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rJIABA 4 OBOPY~OBAHHE BUBAPHR IIPaBHJIBHO CTIP O eKTHP OBaHHEIU, XOP OIII O CKOHCTPY~P OB aHHEIU, rIocTpoeHH~In ~ co,~ep~amunc~ B ,~O~HOM COCTO~HHU BUBaPHU COCTaB~HeT Ba*HEIU 3~eMeHT rIPaB~BHOrO CO,~eP*aHH~ ~ ~CrIO~B30BaHH~ *HBOTHEIX 06~erHaeT 8~eKTHBHYIO, ~KOHOMHUHYIO ~ 6e30rIaCHYIO ~KC~YaTaU~IO (CM. rIP~. A: <>~. KOHCTPYKUH~ ~ Pa3MeP BUBaPH~ OrIPe,~e~HIOTCH MaC~Ta60M ncc~e,~osaTe~BcKon pa JOTEI C *HBOTHEIMU B ,~aHHOM HaY~HOM YTIPe)K,D;eHHU, B~OM co~ep~am~xc~ B HeM ~IBOTHEIX, ~3~eCK~M PaCTIO~O*eHHeM BUBaP~ rIO OTHOIIIeHlIlO K ~pyrUM 3~aH~M y~pe~eH~ ~ reOrpa~eCKOH 30HOH, r~e OHO HaXO~HTCH. ~pH HpaBH~BHOM HpOeKTHpOBaHHU ~ CTpOUTe~BCTBe HeO6XO~HMO yHUTEIBaTB MHeHHe COTpy~H~KOB, HMeIO~UX OHEIT pa60TEI H0 cTponTe~BcTsy ~ 3KcrI~yaTaL~n susapnes, a TaK*e peKoMeH~aL~n ero HOTeH~Ha~BHEIX no~B30saTe~en. ~O~e3HEIM MO*eT OKa3aTBCH KOM0BIOTepHOe MO~e~HpOBaHHe HOBBIX COOpy~eHHU ~ pa3Me~eHH~ *HBOTHEIX B K~eTKaX [Reynolds, Hughes, 1994~. Ilpu rIpoeKTuposaHnn ~ cTponTeJIBcTse susapu~ HeO6XO~HMO C06~IO~aTB COOTBeTCTByIO~He CTpOUTe~BHEIe CTaH~apTEI ~ HOpMaTHBBI, Hp~H~TEIe B ~aHHOM ~TaTe ~ ropo~e. Mo~y~BH~Ie KOHCTpyKunn (HaUpUMep H3rOTOB3IeHHEIe H0 3aKa3y Tpe~epLI ~n rOTOBBIe KOHCTpyK~) ~O~*HEI COOTBeTCTBOBaTB Tpe60BaHH~M, OHUCaHHEIM B HaCTOH~eH r~aBe. HeO6XO~HMBIM Tpe60BaHHeM obecne~eHn~ HpaBH~BHOrO co~ep~aHn~ *HBOTHEIX ~ OXpaHEI 3~0pOBB~ 06C~y*HBaIO~erO HepCOHa~a ~B~HeTCH oT~e~eHne rIoMemeHnn, r~e co~ep~aTcH *HBOTHEIe, OT C~y~e6HEIX HOMe~eHHU, HaUpUMep Ka6HHeTOB COTpy~H~KOB ~ KOH~epeH~-3a~0B. 3To Tpe60BaHlIe MO*HO BBIHO~HUTB, pa3MeCTHB ~BOTHEIX B OT~e~BHOM KOpHyCe, KpLI~e, aTa~e H~n KOMHaTe. ~pO~yMaHHOe H~aHUpOBaHHe H03BO~HeT pa3MeCTHTB BUBapHU pH~OM H~H B6~3H C Hay~HO-HCC~e~OBaTe~BCKOH JIa60paTopnen, pa3,~eJI~B UX 6ap~epaMn TurIa TaM6ypa, Kop~opa ~n aTa~a. *HBOTHEIX C~e,~yeT CO~ep~aTB B HOMe~eHH~X, Hpe~Ha3HaHeHHEIX H~H BE~e~eHHEIX ~H BTOH ~e~n, a He B ~a60paTOpHU H3 C006pa~eHHU y~o6CTBa. 77

OCR for page 77
78 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ Echo *HBOTHMe ~O~*HM HaXO~HTBCH B ~a60paTOpHOM HOMe~eHHU B COOTBeTCTBHU C Tpe60BaH~MU ~KCHepUMeHTa~BHOrO HpOTOKO~a, OHO PONCHO HO~XO~HTB ~~H pass ~ yoga ma *HBOTH~MH; HpH HeO6XO~HMOCTH C3Ie~yeT Hp~H~TB MepLI, HaUpaB~eHHEIe Ha yMeHB~eHHe CTeHeHU pUCK 06yC~oB~eHHoro pa60TOH C ~BOTHEIMH. IIPTI BBI60pe CTpOUTe~BHEIX MaTepHa~OB upe~no~TeHne c~e~yeT OT~aBaTB Hanbo~ee 8~eKTHBHEIM ~ o6~er~aIomuM ybopKy HOMe~eHHH. ~~H OTT BHyTpeHHUX HOBepXHOCTeH HeO6XO~HMO ~CHO~B30BaTB HpO~HEIe, BO~OOTTa~K~BaIO~He, OrHeCTOUKHe ~ 6eC~OBHEIe MaTepHa~BI. ~OBepXHOCTH O~*HEI 6BITB BBICOKOyCTOHHUBBI K ~eUCTBUIO HUCTH~UX MeXaHHHeCKHX ~ XlIM~IeCKlIX Cpe~CTB, 06pa60TKe CTpyeH BO~BI HOD ~aB~eHHeM ~ K y~apaM. Ape lIOKpLITHU HOBepXHOCTeH, C KOTOpLIMU MOryT COUp~KaCaTBCH *HBOTHEIe, KpaCKOlI lI IIJIlITKOlI, Hy*HO lIpe~yCMOTpeTB ~CHO~B30BaHHe HeTOKC~eCKHX MaTepHa~OB. IlpH CTpOUTe~BCTBe COOpy~eHHU Ha OTKpLITOM BO3~yXe C~e~yeT lIplIMeHSITB MaTepHa~BI, yCTO~HBBIe K aTMOC~epHEIM BO3~eUCTB~M ~ Gecko r~o,~a~omnec~ y60pKe. G>YHK0HOH~bHbIE 30HbI Ilpu COOpy~eHHU HpaKTHUHOrO, ~yHK~HOHa~BHOrO ~ 3~eKTHBHOrO BUBapHSI, obecr~e~nsa~omero r~pasu~Hoe co,~ep~aHne ~ ncr~0~30saHne ~BOTHEIX, C~e~yeT HO~araTBCH Ha OHEIT CHe~Ha~HCTOB. MaC~Ta6, XapaKTep ~ UHTeHCHBHOCTB UHCTHTyTCKOH HpOrpaMMBI pa60TEI C ~BOTHEIMU OUpe~e~HIOT KOHKpeTHEIe XapaKTepUCT~KH BUBap~ ~ BCHOMOraTe~BHEIX C~6. Ec~n pe~B n'~eT o Hebo~nx r~o pa3Mepy susapu~x, r,~e co,~ep*nTc~ He3Ha~nTe~Hoe KO~HeCTBO *HBOTHEIX H~H *HBOTHEIe CO~ep~aTCH B OCO6BIX yC~OBH~X, HarIpuMep susapun, r,~e co,~ep~aTc~ nCK~OIInTeJI~Ho rHOT06~0T~eCKne ~n CBO60~HEIe OT CHe~eCKOH HaTOreHHOH M~KpO~OpLI KO~OHHU ~BOTHEIX, ~n ec~n pelIB ~eT 0 co,~ep~aHHn ~BOTHEIX B 3aroHax' Orpa;eH~x ~IlI Ha rIacT6~ax' rIepeHuc~eHHEIe H~e ~yHK~HoHa~BHEIe 30HEI MOryT oKa3aTBcH HeHy;KHEIMn ~n OHn MOryT cTaTB lIacTBIo O,~HOn MHOrOLle~eBOn 30HEI. C~e,~yeT rIpe'~ycMoTpeTE rIoMe~eHH~,~H OCy~eCTB~eHH~ c~e,~ylo~nx orIepaLlHH: co,~ep~aHHe, yxo,~ 3a *HBOTHEIMn ~ co6JIlo'~eHHe rurneHnIIecKHx Tpe60BaHHH; rIpHeM, KapaHTHH ~ pa3~eJIeHHe *HBOTHEIX; pa3~eJIBHoe pa3Me~eHHe ~BOTHEIX B 3aBlICIIMOCTlI OT lIX B~a ~ LleJIen OT~e~BHEIX HpOeKTOB; CK~a~~cKne rIOMe~eH~. . B COCTaB 60~B~HHCTBa MHOrO~e~eBBIX HOMe~eHHU ~H CO~ep~aHH ~BOTHEIX TaK*e BXO,~HT: . crIeLlHaJIn3HpoBaHHEIe JIa6opaTopHn ~n rIoMe~eH~' rIp~eralo~He ~n paCHO~O*eHHEIe 6~3Ko OT noMe~eHHH7 r~e co~ep~aTcH *HBoTHEIe 7 rIpe'~Ha3HalIeHHEIe ,~JI~ BBIrIoJIHeHH~ x~pyprulIecKHx orIepaLlHn, UHTeHCHBHOrO Ha6~IO,~eH~, CeK~H, peHTreHorpa~n, HpHrOTOB~eH~

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OLOPY~OBAH~E B~BAP~ . 79 CTIe~Ha~BHEIX KOpMOB, OCy~eCTB~eH~ 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIX Hpoue~yp, K~nHn~eCKOrO ~e~eH~ ~ '~narHocT~ecKnx ~a60paTOpH~IX r~poue,~yp; lIpUCTIOC06~eH~ ~n o60py,~osaHne, Heo6xo,~uMoe HpH ~CHO~B3OBaHHU OHaCHEIX 6no~or~ecKnx, PICKAX ~n X~M~eCKHX MaTepHa~OB; lIOMeILleHlISI ~~H HpHeMKH ~ XpaHeHH~ KOpMOB, HO~CTH~O~HEIX MaTepua~os, ~apMaKo~or~ecKnx r~per~apaTos, 6no~or~ecKnx ~ ,~pyrux paCXO~yeMBIX MaTepHa~OB; HOMe~eH~ ~H MOUKH ~ CTep~3a~H 060py~0BaH~ ~ paCXO~yeMBIX MaTepua~os, a TaK*e, B SaBUCHMOCTH OT 06~eMapa60TEI, HpUCHOCO6~eH~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ H MOUKH ~eTOK, DyTEMeH, CTe~HHOH HOCy~BI, CeTOK ~ KOHTe~HepOB H XpaHeHH~ OTXO~OB; C~HBHaH paKOB~Ha; aBTOK~aB ~H 06pa60TKH lIHCTpyMeHTOB, KOpMOB lI lIO~CT~O~HEIX MaTepHa~OB, a TaK*e oT~e~BH~Ie lIOMeILleH~ ~H XpaHeH~ rp~3Horo ~ HUCTOrO UHBeHTapH; rIOMeILleHlIe ~H XpaHeHH~ OTXO~OB, no~e~am~x c*uraHn~o n~n ~HKB~a~H ~pyrUMU cuocobaMu; lIOMeILleHlIe ~H XpaHeH~ HpH HH3KHX TeMUepaTypaX ~H ~HKBH~a~H TpylIOB; rIoMemeHne ,~ a,~M~HucTpaTusHoro rIepcoHa~a' a TaK*e ,~ 3aH~Tun oGy~eHn~ r~epcoHa~a; ,~yIIIeBBIe, paKOBlIHEI, ~Ka~HK~, Tya~eTEI ~ KOMHaTEI OT~BIXa ~H rIepcoHa~a; r~pucr~oco6~eH~, obecr~e~nsa~omne 6e3or~acHocT~ r~oMemeHnn' Har~puMep K~IOHU Ha MarHUTHEIX KapTOUKaX, CHCTeMBI 8~eKTpOHHOrO Ha6~IO~eHH~ ~ asapunHon curHa~3aL~. . lIHCTPYK00H H0 CTPOUTE~bCTBY BUBAPHEB KopH,~opbI KOP~OPLI ~O~HEI 6BITB ~OCTaTO~HO ~HpOK~MU ~H 6eCHpe~TCTBeHHOrO rIpoxo'~a rIepcoHa~a ~,~OCTaBKH 060py,~0BaH~. ~H 6o~Bm~HcTBa COOpy~eHHn peKOMeH~yIOTCH KOp~OpLI ~Hp~HOH 6 - 8 ~yToB (1,8 - 2,4 M). KOHCTPYKU~ MecT coe'~nHeHH~ cTeH ~ rIo~a ~O~*Ha 06eCHeHUBaTB HpOCTOTy y60pKH. B KOplI~OpaX, Be~y~Ux B noMe~eH~7 r~e co~ep~aTcH co6aKH ~n CB~HEH, a TaK*e B rIOMe~eH~, rIpe ~Ha3HalIeHHEIe =H MOnKH K~eTOK ~ ~pyrux rIpoLle'~yp ~ cBH3aHHEIx C BBICOK~M ypOBHeM IIIyMa, c~e~yeT ycTaHoBuTB ~BOnHEIe ~BepH ~n ~pyrne myMorIor~oTHTe~. TaM' r~e 3TO B03MO*HO, ~ocTyrI K BO~HEIM ~ KaHa3IlI3a~0HHEIM MarUCTpa~HM, 3~eKTp~eCK~M ~ ~pyrUM KOMMyH~Ka~HM ~O~*eH HpOXO~HTE Hepe3 HaHe~E y~paB~eHH~ ~n ~e~o6 B KopH~ope BHe rIoMe~eHHn' r~e co~ep~aTcH ~BoTHEIe. IIPH6OPLI rIo~apHon cHrHa~3a~n' OrHeTymuTe~n ~ Te~e~OHEI ~O~*HEI ycTaHaB~HBaTBcH B yr~y6~eH~x ~n Ha ~OCTaTOIIHOn BBICOTe, HT06BI H36e~aTB ux rIospe*~eHH~ rIpH rIepeHoce KpylIHOra6aplITHOrO o6 Opy~OBaH~. ~BepH B HOMe~eHMB ~R CO~ep~aHMB ~BOTHbIX Ilo coo6pa~eHU5IM 6e3oHacHocTH ~BepH ~O~*HEI OTKpLIBaTECH BHyTpE rIOMe~eHH~, r~e co~ep~aTcH *HBOTHEIe; O~HaKO, ec~n Bo3H~KHeT - ~ HeO DXO~HMOCTB OTKpLIBaHH~ ~BepeH B KOpH~Op, Hy*HO Hpe~yCMOTpeTB COOpy~eHHe TaM6ypa. C TOUKH 3peHH~ 6e3orIacHocTH ~ ~pyrux HpHHUH Hpe~HOUTeHHe C~e~yeT OT~aBaTB ~Bep~M CO CMOTpOBBIMU OKHaMH. O~HaKO

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80 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ C3Ie~yeT Hpe~yCMOTpeTB B03MO*HOCTB 3aKpLITH~ CMOTpOBBIX OKOH, echo OKa~eTCSI He~e3IaTe3IBHEIM HO~BepraTB *HBOTHEIX B03~eUCTBUIO CBeTa ~H C06BITHU, HpOUCXO~UX B KOpH~Ope. ~BepH ~O~*HEI 6BITB ~OCTaTO~HO 60~B~HMU (HpH6~3HTe~BHo 42 x 84 ~IonMa n~n 105 x 210 CM), HT06BI 06eCHeHUTB CB060~HEIU ~OCTyD ~~ KOpMy~eK ~ 060py~0BaH~. ~BepH ~O~HEI 6BITB ~OTHO HO~OrHaHEI B paMaX, HpHHeM ~ ~BepH, ~ paMBI ~O~*HEI 6BITB Ha,~e*HO 3a,~e~aHEI, HT06BI Hpe'~yrIpe'~HTB HpOH~KHOBeHHe ~H Hpe6BIBaHHe TaM Bpe'~nTe~en. ,~BepH ,~O~*HEI 6BITB H3rOTOB~eHEI H3 KOppO3~0HHOycTonHuBBIx MaTepHa~oB H, ec~n BTO B03MO*HO, o6pa6oTaHEI Cpe~CTBaM~, Hpe~OXpaHRIO~HMU OT KOppO3~. 06~mHo Hpe~HoUTeHHe oT~aIoT CaM03aKpLIBaIO~HMCH ~Bep~M C 3ar~y6~eHHEIMU H~n ~KpaHUpOBaHHEIMU py~KaMH7 OHuCTHEIMn ~eTKaMn y rIopora ~ MeTa~eCK~MU 06~HBKaMH. Ec~n Heo6xo'~HMo ~n ~e~aTe~BHo orpaHHHuTB'~ocTyrI B KaKne-TO rIoMe~eHH~ (HaTIplIMep, lIplI lICTIO3IB30BaHHU OHaCHEIX Be~eCTB), ~BepH c~e~yeT o6opy'~oBaTB 3aMKaMH. IlpH aTOM KOHCTpyK~H '~Bepen ,~O~*Ha rIpe'~ycMaTpuBaTB B03MO*HOCTB ux OTKpLIBaH~ H3HyTpH 6e3 K~IoHa. Hapy]KHble oK~a B HeKOTOpLIX HOMe~eHHSIX ~H CO~ep~aHH~ ~BOTHEIX pa3pemaeTcH' a UHOr~a ~ peKOMeH~yeTCH HMeTB OKHa, HaUpUMep, B ~e~x o6ora~eHH~ cpe~BI CO~ep~aHH~ TaKHX *HBOTHEIX, KaK HpUMaTEI, Co6aK~, HeKOTOpLIe ce~BcKoxo3~ncTBeHHEIe ~BOTHEIe ~,~pyrne KpyrIHEIe M~eKorInTaIo~He. IlpH COCTaB3IeHlIlI lIJIaHa CTpOlITe3IBCTBa C~e~yeT yHUTEIBaTB B~HHHe OKOH Ha TeMlIepaTypy, ~OTOHepHO~ ~ 6e30HaCHoCTB HOMe~eHHH. Hapy*HEIe OKHa 06~mHo cHuTaIoTcH He~e~eC006pa3HEIMn, ec~n pery~HpoBaHHe TeMrIepaTypLI oKa3BIBaeTcH 3aTpy'~HuTe~BHEIM H3-3a TerI~orIoTepB lIepe3 OKHa H~n ec~n HTe~BHOCTB ~oTonepno~a ~B~HeTCH Ba*HOH HepeMeHHOH, HaUpUMep, HpH pa3Be~eHHU KO~OHHU rpLI3yHOB. I]OJIbI IIOJIBI ~O~*HEI 6BITB BO~OOTTa~K~BaIO~HM~, Hea6COp6HpyIO~HM~, YCTOHII~BBIMU K Y~aPHEIM BO3~eUCTBH~M ~ CPaBHUTeJIBHO rJIa~K~M~, XOTH B HeKOTOPLIX 30HaX C {IOBBIIIIeHHEIM CO~eP*aHHeM B~arH ~ ~H HeKOTOPLIX B~OB ~BOTHEIX (HarIPUMeP Ce~BCKOXO3~HCTBeHHEIX~BOTHEIX) C~e~YeT 06eCrIeHUTB peJIBe~HyIo rIoBepxHocTB rIoJIa. IIOJIBI ~OJI*HEI 6BITB pe3lICTeHTHEI K BO3~eUCTBUIO MOIIU ~ ,~pyrux J~o~orulIecKHx MaTepHa~oB7 a TaK*e K He6~arorIpH~THoMy Bo3~encTBuIo ropHHen BO~BI ~ MOIO~UX Be~eCTB. OHU ~OJI*HEI BBI~eP*HBaTB ~aBJIeHHe BeCa KOPMYIIIeK, 060PY~OBaHH~ ~ cK~a'~HpyeMBIx MaTepHa~oB7 He o6pa3y~ BBIeMOK, Tpe~HH ~H yr~y6~eHHH. B 3aBUCHMOCTH OT UX Ha3HalIeH~ rIo~BI C~e~YeT ~e~aTB MOHO~HTHEIMU ~H C M~HuMa~BHEIM KO~eCTBOM COe~nHeHHH. Cpe~n xopomo 3apeKoMeH~osasm~x ce6~ MaTepua~os c~e~yeT Ha3saTB 3rIoKc~H~Ie 3arIo~HuTe~n, 6eToH c Tsep~on lIOBepXHOCTBIO ~ CHe~Ha~BHEIe TBep~BIe 3an0~HuTe~n Ha OCHOBe pe3HHOBBIX cMecen. Ilpas~Ha~ yK~a~Ka rIoJIa rapaHTupyeT wInTeJI~Hy~o coxpaHHocT~ ero rIosepxHocTu. ECJIU y Bxo'~a B rIoMemeHne ~eJIaeTc~ rIopor, TO ero KOHCTpy ~OJI*Ha rIPe~YCMaTPUBaTB BO3MO*HOCTB ~OCTaBKH 06OPY~OBaH~.

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OLOPY~OBAH~E B~BAP~ 81 ~peH~HbIe CTO~ IlpH ~CHO~B3OBaHHU ~peHa*H~X CTOKOB HO~M ~O~*HM CTpOUTBCH C yK~oHoM, a '~peHa*HMe COOKE ~O~*HM 6uTB sano~HeHM *~KOCTBlO. C ~e~B~o obecrIe~eHn~ M~HUMa~BHOrO ypOBH~ B~a*HOCTH CHCTeMa ~peHUpOBaHH~ Gotcha 06eCHeHUBaTE 6MCTpOe y~a~eHHe BOOM ~ OCy~eHHe HOBepXHOCTeH [Gorton, Besch, 1974~. '~peHa*HMe KaHaBM ,~O~*HM HMeTB KaK M~HUMyM 4 ,~onMa (10,2 CM) B'~HaMeTpe. B HeKOTOp~XHOMe~eH~X, HaUpUMep B coba~Ben KOHype NISI CTO~Ie ~~H Ce~BCKOXO3~HCTBeHH~X *HBOTH~X, peKOMeH~yeTCH rIpoK~a,~usaTE,~peHa*Hme KaHasm 60JIBmero ,~naMeTpa.,y,~aJIeH~ Tsep,~ux OTXO~OB peKOMeH~yeTCH ~CHO~B30BaTB ~peHa*HMU CHUB C HpOM~BaHHeM BORON rIo'~ HarIopoM ~n peryJI~pHo ncrIoJIB3yeMMn 6JI0K y,~aJIeHH~ OTXO~OB B Pony. Ec~peHa*HMe CTOKH He ~CHO~B3yIOTCH B TeHeHHe ~~HTe~BHOrO HepHo~a BpeMeHU, SIX Hy)KHO 3aKp~BaTB ~ repMeTH3HpOBaTB BO H36e~aHHe 06paTHOrO ToKa KaHa~3aLlHoHHEIx ra3oB ~ ,~pyrux KOHTaMlIHaHTOB; B HeKOTOpLIX coax ,D~ 3TOlI Lle~n MO*HO peKoMeH~~oBaTB ncrIo~B3oBaHHe 3arInpaIo~nxcH Ha 3aMKH KpLI~eK. ,~peHa*HEIe CTOKH B nosy He 06SI3aTe~BHEI BO BCeX HOMe~eHH~X, B HaCTHOCTH, B HOMe~eHUSIX ~~H CO~ep~aHH~ rpLI3yHOB. RHOMBI B TaKHX lIOMeILleH~X lIO,D;,D;aIOTCH y~OB~eTBOpUTe~BHOH CaHUTapHOH 06pa60TKe HyTeM B~a*HOH y60pKH HEMeCOCOM ~H HpOTHpKH COOTBeTCTByIO~HMU MOIO~HMU COe~HHeHH~MU ~n ~e3HH~HpyIO~HMU Cpe~CTBaMH. CTeHbI CTeHEI ~O~*HEI 6BITB r~a~K~M~, BO~OOTTa~K~BaIO~HM~, Hea6COp6HpyIO~HMU ~ pe3HCTeHTHEIMU K y~apaM. B HUX He ~O~*HO 6BITB TpeILllIH, He3a~e~aHHEIX OTBepCTHU, Hepe3 KOTOpLIe HpOXO~HT KOMMyH~Ka~H, ~IlI lIJIOXO 3a~e~aHHEIX CTEIKOB C ~BepBM~, HOTO~KaM~, HO~aMU ~ yr~aMH. MaTepHa~BI, KOTOpLIMU HOKpLITEI HOBepXHOCTH CTeH, ~O~HEI 6BITB ~OCTaTO~HO CTOUK~MU ~ BBI~ep~BaTB 06pa60TKy ~eTepreHTaMU ~ ~e3HH~HpyIO~HMU lIpelIapaTaMlI, a TaK*e BO,~OH H0~ MO~HEIM ~aB~eHHeM. ~H 3a~HTEI CTeH yrJIOB OT lIOBpe*~eHHU C~e~yeT HO~yMaTB o6 ~CHO~B30BaHHU 60p~IOpOB, ~ _ ~ rIOpy'IHelI ~IlI ~aMnepos ~ yr~OBBIX orpa~eHnn. IIOTOJIKII IIOTO~KH'~O~*HEI 6BITB r~a~K~M~, BO~OHeUpOHH~aeMBIMU ~ He HMeTB ,~e~eKTHEIX CTEIKOB. MaTepHa~BI, KOTOpLIMn rIoKpLITEI rIoTo~K~, ,~O~*HEI BBI'~ep*HBaTB 06pa60TKy MOIO~HMn ~ '~e3nH~HpyIo~HMn rIperIapaTaMH. IIOTOJIK~, rIOKpLITEIe IIITyKaTypKOn ~n OrHeCTOnKOn cyxon IIITyKaTypKOn, ,~O~*HEI 6BITB 06pa60TaHEI yH~OTH~IO~HM MaTepHa~OM ~ OKpa~eHEI MOIO~enCH KpaCKOn. IIOTOJIK~, 06pa3yeMBIe 6eTOHHEIM lIOJIOM BepXHerO aTa~a' C~nTa~OTC~ r~pneM~eM~IMn, ec~n OHU r~a~KHe' 06pa60TaHEI y~OTHHIO~HMU rIpoK~a,~KaMn ~ rIoKpameH~I. Boo6me rosop~, ncrIo~B30saHne rIo,~secH~Ix lIOTO3IKOB He~e3IaTe3IBHO, HO ~ODyCTHMO, ec~n OHU H3rOTOB~eHEI H3 HelIpOHlI~aeMBIX MaTepHa~OB ~ He HMeIOT ~e~eKTHEIX CTEIKOB. TPY6BI BO~OUpOBO~HOH ~ KaHa~3a~0HHOH CeTH, a TaK*e 3~eMeHT~I ocseTuTe~BHon apMaTypLI Ha HOTO~Ke He C~e~yeT OCTaB~HTB OTKpLITEIMH; O~HaKO 3TO ,~orIycKaeTc~, ecJIn ux lIOBepXHOCTlI MO*HO JIerKO IIlICTlITB.

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82 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL~ 060rpes, BeHTH~SI~R ~ KOH~HOH~pOBaHMe soda Pery~uposaHne TeMrIepaTypu ~ B~a*HOCTH BO3~yXa HO3BO~HeT CBeCTH ~0 M~HUMYMa KO~eGaHH~, 06YC~OB~eHHMe ~60 H3MeH~IO~HMUCH K~HMaTHHeCK~MU YC~OBH~M~, ~60 H3MeHeHH~MU KO~HeCTBa ~ B~,~a *HBOTH~X B ,~aHHOM rIOMe~eHHH. KOH,~HOHUPOBaHHe BO3,~YXa BLOTCH 3~eKTHBHEIM Cpe~CTBOM pery~uposaH~ TeMUepaTypLI ~ B~a*HOCTH so3~yxa. KOHCTPYKU~ CHCTeM 060rPeBa, BeHT~HH ~ KOH,~UHOHUPOBaH~ BO3,~YXa (HVAC) ,~O~*Ha 06eCrIeHUBaTB UX Ha,~e*HOCTB, Y,~O6CTBO 3KC~YaTaUHU ~ 3KOHOMnI0 3~eKTpo3Heprnn. . . aKne CHCTeMBI ,~O~*HEI y'~oB~eTBop~TB Tpe6oBaHH~M co'~ep~aHH~ *HBOTHEIX, H3~0*eHHEIM B r~. 2. OHU ,~O~*HEI o6ecrIeHuBaTB B03MO*HOCTB rIo'=ep~aHH~ TeMrIepaTypLI cyxoro TepMOMeTpa C TO~HOCTBIO + 1C (+2F). oTHocHTe~BHaH B~a*HocTB 06BI~HO rIo,~,~ep*HBaeTcH B rIpe,~e~ax 30 - 70% B TeHeHHe Bcero ro,~a. JlyHme scero peryJInpoBaTB TeMrIepaTypy, KOHTpOJInpy~ ee B Ka*,~OM rIOMe~eHHH. tICTIO~B30BaHHe CHCTeMBI 30Ha~BHOrO TepMOpery~HpOBaH~ ~H HeCKO~BKHX rIOMe~eHHn MO*eT rIpuBeCTH K rIeperIa'~aM TeMrIepaTyp B OCHOBHOM (KOHTpOJIBHOM) rIOMe~eHHn ~ ,~pyrux rIOMe~eHH~X,~aHHOn 30HEI H3-3a pa3~n B ~OTHOCTH ~BOTHEIX B Ka;K,D;OM rIoMe~eHHn ~ H3-3a Te~orIoTepB lIepe3 BeHT~HLlHOHHEIe KaHa~BI ~,~pyrne rIOBepXHOCTH B 3oHe. Ba*HOe 3HaHeHHe HMeeT PerY~HPHEIU MOHUTOP~Hr CHCTeMBI HVAC, ~ ~ r KOTOpLIn ny~IIIe Bcero rIpoBo'~nTB Ha ypoBHe oT'~e~BHEIx rIoMe~eHHH.; apaHee yCTaHOB~eHHEIe ypOBHn TeMrIepaTypLI ~ B~a*HOCTH MO*HO H3MeHuTB B COOTBeTCTBHn C rIoTpe6HocTHMn ~BOTHEIX B yC~OBH~X, Kor'~a BecB BuBapHn n 60~maH ero HaCTE rIpe,~Ha3HaHeHEI ncK~IoHuTe~EHo '~H co,~ep~aHH~ aKK~HMaTH3HpOBaHHEIX B~OB ~BOTHEIX, HMeIo~nx O,~nHaKOBBIe rIoTpe6HocTH (HarIpuMep, Kor'~a *HBOTHEIX co'~ep~aT B yKpLITHn ~n Ha OTKpLITOM so3,~yxe). ~O~Bm~HCTBO B~,~OB *HBOTHEIX, KOTOpLIe 06BI~HO ncrIo~B3yIoTcH B 3KCTIeplIMeHTa3IBHEIX ~CC~e~OBaHH~X, XOpO~O HepeHOCHT HeUpO~O~- Te~BHEIe, HeHaCTEIe ~ He3HaHUTe~BHEIe Ko~eGaHn~ TeMUepaTypLI OTHOCHTe~BHOH B~a*HOCTH. BO~B~HHCTBO CHCTeM HVAC BBIrIYCKaeTCH B PaCIIeTe Ha CPe,~HHe 3HalIeHH~ TeM1IePaTYPLI ~ B~a*HOCTH B ,~aHHOH reOrPa~eCKOH 30He C KO~eGaH~MU rIOPH,~Ka _5% [ASHRAE, 19931. EC~H 3HalIeHH~ TeMlIepaTypLI ~ B~a*HOCTH ~OCTHraIOT 3KCTpeMa~BHEIX 3Ha~eHnn, BBIXO,~UX 3a lIpe,~e~BI TeXHUIIeCKHX CTIeLlH~HKaLlHU, TO C~e,~YeT rIPe,~YCMOTPeTB MePOTIPH~T~, KOTOPLIe 6BI CBeJIU ,~0 M~HUMYMa BeJI~HHY ~ HTe~BHOCTB ~yKTya~H TeMUepaTypLI ~ OTHOCHTe~BHOH B~a*HOCTH, He Ipe,~yCMOTpeHHEIX peKOMeH,~a~nHMH. TaKne MepOUpH~TH~ BK~IoHaIoT ~aCTu~Hoe ,~y6~uposaHne, HaCTHUHylO pereHepaun~o so3~yxa, H3MeHeHH~ CKOpOCTH BeHT~n ~n ncrIo~B3oBaHHe BcrIoMoraTe~BHoro 060py,~0BaH~. Ha cJIylIan IIaCTHIIHOrO oTKa3a CHCTeMBI HVAC Heo6xo'~HMo rIpe'~ycMoTpeTB aBapHuHylo cHcTeMy, KoTopaH 6BI o6ecrIelInJIa rIo,~,~ep~aHHe ypoBHen TeMrIepaTypLI ~ BJIa*HOCTH B rIpHeMJIeMOM '~HarIa3oHe. IIOJIHOCTBIO ,~y6~HpOBaHHEIe CHCTeMBI pe,~KO ~B~HIOTCH ~e~eC006pa3HEIMn H~n HeO6XO,~HMBIMn, ec~n He cHuTaTB OC06BIX CHTya~n (HarIpuMep' B HeKOTOpLIX 6Ho~or~ecKH orIacHEIx 3oHax). Heo6xo'~HMocTB BO BpeMeHHOn BeHT~q~n yKpLITH~ H~n Hapy*Horo rIoMe~eHH~ 06BI~HO MO*HO y'~oB~eTBopuTB C rIoMo~BIo BcrIoMoraTeJIBHoro 060py,~0BaHHH. B HeKOTOpLIX c~y~a~x peKOMeH~yeTCH nCHO~B30BaHHe ~BTpOB HEPA H OHUCTKH B03~yXa, HOCTyHalO~erO B HOMe~eHH~ ~H CO~ep~aHH~

OCR for page 77
OLOPY~OBAH~E B~BAP~ 83 *lIBOTHEIX, HpOBe~eHH~ 3KCHepUMeHTa~BHEIX Hpoue~yp ~ x~pyprn~ecKnx MaHHUy~SI~. KpoMe Toro, Hy*HO obecne~nT~ pery~uposaHne nepena~os B~eH~ B03~yXa B OHepa~HOHHOM evoke, HpO~e~ypHEIX, 30HaX CO~ep~aH~ ~ 06C~y*HBaHUSI *HBOTHEIX. HaUpUMep, B HOMe~eHH~X ~~H KapaHTHHHEIX MepOlIplISITlIlI, CO~ep~aHH~ ~ ~CHO~B30BaH~ *HBOTHEIX, HO~BepraIO~UXCH B03~eUCTBUIO OHaCHEIX MaTepHa~OB, ~n ~H pa3MemeH~ HpUMaTOB ~as~eHne B03~yXa ~O~HO 6BITB OTHOCHTe~BHO OTpH~aTe~BHEIM, TOr~a KaK B HOMe~eH~X ,~JI~ sLIrIoJIHeHnH x~pyprulIecKnx rIpoLle'~yp' xpaHeHnH cTepuJIsHoro 060py~0BaHH~ ~ CO~ep~aHH~ 6e3M~KpO6HEIX *HBOTHEIX ~aB~eHHe B03~yXa ~O~HO 6BITB oTHocHTe~BHo no~o*nTe~BHEIM C no~aHen oHH~eHHoro Bo3~yxa. IIO~ep~aHHe rpa~HeHTOB ~aB~eHH~ B03~yXa He ~B~HeTCH OCHOBHEIM H~H e~HHCTBeHHEIM MeTO~OM KOHTpO~H HepeKpeCTHOH KOHTaM~Ha~; 60~ee Toro7 Ha Hero He~B3H rIo~araTBc~ KaK Ha MeTO~ 3a~HTEI. HeMHOrHe CHCTeMBI pery~uposaH~ so3,~yxa CHa6*eHEI HeO6XO~HMBIMU 6~0KaMU pery~uposa B~eHH~ H~n HpUCHOC06~eHH~MU ~H no~ep~aHn~ pa3HH~BI ~aB~eHH~ Me - ;y ~BepBMU ~H aHa~Or~HEIMU KOHCTpyK~M~, KOr~a OHU OTKpLIBaIOTCH Ha KOpOTKOe BpeMSI. ~H obecne~eHn~ 3a~HTEI HeO6XO~HMO ~CHO~B30BaTB 6~0~0r~eCKH 6e30HaCHEIe 60KCEI, TaM6ypLI ~H OTpa60TaHHOrO B03~yXa ~H ,~pyrne HpUCHoCo6~eH~, HeKOTOpLIe H3 KOTOpLIX OHUCaHEI B r~. 1. Ilpu ~CH0~30BaHHU pereHepupyeMoro so3~yxa c~e~yeT ~06HBaTECH Toro, HT06BI ero Ka~ecTso ~ Ko~ecTso cooTseTcTsosa~n peKoMeH~aun~M, H3~0*eHHEIM B r~. 2. CHoco6 ~ 8~eKTHBHOCTB 06pa60TKH B03~yXa ~O~HEI COOTBeTCTBOBaTB KOH~eHTpa~H ~ XapaKTepUCT~KaM KOHTaM~HaHTOB ~ pUCK KOTOpLIU OHU Hpe~CTaB~HIOT. 8~eKTp~eCTBO ~ ocsemeH~e 3~eKTpHHecKa51 CHCTeMa ~O~*Ha 6BITE 6e3oHacHoH ~ o6ecHeHUBaTE a~eKBaTHOe ocsemeHne, HMeTB ~OCTaTO~HOe KO~HeCTBO pO3eTOK ~ rapaHTuposaTB ,~ocTaTo~HyIo c~y ToKa,~ crIeuna~BHoro o60py,~osaHn~. Ha cJIylIan oTKJIIolIeHnH aJIeKTpulIecTsa Heo6xo~uMo rIpe~ycMoTpeTB a~BTepHaTHBHEIn ~n aBapHuHEIn nCTO~H~K 3~eKTpo3Heprnn ~R o6ecrIeHeH~ ~yHKunoHuposaH~ KpuT~ecKu sa*H~Ix c~cTeM (HarIpuMep, c~cTeM~I HVAC) n BcrIoMoraTe~BHEIx CHCTeM (HarIpuMep MOpO3~BH~KOB, BeHT~HpyeMBIX cTe~a~en ~ H30~HTOpOB B rIoMe~eHH~x'~H *HBOTHEIX, OrIepaLlHOHHEIX 6~oKax ~ ~pyrux Ba*HEIX 3oHax. ocBeTHTeJIBHaH apMaTypa' TaHMepLI, BBIKJIIolIaTeJIn ~ po3eTKH ~OJI*HEI 6BITB Ha~e*HO H30~HpOBaHEI, HT06BI He ~orIycTHTB rIpoH~KHoBeHH~ B HuX Bpe'~nTe~en. B noMe~eHusix BuBapHSI 06BI~HO ncrIo~B3yIoTcH 3ar~y6~eHHEIe 3KOHOM~HEIe ~yOpeC~eHTHEIe OCBeTHTe~. ~H obecne~eH~ HOCTO~HHOrO L~nK~a cseTTeMHOTa c~e,~yeT rIpuMeH~T~ C~CTeMy ocsemeH~ c TauMepOM. ,~q rapaHTun perymqpHoro BK]IIOHeH~/BBI~IOHeH~ CBeTa c~e~yeT Hpe~yCMOTpeTB pery]ISIpHyIO HpOBepKy COCTO~HH~ TaHMepa ~ KOHTpO~HpyIO~UX ero c~cTeM. 3~eKTpHHeCKHe ~aMHOUKH H~H apMaTypa ~O~*HEI 6BITB 060py~0BaHEI 3a~HTHEIMU H~a~OHaM~, rapaHTHpyIO~HMU 6e30HaCHoCTB *HBOTHEIX ~ r~epcoHa~a. B 3oHax' r,~e ~acTo ncr~0~3yeTc~ so,~a, Har~puMep B HOMe~eH~X H MOUKH K~eTOK ~ 06pa60TKH aKBapHyMOB, HeO6XO~HMO ~CHO~B30BaTB BO~OHeUpOHH~aeMBIe BBI~IOHaTe~H, pO3eTKH ~ 3a3eM~eHH~Ie upep~IsaTe~.

OCR for page 77
84 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL CK~ cone noMemeH~ ~~H XpaHeHH~ 060py~0BaHH~, paCXO~yeM~X MaTepHa~OB, KOpMOB, HO~CTH~O~H~X MaTepHa~OB ~ OTXO~OB HeO6XO~HMO Hpe~yCMOTpeTB ,~ocTaTo~Hoe rIpocTpaHcTso. Kop~opu ,~ rIpoxo,~a rIepcoHa~a ~n,~ocTasKu 060py~0BaHH~ Herbal ~CHO~B3OBaTB HI CK~a~. CK~a~CKHe HOMe~eHH MO*HO COKpaTlITB SO M~HUMyMa HpH Ha~e*HOH ~ pery~HpHOH CHCTeMe OCTaBKH HeO6XO~HM~X MaTepHa~OB. ~O~CT~O~HMe MaTepua~m ~ KOpMOBMe lIpO~yKTEI ~O~*HEI XpaHUTBCH B OT~e~BHOM HOMe~eHHU, rue He c~a~upyIoTcH MaTepHa~BI, KOTOpLIe MOryT 6BITB KOHTaM~HUpOBaHEI TOKCHHeCK~MU H~H OHaCHEIMU Be~eCTBaMH. 30HEI ~~H XpaHeH~ OTXO~OB ~O~*HEI 6BITB OT~e~eHEI OT ,~pyrux xpaH~ (CM. rJI. 2~. ~~ XpaHeH~ TpylIOB ~IBOTHEIX ~ SIX TKaHeH o6513aTe~EHo HMeTE XO~O~HOe HoMe~eHHe c XO~O~EHOH KaMepOH, OT~e~eHHOe OT ~pyrux XO~O~HEIX KOMHaT; B TaKOM HOMe~eHHU TeMUepaTypa He ,~o~*Ha rIpes~ImaTB 7 C (44,6 OF), HT06BI ~CK~IOHUTB BO3MO*HOCTB pa3JIO*eH~ OTXO~OB ~ TpyHOB ~BOTHEIX. KOHTPOJIb YPOBHR IIIYMa Ilpu aKCn~yaTaunn BUBapH~ sa*Hoe sHa~eHne nMeeT pery~uposaHne ypOBHSI ~yMa (CM. r~. 2~. TaKHe > onepa~n, KaK, HanpuMep, MOnKa K~eTOK, o6~mHo BBIHO~H~IOTCH B HOMe~eH~X, OT,~e~eHHEIX OT HOMe~eHHU, r,~e co'~ep~aTcH *HBoTHEIe ~n r,~e rIpoBo'~HTcH Hay~HEIe 3KCHepUMeHTEI. B H~aHe 3a~HTEI OT ~yMa KUpHHUHEIe CTeHEI Hpe~CTaB~HIOTCH 60~ee a~eKTHBHEIMn, HeM MeTa~HecKne ~n rurIcoBBIe' rIocKo~BKy 6~aro,~apH CBOen ~OTHOCTH OHn o6~a'~aIoT MeHBmen 3ByKorIpoHH~aeMocTBIo. 06BI~HO 3ByKOlI30JIlIpyIO~He MaTepHa~BI, HaK~a~BIBaeMBIe HeHOCpe~CTBeHHO Ha lIOTO3IOK lIJIlI lICTIO3IB3yeMBIe KaK HaCTB HO~BeCHOrO HOTO~Ka, He peKoMeH'~yIoTcH, TaK KaK OHn co3~aIoT rIpo6JIeMBI ,~JI~ CaHuTapHOn 06pa60TKH ~ 60pB6BI C Bpe,~nTe~HMH. o'~HaKo B HeKOTOpLIX cHTya~x C ~e~BIo yMeHBIIIeHHSI ypOBHSI IIIyMa MO*HO nCTIOJIB30BaTB lIO,~aIO~HeCH 06pa60TKe 3ByKOlI30JIlIpyIO~He MaTepHa~BI, Hp~Kpe~HeMBIe K CTeHaM ~H HOTO~KaM. OrIBIT rIOKa3BIBaeT, HTO HpaB~BHO CKOHCTpy~pOBaHHEIe ~BepH B KOp~OpaX, ~BepH H3 3ByKOHOr~O~aIO~UX MaTepHa~OB ~H TaM6ypLI C ~BO~HEIMU ~Bep~MU IOMOraIOT yMeHB~HTB pacupocTpaHeHne 3ByKa no KOp~OpaM. OrIpe,~e~eHHoe BHUMaHHe c~e,~yeT y,~e~HTB CHH*eHUIO ypOBH~ ~yMa' reHepupyeMoro paboTa~omen ar~r~apaTypon. CHCTeMBI no~apHon curHa~3aunn lI KOHTpOJISI rIapaMeTpoB oKpy~aIo~en cpe'~BI7 a TaK*e CIICTeMBI rpOMKOH CBH3H C~e~yeT BBI6HpaTB ~ paCHO~araTB TaK~M 06pa30M, HT06BI yMeHB~HTB UX lIOTeH~Ha~BHOe B03~eUCTBUe Ha ~BOTHEIX. Bo~ee s~IcoKne ~acToT~I, KoTop~Ie MOryT BOCHp~HUMaTB *HBOTHEIe HeKOTOpLIX BH~OB, ~e~aIOT HeO6XO~HMBIM BHlIMaTe3IBHOe paCCMOTpeHHe BOUpOCa pa3MemeHnH annapaTypLI' KOTOpaH reHeplIpyeT IIIyMBI B y~BTpa3ByKOBOM ~HaHa30He. I]OMeILleHlISI ~ CaH~TapHOM o6pa60T~ MaTepHa~OB B BUBapHU HeO6XO~HMO Hpe~yCMOTpeTB CHe~Ha~BHyIO e~HHyIO 30Hy ~H CaHUTapHOH 06pa60TKH K~eTOK ~ BCHOMOraTe~BHOrO 060py~0BaH~. 06~mHo H MOUKH K~eTOK peKOMeH~yeTCH ~CHO~B30BaTB MeXaHHHeCKHe MOe~HEIe Mam~H~I, KOTOp~Ie c~e,~yeT s~I6upaT~ C y~eTOM Tur~a K~eTOK ~ ,~pyroro 060py~0BaH~. ~pH 3TOM C~e~yeT HMeTB B B~y TaKHe ~aKTOpLI, KaK:

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OLOPY~OBAH~E B~BAP~ . 85 paCTIO3IO*eHlIe 30HLI OTHOCIITe3IBHO HOMe~eHHU ~~H CO~ep~aHH ~BOTH~X, Hepepa60TKH OTXO~OB ~ XpaHeH~ MaTepHa~OB; y~O6CTBO ~OCTyHa, B~IOHaH ~BepH ~OCTaTO~HOH ~Hp~HM ~~ ~OCTaBKH 060py~0BaH~; ~OCTaTO~HOe MeCTO ~~H yCTaHOBKH ~ 06pa60TKH 060py~0BaH~; _ ~ B03MO*HOCTB Je30HaCHOH ~HKBH~a~H HO~CTH~O~HEIX MaTepHa~OB rIpe,~mecTsyIomen MOUKe 06pa60TKH 060py~0BaH~; OpraHH3a~H HOTOKOB, 06eCHeHUBalO~aH pa3~e~EHOe HepeMe~eHHe ~BOTH~X ~ 060py~0BaHH~ Me~y HUCT~MU ~ rpH3H~MU 30HaMH; HpH HeO6XO~HMOCTH H30~ CTeH ~ HOTO~KOB; CHlI*eHlIe ypOBHSI IIIyMa; . - ~ ~ ~ - 0 ~ecrIelIeHne rop~en ~ XO~O,~HOH BO,~OH, BO,~HEIM {IaPOM, CTOKaMU B rIO~y lI 3JIeKTp~IeCTBOM; BeHTlIJISI~H, BK~IOHaH yCTaHOBKy BeHTH~HOHHEIX KaHa~OB ~ o6ecrIeHeHHe yc~oBHn ,~H c6poca Bo'~HHoro rIapa ~ ra3oB' ncrIo~3yeMBIx HpH CaHUTapHOH o6pa60TKe. IIOMEIL\EHlIlI ,1;JIlI ACEIITtI'IECKOlI XIlPYPrilil KOHCTPYKUH~ OrIePaU~OHHOrO 6~0Ka,~O~*Ha COOTBeTCTBOBaTB B~,~Y OTIePUPYeMBIX *HBOTHEIX ~ C~O*HOCTH BBITIO~HHeMBIX X~PYPrUlIeCKHX r~poue,~yp [Hessler, 1991; CM. TaK*e r~pH~. A: <>~. ~H BBIHO~HeHH~ 60~B~HHCTBa x~pypr~ecKnx MaHurIyJI~LlHn Ha rpLI3yHax orIepaLlHoHHaH Mo~eT 6BITB He60JIBIIIOH ~ lIpOCTOH {IO KOHCTPYKLIHU, HaTIPUMeP, CTIeLIHaJIBHO BBI~eJIeHHOe {IOMe~eHHe B ~a6opaTopHH' KOTOpOe o6c~y*HBaeTcH TaK~M o6pa3oM' HT06BI CBeCTH '~o M~HuMyMa KoHTaM~Ha~HIo rIoMe~eHH~ BO BpeM~ orIepa~. pa3Me C~O*HOCTB KOHCTpyK~n orIepa~HoHHon 06BI~HO Bo3pacTaIoT rIo Mepe yBe~HlIeH~ KO~HIIeCTBa ~BOTHEIX, ux pa3MepoB ~ C~O*HOCTH BBIrIO~HReMBIX MaHurIy~7 HarIpuMep' rIpH BBIrIo~HeHHn 6o~B~oro Huc~a x~pypr~ecKHx rIpoLle'~yp Ha rpLI3yHax7 Heo6xo~HMocTH rIpuMeHeHH~ OC06BIX crIoco6oB ~nKCaLlHn ~BOTHEIX, OrIepaLlHOHHEIX CTO~OB C r~paB~eCK~M rIpuBo'~oM, CTOKOB B rIoJIy rIpH pa6oTe C ceJIBcKoxo3~ncTBeHHEIMn ~BOTHEIMn, a TaK*e rIpH BBIrIOJIHeHHn rIpoLle'~yp' Tpe6yIo~nx ylIaCTH~ 60JIBIII~X rIo COCTaBy xlIpypRnHecKHx 6pHra~ lI BcTIoMoraTeJIBHoro o6opy~oBaHH5l, '~JIH KOTOpLIX Hy*HO MHOrO MeCTa. PaCHO~O*eHHe OHepa~HOHHOrO 6~0Ka H0 OTHO~eHUIO K HarHOCT~eCKOH ~a60paTopun, peHTreHOBCKOMy Ka6HHeTy, HOMe~eHUIO ~H CO~ep~aHH~ *HBOTHEIX, Ka6HHeTaM 06C~y*HBaIO~erO HepCOHa~a ~ T.~. ~O~*HO paCCMaTpUBaTBCH B 06~eM KOHTeKCTe C~O*HOCTH X~pyprHHeCKOH lIpOrpaMMBI. OHepa~HOHHEIU 6~0K ~O~*eH HaXO~HTBCH Ha ~OCTaTO~HOM paCCTOS[HHU OT ,~pyrux 30H C TeM, HT06BI CBeCTH ~0 M~HUMyMa HepeMe~eHHe rIepcoHa~a ~, cooTseTcTseHHo, orIacHocTB KoHTaM~Haunn [Humphreys, 1993~. HTpa~30BaHHEIe OHepa~HOHHEIe 6~0KH 06~a~aIOT Ba*HEIMU HpeHMy- CTBaM~, HOCKO~BKy OHU H03BO~HIOT C3KOHOMUTB Ha 060py~0BaHHU, IOMeILleH~X lI lIepCOHa3Ie, COKpaTlITB ~a~BHOCTB TpaHCHOpTHpOBKH ~BOTHEIX JIerlInTE rIpo~eccuoHaJILHoe Ha6JIlo~eHne ~ o6cJIy*nsaHne KaK orIepa~HoHHEIx 6~0KoB, TaK ~ BBIrIo~HReMBIx TaM rIpo~e~yp. IlpUMeHUTe~BHO K 60~B~HHCTBy X~pyprHHeCKHX HpOrpaMM ~yHK~- oHa~BHEIMn KOMrIOHeHTaMn acerIT~ecKHx orIepaLlHn SIB~RIOTCH X~pypr~eCKOe 06eCHeHeHHe, Hpe~OHepa~HOHHaH HO~rOTOBKa *HBOTHEIX, HO~rOTOBKa

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86 PYKOBO~CTBO no CO~EP~AHBlO BBC770!1LL30BAHBlO~OPATOPHL~^BOTHL rIepcoHaJIa orIepaL~noHHoro 6JIOKa (x~pypr~ecKa~ o6pa60TKa pyK' HaTIplIMep), 06Pa60TKa OTIePaU~OHHOH ~ TIOC~eOTIePaU~OHHOe BOCCTaHOB~eHHe ~BOTH~X. KOHCTPYKU~ TIOMe~eHHU, B KOTOP~X OCY~eCTB~IOTCH BTH ~YHKUHU, ,~O~Ha rapaHTuposaT~ Mae r~epeMemeHn~ ~~o,~en ~ o60py,~osaHn Pa3,~eJIeHHe HeX~PYPr~eCKHX, HO CBH3aHH~X C orIepaL~nen MaHur~yJI~L~n, x~pypr~ecKnx rIpoL~e,~yp B OrIepaLlHOHHOH. TaKOe pa3,~eJIeHHe JIy~IIIe scero ,~OCTHraeTCH C TIOMOmBlO ~nHeCKHX 6aPBePOB [AORN, 1982], HO MO*eT obecr~e~nsaTBc~ ~ ~OCTaTO~H~M paCCTO~HHeM Me~y pa~H~MU 30HaMU ~n ,~OCTaTO~HuM BpeMeHeM, rIosBo~Io~HM rIpOBeCTH y6opKy ~ ,~esuH~eK~IO TIOMe~eHHH. II3BeCTHO, HTO KO~HeCTBO 06C~Y*HBaJO~erO TIePCOHa~a ~ cTerIeHB ero aKTHBHOCTH HarIp~Mylo CBHaaHM C ypOBHeM 6aKTepHa~BHon SarpH3HeHHOCTH ~ HaCTOTOH BO3H~KHOBeHH~ noc~eonepaunoHHon paHeBOH nH~eKLlHn [Fitzgerald ,1979~. IlepeMe~eHHe BHyTpH OlIepaLlHOHHOH MO*HO yMeHBmuTB, yCTaHOBuB TaM o6sopHoe OKHO, CHCTeMy CBHan (HarIpuMep, BHyTpeHHee rIeperosopHoe yCTpOlICTBO) lI pa~HOHa~BHylO CHCTeMy ~sepen. Ilpu HpOeKTHpOBaHHU or~epaunoHHoro 6~oKa r~epsocTer~eHHoe sHa~eHne cJIe~yeT rIp~asaTB KOHTpOJIIO ypoBHR KOHTaMlIHa~Hn ~ rIpOCTOTe ero y6opKn. BHyTpeHHHe rIoBepxHocTH ~O~*HM 6MTB H3rOTOB~eHM H3 MOHO~nTHuX s~aroHer~poHnuaeM~x MaTepHa~OB. YCTaHOBKa BeHT~q~HOHHOH CHCTeMM, H0 KOTOpOn rIo~aeTcH oT~BTpoBaHHMn BO3~yx rIo'~ rIo~o~Te~BHuM ~aB~eHHeM, MO*eT yMeHBmuTB puCK rIoc~eorIepaUnoHHon nH~eKUnn [Ayscue, 1986; Bartley, 1993; Bourdillon, 1946; Schonholtz, 19761. CTerIeHBPUCKaMO*HOTaK*e yMeHEmuTE 6~aro~apH rIpaBH~EHoMy pa3Me~eHHIo rIo~alo~nx BO3~y BuTH*HuX KaHa~OB ~ rIo~60py CKOpOCTH ~BH*eHH~ BO3~y~Hux rIOTOKOB B rIoMemeHHe ~ H3 Hero [Ayliffe, 1991; Bartley, 1993; Holton, Ridgway, 1993; Humphreys, 19931. ,~H 06~erHeHH~ Y60PKH OrIePaU~OHHOH TaM C~e,~YeT ycTaHaB~HBaTB KaK MO*HO MeHBme CTaUnOHapHOn ar~rIapaTypM [SChOnhO1tZ' 1976; UFAW, 19891. ,~pyrne Tpe6oBaH~ K OrIepaUnOHHOMy 6~0Ky BK~IOHalOT o60py,~osaHne X~pypr~ecK~Mn JIaMrIaM~, 06eCTIelI~BalO~HMU a~eKBaTHylO ocBe~eHHocTB [Ayscue, 1 986i, ,~OCTaTO~H~M KO~HeCTBOM 8~eKTPHHeCKHX pO3eTOK ~H HO~K~IOHeHH~ BCHOMOraTe~BHOrO 060py~0BaHH~ ~ CHCTeMOH y,~a~eHn~ OTpa60TaHH~X ra30s. BcrIoMoraTe~EHoe rIoMe~eHHe orIepaUnoHHoro 6~oKa rIpe~Ha3HaHaeTcH ~H MOnKH ~ cTepH~3aLInn nHCTpyMeHTOB, a TaK*e '~H XpaHeHH~ nHCTpyMeHTOB ~ pacxo~yeM~x MaTepHaJIOB. O6MlIHO B 3TOM rIOMe~eHHn yCTaHaB~HBalOTCH aBTOK~aBM. Bo MHOruX c~yHa~x B rIoMe~eHHn '~H rIo'~roToBKH ~BOTHuX ~e~aTe~BHo HMeTB 60~B~Y]O PaKOB~HY, HTO 06~erHaeT 06pa60TKy *HBOTHOrO ~ or~epaunoHHoro no~s~. Heo6xo,~uMo BM~e~HTB rIOMe~eHHe '~H rIepcoHa~a orIepaUnoHHoro 6~oKa7 r~e OH Mor 6M rIepeo'~eBaTBcH B OlIepaLlHOHHyIO o,~e;K,D;y, ~ KoMHaTy co IIIKa~lInKaMn,~JI~ XPaHeH~ O,~e)K,D;BI ~ T.TI. ,~JI~ XlIpyprOB Hy)KHO BBI~e~HTB MeCTO, r~e OHU MOr~H 6BI MBITBCH, 060py~0BaHHoe CHe~Ha~BHEIMU HpUCHOCO6~eH~MU [Knecht et al., 19 8 1 ] . C ~e~BIo YMeHB~eH~ BO3MO*HOCTH KOHTaM~HaUHU OrIePaU~OHHOH aDpO30~HM~, 06pa3yIO~HMUCH lIpH MBITBe pyK, noMemeHne ~H HO~rOTOBKH X~PYPrOB ,~O~*HO HaXO,~HTBCH BHe OTIePaLIHOHHOH. IlaPaMeTPLI CPe,~BI B 30He ,~JI~ {IOCJIeOTIePaLIHOHHOrO co'~ep~aH~oJI*HEI Y,~OB~eTBOP~TB rIOTPe6HOCTHM *HBOTHEIX B COCTO~HHU HaPKO3a ~ B rIepno,~ soccTaHos~eH~ rIoc~e orIepaLInn; rIpu 3TOM OHa ~O~*Ha PaCrIO~araTBCH TaK~M 06Pa30M, HTO6BI o6ecrIeHuTB Ha6~Io~eHHe 3a ~BOTHEIM B 3TOT rIepHo~ BpeMeHH. c~e~yeT paccMoTpeTB B03MO*HOCTB o6ecrIeHeHH~ 3~eKTpHHecKoro ~

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OLOPY~OBAH~E B~BAP~ 87 MexaH~ecKoro MoHuTop~Hra ~ BcrIoMoraTe~BHoro o6opy'~oBaH~. TurI K~eTOK ~ BCHOMOraTe~BHOrO 060py~0BaHH~ OUpe~e~HeTCH BROOM *HBOTH~X ~ xapaKTepoM surIoJIH~eM~x rIpoL~e,~yp; rIpu ATOM OHlI ~O~*HM KOHCTpylIpOBaTBCH TaK~M o6pa3oM, ~To6m obecne~nTB y~O6CTBO FIX CaHUTapHOH 06pa60TKlI lI lIO~ep*Ky ~3~0~0rHHeCKHX ~yHK~H, B nepsyIo o~epe~B TepMopery~n ~ ,~uxaHn~. B 3aBUCHMOCTH OT 06CTOSITe~BCTB 30Ha ~~H rI o Cole orI epaL~noHHoro B O CCTaHOB3IeHlISI C e3IBCKOX03~HCTB eHH~X *HB OTH~X MO*eT 6MTB MO~HpOBaHa ~H OTCyTCTBOBaTB Boo6~e; TeM He MeH HeO6XO~HMO Hp~H~TB Meow, HTo6M CBeCTH NO M~HUMyMa pUCK TpaBM~pOBaH~ BBI3~0paB~HBaIO~UX ~BOTHEIX. JIlITEPATYPA AORN (Association of Operating Room Nurses). 1982. Recommended practices for traffic patterns in the surgical suite. Assoc. Oper. Room Nurs. J. 15~4~: 750-758. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inch. 1993. Chapter 24: Weather Data. In: 1993 ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamen- tals, I-P edition. Atlanta: ASHRAE. Ayliffe, G. A. J. 1991. Role of environment of the operating suite in surgical wound infec- tion. Rev. of Infec. Dis. 13(Suppl 10~: S800-S804. Ayscue, D.1986. Operating room design: Accommodating lasers. Assoc. Oper. Room Nurs. J. 41: 1278-1285. Bartley, J. M.1993. Environmentalcontrol: Operating room air quality. Today's O.R. Nurse 15~5~: 11-18. Bourdillon, R. B. 1946. Air hygiene in dressing-rooms for burns or major wounds. The Lancet: 601-605. Fitzgerald, R. H. 1979. Microbiologic environment of the conventional operating room. Arch. Surg. 114: 772-775. Gorton, R. L. and E. L. Besch. 1974. Air temperature and humidity response to cleaning water loads in laboratory animal storage facilities. ASHRAE Trans. 80:37-52. Hessler, J. R. 1991. Facilities to support research. Pp. 34-55 in Handbook of Facility Plan- ning. Vol. 2: Laboratory Animal Facilties, T. Ruys, ed. New York: Van Nostrand. 422 PP. Holton, J. and G. L. Ridgway. 1993. Commissioning operating theatres. J. Hosp. Infec. 23: 153-160. Humphreys, H. 1993. Infection control and the design of a new operating theatre suite. J. Hosp. Infec. 23: 61-70. Knecht, C. D., A. R. Allen, D. J. Williams, and J. H. Johnson. 1981. Fundamental Tech- niques in Veterinary Surgery, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. Reynolds, S. D. and H. Hughes. 1994. Design and optimization of airflow patterns. Lab. Anim. 23~9~: 46-49. Schonholtz, G. J.1976. Maintenance of aseptic barriers in the conventional operating room. J. Bone and Joint Surg. 58-A(4~: 439-445. UFAW (Universities Federation forAnimalWelfare).1989. Guidelines on the Care of Labo- ratory Animals and Their Use for Scientific Purposes: III Surgical Procedures. Herts, UK: UFAW.