This report provides new analyses of the consequences of a lack of insurance within families and the effects on the health of children and pregnant women. In the second chapter, the Committee examines insurance coverage patterns within families, including sources of coverage. The chapter describes the types of families that are most likely to have uninsured members and the characteristics associated with having some or all members uninsured. Chapter 3 considers the key transitions over a family’s life cycle that may affect insurance coverage, including aging and changes in employment and marital status. Chapter 4 discusses how family income, assets, and spending patterns affect and are affected by family choices about health insurance and purchases of health care and how being uninsured affects family economic stability. Chapter 5 describes the factors that may influence the health care decisions that parents make for their children, including their own experiences with the health care system. In addition, that chapter discusses the effect of parents’ health on the family environment and their children’s health. Chapter 6 assesses evidence on health and developmental outcomes associated with health insurance status for children, infants, and pregnant women. The Committee’s conclusions are presented in the seventh and final chapter.