FIGURE 5 Percentage Increase in FS&T Spending Proposed by the Administration Compared with Congressional Appropriation, by Department or Agency, FY 2001 to FY 2002 (constant FY 2002 dollars). Source: Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2003.

doctoral studies.37 To ensure that the nation can generate and benefit from these opportunities, we must maintain support across fields not only for the research it generates but also to train the future generations of scientists and engineers who will sustain our world-class science.

Budget Action for FY 2003 and FY 2004

In the short run, the Administration and Congress must address questions of both priority and adequacy for FY 2003 and the upcoming FY 2004 budget cycle. The Administration's FS&T budget proposal for FY 2003 addresses issues of priority. It does not, however, deal appropriately with issues of adequacy of funding across the science and engineering portfolio. As in the recent past, the task of preparing a balanced portfolio on federal investments in science and technology for the coming year has been left to Congressional appropriators. Since the late 1990s, advocates for increased funding for NIH have generally also urged increased federal funding across science and engineering. Importantly, Congress has responded with significant funding above Administration requests for NSF and other agencies. Congress will need to consider such arguments again this year.

As seen in Figure 5 and Table 4, Congressional appropriators found themselves in the same position last year. For FY 2002, the Administration recommended a large increase for NIH as a first step in fulfilling the President's campaign promise to complete the doubling of that agency's budget. It then proposed flat funding or deep cuts for FS&T in all other agencies (except for Transportation, whose budget is independently governed in part by the


Registered time-to-degree for a doctoral student in science and engineering fields ranges from 6.8 years in the physical sciences and engineering to 7.0 years in the life sciences and 7.5 years in the social and behavioral sciences. Especially in the life sciences, training typically continues beyond the Ph.D. in a series of 2-year postdoctoral positions. T. Hoffer, B. Dugoni, A. Sanderson, S. Sederstrom, R. Ghadialy, and P. Rocque, Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities: Summary Report 2000, Chicago: National Opinion Research Center, 2001, p. 47.

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