FIGURE 1 Proposed Change in FS&T Spending, by Department or Agency, FY 2002–FY 2003 (millions of constant FY 2002 dollars). Source: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2003.

However, the proposed NSF increase includes funding for three programs currently at other agencies that the Administration proposes to transfer to NSF. The funding for these programs inflates the NSF increase relative to the FY 2002 budget, which did not include these programs. If the total funding of $75 million (in constant FY 2002 dollars) for these programs—NOAA's National Sea Grant Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrology of Toxic Substances program, and EPA's Environmental Education program—were subtracted from the proposed NSF budget, the agency's increase would be just $77 million, or 1.6 percent, in constant dollars.

Funding for Networking and Information Technology R&D, a cross-cutting initiative carried out by seven federal agencies, would be relatively flat, increasing by $13 million, or 0.7 percent, in constant FY 2002 dollars, to $1.86 billion. The Administration designated this R&D initiative a priority area for FY 2003, and, as with nanotechnology and climate change research, the National Academies has described the need for expanding research in information technology to meet societal goals, including research funded by the federal government.11 However, the Administration has proposed only a very small increase in funding in real terms.

The Administration's proposal would reduce the budgets of the remaining S&T agencies in constant dollars. The FS&T budget for the Department of Agriculture would be relatively flat, declining 0.6 percent in constant dollars. The FS&T budgets for the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Transportation would decrease by 1.9, 3.2, and 17.3 percent, respectively. The Defense basic research budget would be flat, increasing by 0.4 percent in constant dollars, whereas Defense applied research would decrease by 2.8 percent. DOE's Science Program would decrease by 0.4 percent in constant dollars. The budget for the USGS would decrease by 6.5 percent, and


National Research Council, Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research to Meet Society's Needs, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2000.

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