe, 1991; Kagan, 1992a; Ritter, Marmion, 1987; Schofield, 1994; Whyte, 1988] . KoHKpeTHme MeTo~m cTepu~3aunn c~e~yeT su6upaTB Ha ocHose ulIeCKnX XapaKTepuCT~K rIo~JIe~am~x CTepnJIn3aL~n MaTepuaJIos [Schofield, 1994~. 06~Ho ncr~o~B3y~0Tc~ TaKne a~eKTusHme MeTo~m cTep~3aunn' KaK aBTOK~aB~pOBaHHe ~ o6pa60TKa ra30M. ~H or~pe,~e~eH~, r~pom~n ~n MaTepua~m ~OCTaTO~HylO 06pa60TKy, ~CHO~B3yI0T UH~HKaTOpM CTepnJIn3aL~n [Berg, 1993~. Ilpu ncrIoJI~30saHnn *~KnX X~MnIIeCKnX coe~nHeHnn cTepnJIn3aLlHIo cJIe~yeT rIposo~nTE s TelIeHne Heo6xo~uMoro rIepHo,~a BpeMeHn ~ rIepe,~ yrIoTpe6~eHHeM orIo~acK~BaTB nHCTpyMeHTEI CTePH~BHOH BO,~OH H~H ~3~0~0rUlIeCK~M PaCTBOPOM. IlpH 3TOM C~e,~YeT rIoMHuTB, IITO CTI~PT He ~BJI~eTCH HU CTePHJIH3Y]O~HM, HU CHJIBHO ,~enCTBylO~HM '~e3nH~HLlupylo~HM areHTOM ~ Rutala, 1990] . KaK rIpaB~O7 acerITHIIecKne x~pypr~ecKne orIepaLlHn He Ha rpM3yHax C~e,~YeT B~rIO~H~TB B rIpe,~Ha3HalIeHHux,~H BTOH Lle~n rIoMe~eH~x' ec~n TO~BKO ~CK~IOHeHHe He ~B~HeTCH 060CHOBaHH~M ~ Ba*H~M YC~OBUeM

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BETEPB~P~BOMO~L 69 HpOTOKO~a 3KCHepUMeHTa, KOTOpMU yTBep)K,D;aeTCH IACUC. ~O~B~HHCTBO _ ~ JaKTepHU HepeHOCHTCH B3Be~eHHEIMU B B03~yXe HaCTH~aMU ~H Hpe~MeTaM~, ~ _ lI03TOMy OlIepa~HOHHEIU COOK ~O~*eH CO~ep~aTBCH ~ ~CHO~B30BaTBCH TaK, HT06BI o6ecHeHuTB era ~nCTOTy ~ csecTn So M~HuMyMa HeHy*H~Ie nocemeH~ [AORN, 1982; Bartley, 1993~. B HeKoTop~Ix cuTyaun~x Mo~eT so3H~KHyTB HeO6XO~HMOCTB ~CHO~B30BaTB OHepa~HOHHEIU 6~0K ~H papyri Fewer. B TaKoM cyan o6~3aTe~H~IM yc~osueM ~s~eTc~ era o6pa60TKa ~ ,~ose,~eHne To O~*HOrO ypOBHR HUCTOTEI Leper upose~eHneM TaM 06~upHon onepaunn c COXpaHeHlIeM ~I3HlI ~IBOTHOMy. , ~ ~ . . maTe~BH~In MoHuTop~Hr xo,~a crepe ~ csoespeMeHHoe ycTpaHeHne BO3MO*HEIX OC3IO*HeHlIlI yBe3IlIIIlIBaIOT BepO~THOCTB ee ycnemHoro ncxo~a. MOHUTOP~Hr BK~IOHaeT rIPOBePKY r~Y6HHEI HaPKO3a ~ ~3~0~0rHHeCKHX yHKL~n, a TaK*e O~eHKy ~HH~eCKHX HpH3HaKOB ~ COCTO~H~ ~BOTHOrO. Oco60e 3HaHeHHe HMeeT rIo,~ep~aHHe HopMa~EHon TeMrIepaTypLI Terra' HTO I03BO3ISIeT CBeCTlI ~0 M~HUMyMa Hapy~eHH~ Cep~e~HO-COCy~HCTOH ,~IxaTe~BHon ~yHKunn, s~I3saHH~Ie,~encTsueM aHecTeT~Kos [Dardai, Heavner, 1987~. BE *nsoTHoro oKa3~IsaeT she Ha 3~eMeHT~I ~ nHTeHcusHocTB rIporpaMM~I see orIepaunn. B HaCTOH~ee BpeMR 06Cy)K,D;aeTCH BOrIPOC of OTHOCHTe~BHOH {IPe ~PaCTIO~O*eHHOCTH rPLI3YHOB K X~PYPr~eCKOH UH~eKLIHH; HMeIo~HecH'~aHHEIe rIo3Bo~RIoT'~yMaTB7 HTO CY6K~HH~eCKHe UH~eKUHU MOrYT BBI3BaTE He6~arOUpH~THEIe ~3~0~0rn~ecKne ~ nose~eH~ecKne peaKunn [Beamer, 1972; Bradfield et al., 1992; Cunliffe-Beamer, 1990; Waynforth, 198O, 1987i, KOTOPLIe, B CBOIO olIepe'~B' MOryT oTpa3nTBcH Ha pe3yJIBTaTax KaK x~pypr~ecKoro BMeIIIaTeJIBCTBa, TaK ~ 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHOrO ~CC~e~OBaH~. H eKOTOpLIe XapaKTepuCT~KH 06BI~HO BBIrIo~HHeMBIx x~pyprnHecKHx MaHurIyJI~LlHn Ha JIa6opaTopHEIx rpLI3yHax7 HarIpuMep 6oJIee MaJIeHBKne Ha~pe3BI, MeHB~ee KO~eCTBO ~eHOB x~pyprn~ecKon 6pura~I, BBIHO~HeHHe orIepa~n O~HOBpeMeHHO Ha ~O~B~OM KO~HeCTBe *HBOTHEIX ~ MeHBmaH rIpo~o~nTe~EHocTE orIepaLlHn rIo cpaBHeHHIo C rIpoBe~eHHeM orIepaLlHn Ha *HBOTHEIX 6oJIee KpylIHEIX BH~OB, MOrYT 06YCJIOBuTB HeO6XO~HMOCTB HJIn ,~nKaL~n CTaH,~apTH~IX aCerITnIIeCKnX MeTo,~os [Brown, 1994; Cunliffe-Beamer, 1993~. t,IMelOTCH Hy6~HKa~H, B KOTOPLIX CO~eP*aTCH peKOMeH~a~H OTHOCHTe~BHO TOrO, KaK c~e~yeT pe~aTB HeKOTOpLIe yH~KaJIBH~Ie rIpo6JIeM~I, so3H~KaIomne rIpu orIepaL~x Ha rp~I3yHax [Cunliffe- Beamer, 1983, 1993~. B o6meM, MO*HO YTBeP)K,D;aTB, HTO Ce~BCKOXO3~HCTBeHHEIe *HBOTHEIe, ~CrIO~B3YeMBIe B 6~0Me,~HHCKHX ~CC~e,~OBaHH~X, ,~O~*HEI rIO,~BePraTBCH X~pyprulIeCK~M OrIepaL~M C ncrIo~30saHneM rIpoL~e,~yp ~ rIOMemeHnn, COOTBeTCTBYIO~UX OrI~CaHHEIM B ~aHHOM pa3~e~e Tpe60saHn~M. O~HaKo HeKOTOpLIe HebO~B~He MaHHUy~H ~ HeOT~O*HEIe BMe~aTe~BCTBa, KOTOpLIe 06~HO BBIrIO~HRIOTCH B K~HH~eCKOH BeTeP~HaPHOH {IPaKT~Ke ~ B YC~OB~X, THTI~HEIX,~JI~ CeJIBCKOXO3~HCTBeHHOrO {IPOH3BO,~CTBa, MOrYT OCY~eCTBJI~TBCH B MeHee CTPOrUX YC~OBH~X, IIeM 3KCrIePUMeHTa~BHEIe X~PYPrUlIeCKHe rIpoL~e'~ypLI7 BBITIOJIHHeMBIe B 6lIOMe~HHCKOH ~a60paTopHH. ~a~e B TeX cJIy~a~x, Kor~a x~pypr~ecKne rIpoLle~ypLI BBIrIOJIHRIOTCH Ha ~ePMe, CJIe,~YeT C06~IO,~aTB HeO6XO~HMBIe upasu~a aCeUT~K~, ~CHO~B30BaTB Ce~aTHBHEIe rIperIapaT~I, aHaJIBreT~K~, aHeCTeTlIKlI lI co3,~asaTB yCJIOB~, COOTBeTCTByIO~He cTerIeHn pucKa' KOTOpOMy rIo,~sepraeTc~ 3,~0pos~e ~ 6JIarorIoJIy~ne ~soTHoro. O,~HaKO B HeKOTOPLIX CHTYaUH~X MO*eT rIOTPe60BaTBCH ~CrIO~B30BaHHe

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70 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ OrInCaHHuX BMIIIe OrIepaLInOHHuX 6JIOKOB, rIOMe~eHHn ~ rIpoLIe'~yp. IlpH ~aHupOBaHHn orIepaUnn Heo6xo'~HMo rIpe'~ycMoTpeTB Tpe6oBaH~ K lIOCJIeOlIepa~HOHHOMy MOHUTOp~Hry, yXo~y ~ ~e~OUpOH3BO~CTBy, yKa3aB Ace, OTBeTCTBeHHuX 3a ux BurIO~HeHHe. 3KcrIepuMeHTaTop ~ BeTep~Hap BMeCTe HecyT oTBeTcTBeHHocTE 3a o6ecrIeHeHHe rIoc~eorIepaUnoHHoro yxo,~a Ha ~O~*HOM ypOBHe, Ba*H~M 8~eMeHTOM KOTOpOrO ~B~HeTCH 06eCHeHeHHe Ha6~Io'~eHH~ 3a *HBOTH~M ~ BMe~aTe~BCTBa, B c~yHae Heo6Xo~HMocTH, B rIpoUecce B~XO,~a H3 HapKo3a ~ BM3~opoB~eH~. I IHTeHcHBHocTB MOHuTOp~Hra 3aBlICIIT OT BlI~a *HBOTHOrO ~ OT BMHO~HeHHOH onepaUnn; BO BpeM~ HeHOCpe~CTBeHHOrO B~XO~a H3 HapK03a OHa MO*eT 6BITB BBIme7 HeM Ha 60~ee oT,~a~eHH~Ix rIoc~eorIepaunoHH~Ix aTarIax. B rIepHo'~ BBIXO~a H3 HapK03a ~IBOTHOe ~O~*HO HaXO~HTBCH B HUCTOM ~ CyXOM HOMe~eHHU HO~ pery~HpHEIM Ha6~Io,~eHHeM crIe~Ha~EHo o6y~eHHoro rIepcoHa~a. Oco60e BHuMaHHe c~e,~yeT y,~eJI~TE TepMOperyJI~LlHU opraHn3Ma' Cep,~elIHO-COCy,~HCTOH ~ ~BIXaTe~EHOH ~yHKLl~M, rIpo~BJIeHnIo rIOCJIeOrIepaLlHOHHOn 60JIn ~ncKoM~opTa rIpH BBIXO~e H3 HapK03a. ~pH BTOM MO*eT HOTpe60BaTBCH HpOBe~eHHe ~OHO~HUTe~BHEIX MepOUpH~THU, B TOM Huc~e HapeHTepa~BHoe BBe~eHHe *n,~KocTen ,~JI~ rIo,~,~ep~aHn~ so,~Ho-coJIesoro 6aJIaHca [FBR, 1987i, aHaJIEreT~Kos ~n ,~pyrux rIperIapaTos; o6pa6oTKa x~pypr~ecKnx pa3pe30s se,~eHne HeO6XO~HMBIX ~ypHa~OB perucTpaunn. Iloc~e BBIXO,~a H3 HapKo3a Ha6~Io'~eHHe 3a *HBOTHEIMU CTaHOBUTCH, KaK HpaB~O, MeHee T~aTe~BHEIM; TeM He MeHee, OHO ~O~*HO 6BITB HanpaB~eHo Ha OCHOBHEIe 6no~orn~ecKne ~yHK~H, B~IOHaH noTpe6~eHne ~ BBIBe~eHHe HH~H ~ BO~BI, noBe~eHHecKne HpH3HaKH noc~eonepa~HoHHon 60~7 lIOSIB3IeHlIe lIOC3IeOlIepa~HOHHEIX UH~eK~H, COCTO~HHe x~pyprn~ecKnx paH, BK]IIOHaH HepeBH3K~, ~ CBOeBpeMeHHOe y~a~eHHe ~BOB, 3a~MOB ~H CKo60K [UFAW, 1989~. bOJlb, AHAJIbrE31111 11 AHECTE31111 H eOT~eM~eMBIM 3~eMeHTOM BeTep~HapHOH Me~HHEI ~B~HeTCH rIpe'~yrIpe;K'D;eHHe ~n yMeHBIIIeHHe 60JIn, CBH3aHHOn C 3KCTIepUMeHTaJIBHEIMn H X~pypr~eCK~MU HpO~e~ypaMH. ~O~B Hpe~CTaB~eT co60H KOM~eKCHOe O~y~eHHe, 06BI~HO B03H~KaIO~ee H0~ ~eUCTBUeM pa3~pa*HTe~H, KOTOpLIU pa3pymaeT ~n MO*eT BBI3BaTB pa3pymeHne TKaHeH. CHOCO6HOCTB ~CHEITEIBaTB 60JIB ~ pearUpOBaTB Ha Hee ~HpOKO paCHpOCTpaHeHa B *HBOTHOM M~pe. BBI3BIBaI0~H 60~B pa3~pa*HTe~B 06yC~oB~HBaeT peaK~HIO OT~eprUBaH~ lI36eraHlISI. ~O~B ~B~HeTCH CTpeCCOpOM, KOTOpLIU MO*eT, ec~n ero He CH~TB, lIplIBeCTlI K pa3BlITlIIO y *HBOTHEIX HeUpHeM~eMOrO ypOBH~ CTpeCCa ~ ,~ncTpecca. IlpaBlIJIBHOe HpUMeHeHHe aHeCTeT~KOB ~ aHa~BreT~KOB y 3KCTIeplIMeHTaJIBHEIX ~BOTHEIX Hpe~CTaB~HeT co60H 06~3aTe~BHoe 3T~eCKOe HaylIHoe Tpe60BaHHe. Ily6JIHKa~HH <<~pH3HaHHe ~ o6~erHeHHe 60~H ~ CTpa~aHH~ ~a6opaTopHEIx *HBOTHEIX>> [NRC, 1992] SIB~SIeTCSI XOpOmuM nCTO~H~KOM nH~opMa~n rIo BOUpOCaM B03H~KHOBeH~ 60~H ~ ee yCTpaHeH~ (CM. TaK*e rIp~. A). 06SI3aTe~BHEIM yC~OBUeM yCTpaHeH~ 60~H y ~BOTHEIX ~B~HeTCH yMeHHe pacrIo3HaBaTB K~nH~eCKne rIpH3HaKH ee rIpO~B~eH~ y ~BOTHEIX pa3~HlIHEIx B~OB ~ Hughes, Lang, 1983; Soma, 1 987l . ~BoTHEIe pa3HEIx B~OB rIo-pa3HoMy pearupyloT Ha 60JIB [Breazile, 1987; Morton, Griffiths, 1985; Wright et al., 1985~; H03TOMy KpUTepHU O~eHKH CTeHeHU 60~H y pa3HEIX BH~OB oT~HaIoTcH.

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BETEPB~P~BOMO~L 71 HeKoTopme su~ocr~eun~Hme r~ose~eH~ecKne repose 60~n n~n ~HCTpeCCa ~CHO~B3yI0TCH KaK OX HOKa3aTe~; K HUM OTHOCHTCH H3~aBaHHe 3syKos, ~erIpecc~ ~n ~pyrne n3MeHeH~ Rosen, Heo6ulIHun sHeIIIHnn Bus ~H H03a ~ HeHO~B~HOCTB [NRC, 1992~. B BTOH CBH3H OHeHB Ba*HO, HTo6M HepCOHa~, OCy~eCTB~SIlO~H yXo~ 3a *HBOTH~MU H~H OX ncr~o~B30saHne, 6~ xopomo 3HaKoM c su~ocr~eun~HuMn (n lIH~HBH~ya~EHEIMH) HOBe~eHHeCK~M~, ~3~0~0rn~ecK~Mn ~ 6~0X~M~eCK~MU HOKa3aTe~RMU COCTOS[H~ ~BOTH~X [Dresser, 1998; Dubner, 1987; Kitchen, et al., 1987]. B LleJIOM, CJIe,~YeT CII~TaTE, IITO rIpoLle~ypu, BM3MBaIO~He 60~B Y qe~OBeKa, TaK*e 06YC~OB~HBaIOT BO3H~KHOBeHHe 60~H Y ~BOTHEIX, echo He H3BecTHo ~n He yCTaHOB~eHO rIpOTHBOrIO~O*HOe ~B~eHHe [IRAC, 1985]. ~ _ BMbOp OUTHMa~EHOrO aHa~reT~Ka H~n aHeCTeT~Ka onpe~e~eTc~ rIPO~eCCHOHa~BHEIM OTIBITOM CTIeLIHa~HCTOB, KOTOPLIe CTPeM~TCH Y,~OB~eTBOPUTB K~HH0qeCKHe ~ rYMaHHEIe TPe60BaH~, He ~ePTBY~ rIPH ATOM HayqHEIMU aCHeKTaMU HpOTOKO~a ~CC~e~OBaH~. BBe~eHHe aHa~BreT~Ka So ~n BO BpeMSI orIepa~n Mo~eT yC~nTE rIoc~eorIepa~HoHHylo aHa~Ere3~Io. BBI60P 3aBUCHT OT MHOrUX ~aKTOPOB, HaTIPUMeP OT B~,~a ~ BO3PaCTa *HBOTHOrO, XaPaKTePa ~ CTerIeHU 60~H, BO3MO*HEIX 8~eKTOB KOHKPeTHEIX ~apMaKo~or~qecKnx rIperIapaTos Ha orIpe,~e~eHHEIe CIICTeMBI lI OpraHEI, HTe~BHOCTH x~pypr~qecKnx MaHHUy~H ~ 6e3onacHocTn ~aHHOrO HpeHapaTa ~H *HBOTHOrO, OC06eHHO B c~yqAe, KOr~a X~pypr~qeCKHe H~H 3KCTIeplIMeHTa3IBHEIe HpO~e~ypLI BBI3BIBaIOT HapymeHne ~3~0~0r~qecKon HK~. ~pUMeHeHHe TaKHXyCTpOUCTB, KaKTOqHO HO~OrHaHHEIe UHra~TOpLI ~ peCHUpaTOpLI HOBBI~aeT CTeHeHB 6e30HaCHoCTH ~ paC~HpHeT B03MO*HOCTH BBI6opa nHra~HOHHEIX rIperIapaToB ,~H ncrIo~B3oBaH~ rIpH orIepa~x Ha rpLI3yHax ~ ,~pyrux Me3IKlIX *lIBOTHEIX. IlpelIapaTEI OlIpe,~e~eHHEIX K~aCCOB, HaUpUMep Ce~aTHBHEIe ~ aHKCHO~HTHqeCKHe Cpe~CTBa H~n MHOpe~aKCaHTEI, He 06~a~aIOT o6e36o~nsaIomuM ~n HapKOTH3HpyIO~HM ~eUCTBUeM ~, C~e~OBaTe~BHO, He CHUMaIOT 60~eBBIe O~y~eH~. O~HaKO UX MO*HO ~CHO~B30BaTB B COqeTaHHU C HpaBH~BHO H0~06paHHEIMU aHa~BreT~KaMn ~ aHeCTeT~KaMH. MHOpe~aKCaHTEI (HaUpUMep, HaHKypOHHH) nHor~a HpUMeH~IOTCH ~H oKa3aH~ rIapaJIn3yIo~ero 3~eKTa Ha CKe~eTHEIe MBI~BI BO BpeMR onepa~n C rIpuMeHeHHeM o6~ero HapKo3a [Klein, 1987]. t,ICH0~30BaHHe TaKHX HpeHapaTOB BO BpeM~ x~pypr~qecKon orIepa~n H~n ~Io60n ,~pyron 60JIe3HeHHOlI lIpOLle,~ypLI ~CK~IOqAeT MHOrlIe lIplI3HaKlI, CB~eTeJIBCTByIO~He o r~y6nHe HapKo3a' H3-3a rIapa~nqa MycKy~aTypLI. TeM He MeHee' peaK~n BereTaTlIBHOlI HepBHOlI CIICTeMBI B qaCTHOCTH, BHe3aDHOe H3MeHeHHe qaCTOTEI Cep~eqHEIX COKpa~eHHU H~n apTepua~BHoro ~aB~eHHH) MOryT C~y*HTB rIoKa3aTeJI~Mn 60JIn, o6ycJIoBJIeHHon He,~OCTaTOqHOn rJIy6nHon HapKo3a. IlpH Heo6xo'~HMocTH ncrIo~3oBaHH~ rIapa~3yI0~ero rIperIapaTa peKOMeH~yeTCH 3apaHee onpe~e~nT~ a~eKBaTHEIU o6~eM aHeCTeT~Ka Ha OCHOBe pe3yJIBTaTOB aHa~Or~qHOH HpO~e~ypLI, B KOTOpOH ~aHHEIU aHeCTeT~K rIpuMeH~cH 6e3 6~oKaTopa [NRC, 1992] . IIOMUMO aHeCTeT~KOB, aHa~BreT~KOB ~ TpaHKBH~3aTOpOB, qaCTO 3~eKTHBHEIMn oKa3BIBaIoTcH He~apMaKoJIoraqecKne crIoco6BI KOHTpOJI7R 60JIn [NRC, 1992; Spinelli, 1990]. KaK yHOM~Ha~OCB BBI~e, MHOpe~aKCaHTEI He yCTpaH~IOT 6o~es~Ie OILlyILleH~. OHTI rIplIMeHSIlOTCH ~H OKa3aHH~ Hapa~3yI0~ero 3~eKTa Ha

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72 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ CKe~eTHylO MyCKy~aTypy ~BOTHOrO, HaXO~erOCH B COCTO~HHU r~y60Koro HapKO3a. FIX MO*HO HpUMeH~TB K *HBOTH~M, HaXO~HMCH B CO3HaHHU ~ obecr~e~eHHux ~OCTaTO~HOH BeHTH~HeH ~erKnx, HpH BMHO~HeHHU OUpe~e~eHH~X BLOB 6e360~e3HeHH~X, XOpO~O KOHTpO~HpyeM~X Henpo~no~orn~ecKnx nCc~e'~oBaHnn. TeM He MeHee' 06SI3aTe~EH~M yC~OBUeM SIB~SIeTCSI BHUMaTe~BHOe paCCMOTpeHHe no~o6Horo ~CC~e~OBaH~ IACUC c ~e~B~o obecr~e~eHn~ 6~aror~o~y~ *nsoTHoro, r~ocKo~BKy CHUTaeTCSI, HTO BC~e~CTBUe Hapa~Ha B COCTO~HHU 60~pCTBOBaHH~ MO*eT B03H~KHyTB OCTpMU CTpeCC; HpH 3TOM H3BeCTHO, HTO 60~pCTByIO~H He~OBeK, ~ _ lIapa3IlI30BaHHEIU H0~0 DHEIMU HpeHapaTaM~, MO*eT OKa3aTBCH B COCTO~HHU aMounoHa~Horo ~ncTpecca [NRC, 1992; Van Sluyters, Oberdorfer, 1991~. (311TAHA31111 3nTaHa3~ rIpe~cTas~eT co60n aKT yMep~B~eH~ ~BOTHOrO C HOMO~BIO MeTo~os, obecrIe~nsaIom~x 6~ICTpyIo rIoTepIo co3HaH~ ~ cMepTB 6e3 60~n ~n ~HCTpeCCa. ~pUMeHHeMBIe MeTO~BI ~O~*HEI COOTBeTCTBOBaTB <> [AVMA, 1993 ~ 60~ee rIo3~Hne n3~aHn~], ec~n TO~BKO OTK~OHeHHe OT HUX He OUpaB~BIBaeTCH Hay~HEIMU H~n Me~HHCK~MU coo6pa~eHn~Mu. upH orIpe,~e~eHnn a~eKBaTHOCTH Toro n~n nHoro MeTo~a c~e~yeT onepuposaT~ HecKo~BK~Mn KpuTepH~MH7 a HMeHHo: crIoco6HocTB BBI3BIBaTB rIoTepIo co3HaHH~ ~ cMepTB C MrHOBeHHEIM rIpo~B~eHHeM H~n 6e3 60~7 DMO~HOHa~BHOrO ~ncTpecca ~H cTpaxa; Ha~e*HOCTB; Heo6paTHMoCTB; BpeMR HaCTyH~eHUSI 6ecco3HaTe~BHoro C03HaHUSI; BH~OBBIe ~ B03paCTHEIe OrpaHnIIeHHH; coBMecTHMocTB C ncc~e'~oBaTe~BcK~Mn 3a'~alIaMH' a TaK*e 6e3or~acHocT~ r~epcoHa~a ~ DMO~HOHa~EHOe B03~eUCTBUe Ha Hero. 3nTaHa3~H MO*eT oKa3aTBcH Heo6xo'~HMon B KOH~e BBIrIo~HeHH~ aKcrIepuMeHTa ~n KaK crIoco6 CH~T~ 60~n ~ncTpecca7 KOTOpLIe He~B3H yCTpaHUTB obe360~nsaIomuMn, Ce~aTHBHEIMU H~H ~pyrUMU Cpe~CTBaMH. IIPOTOKO~ nCC~e,~OBaH~,~O~eH BK~IOHaTB KpUTepHn lIpUMeHeH~ anTaHa3~' HaTIpUMep, CTelIeHE ~3~ecKoro ~ rIOBe,~eHIIeCKOrO HapyIIIeHH~ ~n pa3Mep OIlyXO3IlI, KOTOpLIe ~aIOT B03MO*HOCTB BeTep~Hapy ~ ~CC~e~OBaTe~IO 6BICTpO lIplIHSITB pe~eHHe, CTpeM~CB HpH 3TOM 06eCHeHUTB ryMaHHOe OKOH~aHH BBIHO~HeHHe 3a~aH ~CC~e~OBaHHH. 3HTaHa3HSI ~O~*Ha BBIHO~H~TBCH TaK~M 06pa30M, HT06BI *HBOTHOe He ~CHEITEIBa~O ~ncTpecca. MHor~a HpH noTepe C03HaH~ ~BOTHEIe H3~aIOT 3By~ BBI~e~HIOT ~epOMOHEI. ~0 3TOH HpHHuHe ~pyrne *HBOTHEIe He ~O~*HEI rIpucyTcTsosaTB rIpu s~IrIo~HeHnn rIpoue~yp~I 3nTaHa3~n [AVMA, 1993~. BBI60P KOHKpeTHEIX HpeHapaTOB ~ MeTO~OB ~H HpOBe~eH~ 3HTaHa3~H 3aBUCHT OT BH~a *HBOTHOrO ~ 3a~aH HpOTOKO~a ~CC~e~OBaHHH. 06BI~HO Ipe,~TIOIITeHHe OT,~aeTCH lIHra3ISI~HOHHEIM ~H He~Hra~HOHHEIM X~M~eCK~M COe~HHeH~M (HaUpUMep, 6ap6HTypaTEI, UHra~HOHHEIe aHeCTeT~KH ~ C02), a He ~3ulIeCK~M MeTO~aM (HarIpuMep, L~epsuKa~Ha~ ~nC~OKaL~, ,~eKaTI~TaLl~ ~ ~CrIOJIB30BaHHe rIplIBSI3HOrO rIpoH~Ka~omero rapIIyHa). O~HaKO, B HeKOTOpLIX c~y~a~x upuMeHeHne x~Mu~ecKnx coe~nHeHnn Mo~eT oKa3aTBc~ HeB03MO*HEIM H0 Hay~HEIM coo6pa~eHn~M. ~I06BIe MeTO~BI 3nTaHa3~n ~O~*HEI paCCMaTpUBaTBCH ~ yTBep~aTBCH IACUC. 3lITaHa3~ ~O~*Ha o6~3aTe~EHo BBIHO~H~TECH HepCOHa~OM, o6~a~alo~HM HaBBIKaMU OCy~eCTB~eH~ H0~06HEIX MeTO~OB Ha *HBOTHEIX ~aHHOrO B~a;

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BETEPB~P~BOMO~L 73 rIpoue,~ypa,~o~*Ha lIpOBO,~HTBCH HpO~eCCHOHa~BHO ~ C COCTpa~aHHeM. ~aKT CMepTH ~O~*eH 6MTB yCTaHOB~eH CHe~Ha~HCTOM, KOTOpMU MO*eT OUpe~e~HTB OTCyTCTBUe HpH3HaKOB *~3HU y *HBOTHOrO ~aHHOrO Baja. 3HTaHa3~H IBOTHLIX ~BJI~eTCH T~eJIOH lIC~XOJIOr~qeCKOH rIpoL~e,~ypon ,~q HeKoTop~x cr~euna~ncTos, OCy~eCTB~SIlO~UX yam, seTep~HapHoe Ha6~o~eHne H~n 3KcrIepuMeHTa~BHme ncc~e,~osaH~, ocobeHHO7 ec~n OHU pery~SIpHO yqaCTByIOT B MepOlIplISIT~X lIO 3nTaHa3~n ~n ec~n OHlI 3MO~HOHa~BHO HpUBH3a~HCB K *HBOTHEIM, no'~BepraIo~HMcH yMep~B~eHnIo [Arluke, 1990; NRC, 1992; Rollin,1986; Wolf~e, 19 85~. I103TOMY rIpH Ha3HaqeHHn ~7 oTBeTcTBeHHux 3a ~ - BBIHO~HeHHe 3HTaHa3~H, MeHe~*epLI ~O~BI ~HTEIBaTE 3TO oncTo~Te~EcTBo7 rIOCKO~EKy OHO MO*eT oKa3aTEcH TH*e~BIM nCrIBITaHHeM '~H HeKOTOpLIX COTpy~H~KOB ~n HpaKT~KaHTOB. JIlITEPATYPA Arluke, A. 1990. Uneasiness among laboratory technicians. Lab. Anim. 19~4~:20-39. AORN (Association of Operating Room Nurses).1982. Recommended practices for traffic patterns in the surgical suite. Assoc. Oper. Room Nurs. J. 15~4~:750-758. ASR (Academy of Surgical Research). 1989. Guidelines for training in surgical research in animals. J. Invest. Surg. 2:263-268. Ayliffe, G. A. J. 1991. Role of the environment of the operating suite in surgical wound infection. Rev. Inf. Dis. 13(Suppl 10~:S800-804. AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association). 1993. Report of the AVMA panel on euthanasia. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 202~2~:229-249. Bartley, J. M.1993. Environmental control: Operating room air qualify. Today's O.R. Nurse 15~5~: 11-18. Beamer, T. C. 1972. Pathological changes associated with ovarian transplantation. Pp. 104 in The 44th Annual Report of the Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine: Jackson Laboratory. Belkin, N. J. 1992. Barrier materials, their influence on surgical wound infections. Assoc. Oper. Room Nurs. J. 55~6~:1521-1528. Berg, J. 1993. Sterilization. Pp. 124- 129 in Textbook of Small Animal Surgery, 2nd ea., D. Slatter, ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. Bradfield, J. F., T. R. Schachtman, R. M. McLaughlin, and E. K. Steffen. 1992. Behav- ioral and physiological effects of inapparent wound infection in rats. Lab. Anim. Sci. 42~6~:572-578. Breazile, J. E. 1987. Physiologic basis and consequences of distress in animals. J. Am. Vet. Med.Assoc. 191~10~:1212-1215. Brown, M. J. 1994. Aseptic surgery for rodents. Pp. 67-72 in Rodents and Rabbits: Current Research Issues, S. M. Niemi, J. S. Venable, and H. N. Guttman, eds. Bethesda, Md.: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare. Brown, M. J., and J. C. Schofield. 1994. Perioperative care. Pp. 79-88 in Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel. B. T. Bennett, M. J. Brown, and J. C. Schofield, eds. Washington, D. C.: National Agricultural Library. Brown, M. J., P. T. Pearson, and F. N. Tomson. 1993. Guidelines for animal surgery in research and teaching. Am. J. Vet. Res. 54~9~:1544-1559. Butler, T. M., B. G. Brown, R. C. Dysko, E. W. Ford, D. E. Hoskins, H. J. Klein, J. L. Levin, K. A. Murray, D. P. Rosenberg, J. L. Southers, and R. B. Swenson. 1995. Medical management. Pp. 255-334 in Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Biology and Management, B. T. Bennett, C. R. Abee, and R. Hendrickson, eds. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1991. Update: Nonhuman primate importation. MMWR, October 9, 1991. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 1993. Tuberculosis in imported non-

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